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  • 1. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring Trade-offs in Concept Design of Integrated Modular Avionic Platform Configurations: Topology Generation, Resource Adequacy, and Dependability2024Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern aircraft heavily depend on computer systems to carry out various tasks. From managing flight surfaces and engines to processing radar and imagery data and facilitating communication with other aircraft and ground stations, computers are involved in almost every aspect of an aircraft’s operation. These computer systems, known as Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, have long life cycles that span several decades and undergo regular updates. Despite this, a significant portion of the overall life cycle costs is determined very early in the life cycle, in the concept design phase. 

    While the early concept stage provides the best opportunity to influence the design of the system and its future costs, it is also the stage where information about the system is most limited. During this early stage, selecting a suitable IMA platform configuration must ensure sufficient resources for the intended aircraft functionalities, particularly in computing and networking capabilities. Additionally, the decisions regarding safety and security measures must align with application requirements. However, this is a complex task due to conflicting requirements, necessitating compromises, and the limited information available at this early stage. 

    This thesis explores the analysis and generation of avionic architecture configurations during the concept stage, addressing the problem on two fronts. The first focuses on verifying whether a chosen IMA platform configuration provides sufficient resources to ensure timely communication for a specified set of avionic applications. The second centers on exploring the conceptual design space to find IMA platform configurations aligned with computing, networking, fault-tolerance, and security application needs. 

    To contribute to the problem’s verification aspect, this thesis introduces two high-level abstractions, namely timed automata and a domain-specific model based on Unified Modelling Languages (UML), to model IMA systems at the concept stage. These are designed to capture inter-process message ex-changes within networked IMA platforms. Additionally, we propose a workflow and a supporting tool explicitly designed to translate our proposed model into a network calculus model for further analysis. The approach’s practicality and scalability are showcased through its application to an avionics use case. 

    In exploring conceptual design space, this thesis proposes NetGAP, a domain-specific method in which interconnection patterns in generic networked system topologies are represented as graph grammars. Combined with Monte Carlo Tree Search and genetic algorithms, these grammars are used to navigate the solution space and generate candidate IMA platform configurations tailored to the requirements of an envisaged application. Through application to an avionics use case, NetGAP is shown to be scalable and suitable for different types of requirements. To further expedite the process, NetGAP has evolved into NeuralGAP. The latter employs graph neural networks to assess network topology compatibility with the target application, accelerating the concept exploration and improving its results.  

    Delarbeten
    1. Verifying Resource Adequacy of Networked IMA Systems at Concept Level
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Verifying Resource Adequacy of Networked IMA Systems at Concept Level
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems / [ed] Hasan, O. and Mallet, F., Cham: Springer, 2020, s. 40-56Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cyber-physical systems can be difficult to analyze for resource adequacy at the concept development stage since relevant models are hard to create. During this period, details about the functions to be executed or the platforms in the architecture are partially unknown. This is especially true for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Systems, for which life-cycles span over several decades, with potential changes to functionality in the future. To support the engineers evaluating conceptual designs there is a need for tools that model resources of interest in an abstract manner and allow analyses of changing architectures in a modular and scalable way. This work presents a generic timed automata-based model of a networked IMA system abstracting complex networking and computational elements of an architecture, but representing the communication needs of each application function using UPPAAL templates. The proposed model is flexible and can be modified/extended to represent different types of network topologies and communication patterns. More specifically, the different components of the IMA network, Core Processing Modules, Network End-Systems, and Switches, are represented by different templates. The templates are then instantiated to represent a conceptual design, and fed into a model checker to verify that a given platform instance supports the desired system functions in terms of network bandwidth and buffer size adequacy - in particular, whether messages can reach their final destination on time. The work identifies the limits of the tool used for this evaluation, but the conceptual model can be carried over to other tools for further studies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Cham: Springer, 2020
    Serie
    Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929 ; 1165
    Nyckelord
    Timed automata, UPPAAL, IMA system, Concept analysis, Network resource adequacy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170069 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-46902-3_3 (DOI)978-3-030-46901-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems (FTSCS), Shenzhen, China, November 9, 2019
    Projekt
    NFFP7, project CLASSICS (NFFP7-04890)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vinnova, NFFP7-04890
    Tillgänglig från: 2020-09-28 Skapad: 2020-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Abstraction models for verifying resource adequacy of IMA systems at concept level
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Abstraction models for verifying resource adequacy of IMA systems at concept level
    2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 208, artikel-id 102654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cyber-physical systems can be difficult to analyze for resource adequacy (e.g., bandwidth and buffer size) at the concept development stage since relevant models are hard to create. During this period, details about the functions to be executed or the platforms in the architecture are partially unknown. This is especially true for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, for which life-cycles span over several decades, with potential changes to functionality in the future. This work aims to identify abstractions for representing data exchanges among functions realized in networked IMA systems and investigates how these can be represented in formal models and analyzed with exact guarantees. Timed automata (TA) are a relevant choice for modeling since communication resource adequacy is directly related to potential network delays. We explore two alternatives in modeling with TA, a direct one representing every process using a TA template, and a more abstract one representing every computation device with a TA template. While the first approach represents process-to-process data exchanges, the modified approach reduces the state space by representing all processes currently allocated to a single computing element to obtain scalability gains. Both approaches are flexible since the templates presented can be instantiated to represent different types of network topologies and communication patterns. The instantiated TA models are used to illustrate an use case and analyzed with the UPPAAL model checker to verify that a given platform instance supports the desired system functions in terms of network bandwidth and buffer size adequacy, thereby messages reaching their final destination with freshness guarantees. Both abstraction levels are shown to be suitable for verifying the intended properties, but the more abstract one demonstrates a 67% improvement in verification time and a 66% reduction in state space during verification. The more abstract approach is also applied to a real-world example from an earlier publication, with a much larger state space and a more complex structure, to illustrate the ability to reuse the approach in multiple use cases. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2021
    Nyckelord
    IMA system; Conceptual analysis; Network resource adequacy; Timed automata; UPPAAL
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-176135 (URN)10.1016/j.scico.2021.102654 (DOI)000652847700004 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation SystemsVinnova, as part of the national projects on aeronautics, NFFP7, project CLASSICS [NFFP7 201704890]

    Tillgänglig från: 2021-06-08 Skapad: 2021-06-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-30
    3. A model-based approach for analysing network communication timeliness in IMA systems at concept level
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A model-based approach for analysing network communication timeliness in IMA systems at concept level
    2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2021, s. 78-88Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the resource adequacy of complex cyber-physical systems at concept development stage can be a challenging task since there are a lot of uncertainties about the system at this stage. In Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, with a life-cycle over several decades and potential functionality changes, we need to estimate resource needs at the early stage but leave capacity to absorb future modifications. Given an envisaged set of functions and a mapping to a candidate platform, one needs to assure that the selected network configuration will provide adequate resources to meet communication timeliness. In particular, whether the set of switches, the topology, and the available bandwidth are sufficient to meet the envisaged needs. In this paper, timeliness requirements are expressed as constraints on the freshness of data and a strict bounding of end-to-end latency. We support generation of UML/MARTE-based specifications by creating a domain-specific meta-model for IMA systems and a resource modelling approach for the study of time-critical systems. The instances of this model then specify the application requirements and various network configurations that can be formally analyzed. We present a tool, M2NC, for automatic derivation of a network calculus model through model transformation, and use the state-of-art NC tools for deriving the bounds for end-to-end timeliness. The approach is illustrated on an example avionics case study, consisting of 91 computational processes that exchange 629 different types of messages. The results of the analysis show that our approach can efficiently provide feedback on configurations that are compliant with the requirements imposed by the application and the toolchain provides a systematic mechanism to quickly identify potential future bottlenecks.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Association for Computing Machinery, 2021
    Serie
    RTNS ’21
    Nyckelord
    UML-MARTE, Real-Time Systems, Network Resource Adequacy, Model Verification, Concept Analysis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datorsystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-203160 (URN)10.1145/3453417.3453427 (DOI)
    Konferens
    RTNS'2021: 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems NANTES France April 7 - 9, 2021
    Anmärkning

    Funding: This work was supported by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems- Vinnova, as part of the national projects on aeronautics, NFFP7, project CLASSICS (NFFP7 2017-04890). Simona Bernardi was partially supported by the project Medrese (RTI2018098543-B-I00) by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities.

    Tillgänglig från: 2024-04-30 Skapad: 2024-04-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-30
    4. NetGAP: A graph grammar approach for concept design of networked platforms with extra-functional requirements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>NetGAP: A graph grammar approach for concept design of networked platforms with extra-functional requirements
    2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 133, artikel-id 108089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During the concept design of complex networked systems, concept developers have to ensure that the choice of hardware modules and the topology of the target platform will provide adequate resources to support the needs of the application. For example, future -generation aerospace systems need to consider multiple requirements, with many trade-offs, foreseeing rapid technological change and a long period for realization and service. For that purpose, we introduce NetGAP, an automated 3 -phase approach to synthesize network topologies and support the exploration and concept design of networked systems with multiple requirements including dependability, security, and performance. NetGAP represents the possible interconnections between hardware modules using a graph grammar and uses a Monte Carlo Tree Search optimization to generate candidate topologies from the grammar while aiming to satisfy the requirements. We apply the proposed approach to a synthetic version of a realistic avionics application use case. It includes 99 processes and 660 messages. The experiment shows the merits of the solution to support the early -stage exploration of alternative candidate topologies. The method vividly characterizes the topology -related trade-offs between requirements stemming from security, fault tolerance, timeliness, and the "cost'' of adding new modules or links. We also create a scaled -up version of the problem (267 processes, 1887 messages) to illustrate scalability. Finally, we discuss the flexibility of using the approach when changes in the application and its requirements occur.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2024
    Nyckelord
    Concept design; Design space exploration; Resource allocation; Requirements analysis; Topology generation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202467 (URN)10.1016/j.engappai.2024.108089 (DOI)001195523300001 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Sweden's Innovation Agency - Vinnova [2017-04890, 2023-01183]

    Tillgänglig från: 2024-04-15 Skapad: 2024-04-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-30
    5. Concept Level Explorationof IMA-based Networked Platforms with Mixed Time-Sensitive Communication Requirements
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Concept Level Explorationof IMA-based Networked Platforms with Mixed Time-Sensitive Communication Requirements
    2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: 33rd Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, 2022, 2022Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we apply a grammar-based approach to generate computation and communication platforms for avionic applications with mixed classes of time-sensitive communication messages. Then, we propose an evolutionary algorithm to schedule communication in the platform considering the interaction between timetriggered and bandwidth-constrained traffic. Together, the platform generation approach and the scheduling algorithm support the exploration of avionic systems at the concept level.

    Nyckelord
    platform architecture exploration; time-sensitive networks; mixed-critical communication; communication scheduling; timeliness analysis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-203165 (URN)
    Konferens
    ICAS2022, Stockholm, Sweden, 4-9 September, 2022
    Tillgänglig från: 2024-04-30 Skapad: 2024-04-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
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    presentationsbild
  • 2.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bernardi, Simona
    Deptartment of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A model-based approach for analysing network communication timeliness in IMA systems at concept level2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2021, s. 78-88Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the resource adequacy of complex cyber-physical systems at concept development stage can be a challenging task since there are a lot of uncertainties about the system at this stage. In Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, with a life-cycle over several decades and potential functionality changes, we need to estimate resource needs at the early stage but leave capacity to absorb future modifications. Given an envisaged set of functions and a mapping to a candidate platform, one needs to assure that the selected network configuration will provide adequate resources to meet communication timeliness. In particular, whether the set of switches, the topology, and the available bandwidth are sufficient to meet the envisaged needs. In this paper, timeliness requirements are expressed as constraints on the freshness of data and a strict bounding of end-to-end latency. We support generation of UML/MARTE-based specifications by creating a domain-specific meta-model for IMA systems and a resource modelling approach for the study of time-critical systems. The instances of this model then specify the application requirements and various network configurations that can be formally analyzed. We present a tool, M2NC, for automatic derivation of a network calculus model through model transformation, and use the state-of-art NC tools for deriving the bounds for end-to-end timeliness. The approach is illustrated on an example avionics case study, consisting of 91 computational processes that exchange 629 different types of messages. The results of the analysis show that our approach can efficiently provide feedback on configurations that are compliant with the requirements imposed by the application and the toolchain provides a systematic mechanism to quickly identify potential future bottlenecks.

  • 3.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Fed Univ Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Brazil.
    de Freitas, Edison P.
    Fed Univ Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Brazil.
    Experimental analysis of heuristic solutions for the moving target traveling salesman problem applied to a moving targets monitoring system2019Ingår i: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 136, s. 392-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is an important problem in computer science which consists in finding a path linking a set of cities so that each of then can be visited once, before the traveler comes back to the starting point. This is highly relevant because several real world problems can be mapped to it. A special case of TSP is the one in which the cities (the points to be visited) are not static as the cities, but mobile, changing their positions as the time passes. This variation is known as Moving Target TSP (MT-TSP). Emerging systems for crowd monitoring and control based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be mapped to this variation of the TSP problem, as a number of persons (targets) in the crowd can be assigned to be monitored by a given number of UAVs, which by their turn divide the targets among them. These target persons have to be visited from time to time, in a similar way to the cities in the traditional TSP. Aiming at finding a suitable solution for this type of crowd monitoring application, and considering the fact that exact solutions are too complex to perform in a reasonable time, this work explores and compares different heuristic methods for the intended solution. The performed experiments showed that the Genetic Algorithms present the best performance in finding acceptable solutions for the problem in restricted time and processing power situations, performing better compared to Ant Colony Optimization and Simulated Annealing Algorithms. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    de Freitas, Edison Pignaton
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    Multi-UAV Based Crowd Monitoring System2020Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, ISSN 0018-9251, E-ISSN 1557-9603, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 1332-1345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the development of a multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based crowd monitoring system, demonstrating a system that uses UAVs to periodically monitor a group of moving walking individuals. Using auction paradigms to distribute targets among UAVs and genetic algorithms to calculate the best order to visit the targets, the system has shown capabilities to efficiently perform the surveillance, visiting all the targets during a surveillance period and minimizing the time between the visits made to each target. Moreover, the system showed robustness keeping the good performance under a variety of situations.

  • 5.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Abstraction models for verifying resource adequacy of IMA systems at concept level2021Ingår i: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 208, artikel-id 102654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cyber-physical systems can be difficult to analyze for resource adequacy (e.g., bandwidth and buffer size) at the concept development stage since relevant models are hard to create. During this period, details about the functions to be executed or the platforms in the architecture are partially unknown. This is especially true for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems, for which life-cycles span over several decades, with potential changes to functionality in the future. This work aims to identify abstractions for representing data exchanges among functions realized in networked IMA systems and investigates how these can be represented in formal models and analyzed with exact guarantees. Timed automata (TA) are a relevant choice for modeling since communication resource adequacy is directly related to potential network delays. We explore two alternatives in modeling with TA, a direct one representing every process using a TA template, and a more abstract one representing every computation device with a TA template. While the first approach represents process-to-process data exchanges, the modified approach reduces the state space by representing all processes currently allocated to a single computing element to obtain scalability gains. Both approaches are flexible since the templates presented can be instantiated to represent different types of network topologies and communication patterns. The instantiated TA models are used to illustrate an use case and analyzed with the UPPAAL model checker to verify that a given platform instance supports the desired system functions in terms of network bandwidth and buffer size adequacy, thereby messages reaching their final destination with freshness guarantees. Both abstraction levels are shown to be suitable for verifying the intended properties, but the more abstract one demonstrates a 67% improvement in verification time and a 66% reduction in state space during verification. The more abstract approach is also applied to a real-world example from an earlier publication, with a much larger state space and a more complex structure, to illustrate the ability to reuse the approach in multiple use cases. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Concept Level Explorationof IMA-based Networked Platforms with Mixed Time-Sensitive Communication Requirements2022Ingår i: 33rd Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, 2022, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we apply a grammar-based approach to generate computation and communication platforms for avionic applications with mixed classes of time-sensitive communication messages. Then, we propose an evolutionary algorithm to schedule communication in the platform considering the interaction between timetriggered and bandwidth-constrained traffic. Together, the platform generation approach and the scheduling algorithm support the exploration of avionic systems at the concept level.

  • 7.
    Saar de Moraes, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Verifying Resource Adequacy of Networked IMA Systems at Concept Level2020Ingår i: Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems / [ed] Hasan, O. and Mallet, F., Cham: Springer, 2020, s. 40-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cyber-physical systems can be difficult to analyze for resource adequacy at the concept development stage since relevant models are hard to create. During this period, details about the functions to be executed or the platforms in the architecture are partially unknown. This is especially true for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Systems, for which life-cycles span over several decades, with potential changes to functionality in the future. To support the engineers evaluating conceptual designs there is a need for tools that model resources of interest in an abstract manner and allow analyses of changing architectures in a modular and scalable way. This work presents a generic timed automata-based model of a networked IMA system abstracting complex networking and computational elements of an architecture, but representing the communication needs of each application function using UPPAAL templates. The proposed model is flexible and can be modified/extended to represent different types of network topologies and communication patterns. More specifically, the different components of the IMA network, Core Processing Modules, Network End-Systems, and Switches, are represented by different templates. The templates are then instantiated to represent a conceptual design, and fed into a model checker to verify that a given platform instance supports the desired system functions in terms of network bandwidth and buffer size adequacy - in particular, whether messages can reach their final destination on time. The work identifies the limits of the tool used for this evaluation, but the conceptual model can be carried over to other tools for further studies.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
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