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  • 1.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Da, Peimei
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Li, Cheng
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany; Xiamen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhiping
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Kawecki, Maciej
    Empa, Switzerland; Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei
    CSIRO Energy, Australia.
    Huettner, Sven
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany.
    Buecheler, Stephan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci and Technol, Switzerland.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Planar perovskite solar cells with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 571, no 7764, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies(1-4). Over the past few years, the long-term operational stability of such devices has been greatly improved by tuning the composition of the perovskites(5-9), optimizing the interfaces within the device structures(10-13), and using new encapsulation techniques(14,15). However, further improvements are required in order to deliver a longer-lasting technology. Ion migration in the perovskite active layer-especially under illumination and heat-is arguably the most difficult aspect to mitigate(16-18). Here we incorporate ionic liquids into the perovskite film and thence into positive-intrinsic-negative photovoltaic devices, increasing the device efficiency and markedly improving the long-term device stability. Specifically, we observe a degradation in performance of only around five per cent for the most stable encapsulated device under continuous simulated full-spectrum sunlight for more than 1,800 hours at 70 to 75 degrees Celsius, and estimate that the time required for the device to drop to eighty per cent of its peak performance is about 5,200 hours. Our demonstration of long-term operational, stable solar cells under intense conditions is a key step towards a reliable perovskite photovoltaic technology.

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  • 2.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Zhang, Wei
    Univ Oxford, England; Univ Lincoln, England.
    Wang, Zhiping
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob T.-W.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Reproducible Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on One-Step Solution-Processed Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites2017In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 462-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskites have been demonstrated as one of the most promising materials for low-cost and high-performance photovoltaic applications. However, due to the susceptible crystallization process of perovskite films on planar substrates and the high sensitivity of the physical and optoelectronic nature of the internal interfaces within the devices, researchers in different laboratories still experience poor reproducibility in fabricating efficient perovskite solar cells with planar heterojunction device structures. In this method paper, we present detailed information on the reagents, equipment, and procedures for the fabrication of planar perovskite solar cells in both "regular" n-i-p and "inverted" p-i-n architectures based on one-step solution-processed methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskite films. We discuss key parameters affecting the crystallization of perovskite and the device interfaces. This method paper will provide a guideline for the reproducible fabrication of planar heterojunction solar cells based on MAPbI3 perovskite films. We believe that the shared experience on MA-based perovskite films and planar solar cells will be also useful for the optimization process of perovskites with varied compositions, and other emerging perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

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  • 3.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and applications2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3898-3904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising materials for optoelectronic devices and received considerable attention recently. Their superior photoluminescence (PL) properties provide significant advantages for lighting and display applications. In this Highlight, we discuss recent developments in the design and chemical synthesis of colloidal perovskite NCs, including both organic-inorganic hybrid and all inorganic perovskite NCs. We review the excellent PL properties and current optoelectronic applications of these perovskite NCs. In addition, critical challenges that currently limit the applicability of perovskite NCs are discussed, and prospects for future directions are proposed.

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  • 4.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teng, Pengpeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ Aeronaut and Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Ying
    Nanjing Univ Aeronaut and Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Ni
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ NanjingTech, Peoples R China; NPU, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bidirectional optical signal transmission between two identical devices using perovskite diodes2020In: NATURE ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2520-1131, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 156-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution-processed perovskite diode that functions as both optical transmitter and receiver can be used to build a monolithic pulse sensor and a bidirectional optical communication system. The integration of optical signal generation and reception into one device-thus allowing a bidirectional optical signal transmission between two identical devices-is of value in the development of miniaturized and integrated optoelectronic devices. However, conventional solution-processable semiconductors have intrinsic material and design limitations that prevent them from being used to create such devices with a high performance. Here we report an efficient solution-processed perovskite diode that is capable of working in both emission and detection modes. The device can be switched between modes by changing the bias direction, and it exhibits light emission with an external quantum efficiency of over 21% and a light detection limit on a subpicowatt scale. The operation speed for both functions can reach tens of megahertz. Benefiting from the small Stokes shift of perovskites, our diodes exhibit a high specific detectivity (more than 2 x 10(12) Jones) at its peak emission (~804 nm), which allows an optical signal exchange between two identical diodes. To illustrate the potential of the dual-functional diode, we show that it can be used to create a monolithic pulse sensor and a bidirectional optical communication system.

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  • 5.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Southeast Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Qingyu
    Southeast Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Junming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High Performance and Stable All-Inorganic Metal Halide Perovskite-Based Photodetectors for Optical Communication Applications2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 38, article id 1803422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodetectors are critical parts of an optical communication system for achieving efficient photoelectronic conversion of signals, and the response speed directly determines the bandwidth of the whole system. Metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of low-cost solution-processed semiconductors, exhibiting strong optical absorption, low trap states, and high carrier mobility, are widely investigated in photodetection applications. Herein, through optimizing the device engineering and film quality, high-performance photodetectors based on all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbIxBr3-x), which simultaneously possess high sensitivity and fast response, are demonstrated. The optimized devices processed from CsPbIBr2 perovskite show a practically measured detectable limit of about 21.5 pW cm(-2) and a fast response time of 20 ns, which are both among the highest reported device performance of perovskite-based photodetectors. Moreover, the photodetectors exhibit outstanding long-term environmental stability, with negligible degradation of the photoresponse property after 2000 h under ambient conditions. In addition, the resulting perovskite photodetector is successfully integrated into an optical communication system and its applications as an optical signal receiver on transmitting text and audio signals is demonstrated. The results suggest that all-inorganic metal halide perovskite-based photodetectors have great application potential for optical communication.

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  • 6.
    Bliss, Martin
    et al.
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Smith, Alex
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Betts, Thomas R.
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Baker, Jenny
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    De Rossi, Francesca
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Watson, Trystan
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Snaith, Henry
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Gottschalg, Ralph
    Loughborough Univ, England; Fraunhofer Ctr Silicon Photovolta, Germany; Hsch Anhalt, Germany.
    Spectral Response Measurements of Perovskite Solar Cells2019In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 220-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new spectral response (SR) measurement routine is proposed that is universally applicable for all perovskite devices. It is aimed at improving measurement accuracy and repeatability of SR curves and current-voltage curve spectral mismatch factor (MMF) corrections. Frequency response, effects of preconditioning as well as dependency on incident light intensity and voltage load on SR measurements are characterized on two differently structured perovskite device types. It is shown that device preconditioning affects the SR shape, causing errors in spectral MMF corrections of up to 0.8% when using a reference cell with a good spectral match and a class A solar simulator. Wavelength dependent response to incident light intensity and voltage load is observed on both device types, which highlights the need to measure at short-circuit current and maximum power point to correct spectral mismatch. The method with recommendations given ensures that the correct measurement conditions are applied and measurements are corrected for instability in performance.

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  • 7.
    Conings, Bert
    et al.
    Hasselt Univ, Belgium; Univ Oxford, England.
    Babayigit, Aslihan
    Hasselt Univ, Belgium; Univ Oxford, England.
    Klug, Matt
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Gauquelin, Nicolas
    Univ Antwerp Electron Microscopy Mat Sci EMAT, Belgium.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei
    Univ Oxford, England; CSIRO Energy, Australia.
    Verbeeck, Jo
    Univ Antwerp Electron Microscopy Mat Sci EMAT, Belgium.
    Boyen, Hans-Gerd
    Hasselt Univ, Belgium.
    Snaith, Henry
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Getting rid of anti-solvents: gas quenching for high performance perovskite solar cells2018In: 2018 IEEE 7TH WORLD CONFERENCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION (WCPEC) (A JOINT CONFERENCE OF 45TH IEEE PVSC, 28TH PVSEC and 34TH EU PVSEC), IEEE , 2018, p. 1724-1729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the field of perovskite optoelectronics developed, a plethora of strategies has arisen to control their electronic and morphological characteristics for the purpose of producing high efficiency devices. Unfortunately, despite this wealth of deposition approaches, the community experiences a great deal of irreproducibility between different laboratories, batches and preparation methods. Aiming to address this issue, we developed a simple deposition method based on gas quenching that yields smooth films for a wide range of perovskite compositions, in single, double, triple and quadruple cation varieties, and produces planar heterojunction devices with competitive efficiencies, so far up to 20%.

  • 8.
    Conings, Bert
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Belgium; University of Oxford, England.
    Babayigit, Aslihan
    Hasselt University, Belgium; University of Oxford, England.
    Klug, Matthew T.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Gauquelin, Nicolas
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    University of Oxford, England.
    Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob
    University of Oxford, England.
    Verbeeck, Johan
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Boyen, Hans-Gerd
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    A Universal Deposition Protocol for Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells with High Efficiency Based on Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite Families2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 48, p. 10701-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust and expedient gas quenching method is developed for the solution deposition of hybrid perovskite thin films. The method offers a reliable standard practice for the fabrication of a non-exhaustive variety of perovskites exhibiting excellent film morphology and commensurate high performance in both regular and inverted structured solar cell architectures.

  • 9.
    Fang, Tao
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Inst Optoelect & Nanomat, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Tiantian
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Inst Optoelect & Nanomat, Peoples R China.
    Li, Xiansheng
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Inst Optoelect & Nanomat, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Yuhui
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Inst Optoelect & Nanomat, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Jizhong
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Inst Optoelect & Nanomat, Peoples R China.
    Perovskite QLED with an external quantum efficiency of over 21% by modulating electronic transport2021In: Science Bulletin, ISSN 2095-9273, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are highly promising for future solid-state lightings and high-definition displays due to their excellent color purity. However, their device performance is easily affected by charge accumulation induced luminescence quenching due to imbalanced charge injection in the devices. Here we report green perovskite QLEDs with simultaneously improved efficiency and operational lifetime through balancing the charge injection with the employment of a bilayered electron transport structure. The charge-balanced QLEDs exhibit a color-saturated green emission with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 18 nm and a peak at 520 nm, a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V and a champion external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21.63%, representing one of the most efficient perovskite QLEDs so far. In addition, the devices with modulated charge balance demonstrate a nearly 20-fold improvement in the operational lifetime compared to the control device. Our results demonstrate the great potential of further improving the device performance of perovskite QLEDs toward practical applications in lightings and displays via rational device engineering. (C) 2020 Science China Press. Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science China Press. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Karani, Arfa
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Yang, Le
    Univ Cambridge, England; ASTAR, Singapore.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Futscher, Moritz H.
    AMOLF, Netherlands.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Ehrler, Bruno
    AMOLF, Netherlands.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Di, Dawei
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Perovskite/Colloidal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells: Theoretical Modeling and Monolithic Structure2018In: ACS Energy Letters, E-ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 869-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-halide perovskite-based tandem solar cells show great promise for overcoming the Shockley-Queisser single-junction efficiency limit via low-cost tandem structures, but so far, they employ conventional bottom-cell materials that require stringent processing conditions. Meanwhile, difficulty in achieving low-bandgap (amp;lt;1.1 eV) perovskites limits all-perovskite tandem cell development. Here we propose a tandem cell design based on a halide perovskite top cell and a chalcogenide colloidal quantum dot (CQD) bottom cell, where both materials provide bandgap tunability and solution processability. A theoretical efficiency of 43% is calculated for tandem-cell bandgap combinations of 1.55 (perovskite) and 1.0 eV (CQDs) under 1-sun illumination. We highlight that intersubcell radiative coupling contributes significantly (amp;gt;11% absolute gain) to the ultimate efficiency via photon recycling. We report an initial experimental demonstration of a solution-processed monolithic perovskite/CQD tandem solar cell, showing evidence for subcell voltage addition. We model that a power conversion efficiency of 29.7% is possible by combining state-of-the-art perovskite and CQD solar cells.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Max
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yi, Ziyue
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Cambridge, England.
    Reichert, Sebastian
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Germany.
    Luo, Xiyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tsinghua Univ Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Weihua
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Zhang, Zeyu
    Beijing Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zheng, Guanhaojie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teng, Pengpeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Duan, Lian
    Tsinghua Univ Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Yue
    Beijing Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Kaibo
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Pullerits, Tonu
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Deibel, Carsten
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Germany.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Friend, Richard
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mixed halide perovskites for spectrally stable and high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes2021In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bright and efficient blue emission is key to further development of metal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes. Although modifying bromide/chloride composition is straightforward to achieve blue emission, practical implementation of this strategy has been challenging due to poor colour stability and severe photoluminescence quenching. Both detrimental effects become increasingly prominent in perovskites with the high chloride content needed to produce blue emission. Here, we solve these critical challenges in mixed halide perovskites and demonstrate spectrally stable blue perovskite light-emitting diodes over a wide range of emission wavelengths from 490 to 451 nanometres. The emission colour is directly tuned by modifying the halide composition. Particularly, our blue and deep-blue light-emitting diodes based on three-dimensional perovskites show high EQE values of 11.0% and 5.5% with emission peaks at 477 and 467nm, respectively. These achievements are enabled by a vapour-assisted crystallization technique, which largely mitigates local compositional heterogeneity and ion migration. Achieving bright and efficient blue emission in metal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes has proven to be challenging. Here, the authors demonstrate high EQE and spectrally stable blue light-emitting diodes based on mixed halide perovskites, with emission from 490 to 451nm by using a vapour-assisted crystallization technique.

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  • 12.
    Klug, Matthew T.
    et al.
    MIT, MA 02139 USA; University of Oxford, England.
    Osherov, Anna
    MIT, USA.
    Haghighirad, Amir A.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Stranks, Samuel D.
    MIT, USA; Cavendish Lab, England.
    Brown, Patrick R.
    MIT, USA.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob T. -W.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Dang, Xiangnan
    MIT, USA.
    Bulovic, Vladimir
    MIT, USA.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Belcher, Angela M.
    MIT USA.
    Tailoring metal halide perovskites through metal substitution: influence on photovoltaic and material properties2017In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 236-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present herein an experimental screening study that assesses how partially replacing Pb in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite films with nine different alternative, divalent metal species, B = {Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, and Zn}, influences photovoltaic performance and optical properties. Our findings indicate the perovskite film is tolerant to most of the considered homovalent metal species with lead-cobalt compositions yielding the highest power conversion efficiencies when less than 6% of the Pb2+ ions are replaced. Through subsequent materials characterisation, we demonstrate for the first time that partially substituting Pb2+ at the B-sites of the perovskite lattice is not restricted to Group IV elements but is also possible with at least Co2+. Moreover, adjusting the molar ratio of Pb: Co in the mixed-metal perovskite affords new opportunities to tailor the material properties while maintaining stabilised device efficiencies above 16% in optimised solar cells. Specifically, crystallographic analysis reveals that Co2+ incorporates into the perovskite lattice and increasing its concentration can mediate a crystal structure transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase at room-temperature. Likewise, Co2+ substitution continually modifies the perovskite work function and band edge energies without either changing the band gap or electronically doping the intrinsic material. By leveraging this orthogonal dimension of electronic tunability, we achieve remarkably high open-circuit voltages up to 1.08 V with an inverted device architecture by shifting the perovskite into a more favourable energetic alignment with the PEDOT: PSS hole transport material.

  • 13.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wen, Kaichuan
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China; Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qing, Jian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kobera, Libor
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Abbrent, Sabina
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Brus, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Yin, Chunyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China; Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Critical role of additive-induced molecular interaction on the operational stability of perovskite light-emitting diodes2021In: Joule, E-ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 618-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite rapid improvements in efficiency and brightness of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the poor operational stability remains a critical challenge hindering their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate greatly improved operational stability of high-efficiency PeLEDs, enabled by incorporating dicarboxylic acids into the precursor for perovskite depositions. We reveal that the dicarboxylic acids efficiently eliminate reactive organic ingredients in perovskite emissive layers through an in situ amidation process, which is catalyzed by the alkaline zinc oxide substrate. The formed stable amides prohibit detrimental reactions between the perovskites and the charge injection layer underneath, stabilizing the perovskites and the interfacial contacts and ensuring the excellent operational stability of the resulting PeLEDs. Through rationally optimizing the amidation reaction in the perovskite emissive layers, we achieve efficient PeLEDs with a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.6% and a long half-life time of 682 h at 20 mA cm(-2), presenting an important breakthrough in PeLEDs.

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  • 14.
    Kumawat, Naresh Kumar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metal Doping/Alloying of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals and their Applications in Light-Emitting Diodes with Enhanced Efficiency and Stability2019In: Israel Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 0021-2148, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 695-707Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated great advances for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) applications, owing to their excellent optical, electrical properties and cost-effective solution-processing potentials. Tremendous progress has been made in perovskite NCs-based LEDs during the past several years, with the external quantum efficiency (EQE) boosted to over 20 %. Recently, metal doping/alloying strategy has been explored to finely tune the optoelectronic properties and enhance material stability of perovskite NCs, leading to further improved device efficiency and stability of the obtained perovskite NCs-based LEDs. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the metal doping/alloying of perovskite NCs and their applications in LEDs. We focus on the effects of different metal doping strategies on the structural and optoelectronic properties of the perovskite NCs. In addition, several works on high-performance LEDs based on metal doped/alloyed perovskite NCs with different light emission colours are highlighted. Finally, we present an outlook on employing metal doping/alloying strategies to further improve the device efficiency and stability of LEDs based on perovskite NCs.

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  • 15.
    Li, Guangru
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, Florencia
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jellicoe, Tom C.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    de la Pena, Francisco
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Hou, Shaocong
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Ducati, Caterina
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Friend, Richard H.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Tan, Zhi-Kuang
    University of Cambridge, England; National University of Singapore, Singapore; National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Highly Efficient Perovskite Nanocrystal Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Universal Crosslinking Method2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 18, p. 3528-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of highly efficient perovskite nanocrystal light-emitting diodes is shown. A new trimethylaluminum vapor-based crosslinking method to render the nanocrystal films insoluble is applied. The resulting near-complete nanocrystal film coverage, coupled with the natural confinement of injected charges within the perovskite crystals, facilitates electron-hole capture and give rise to a remarkable electroluminescence yield of 5.7%.

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  • 16.
    Liang, Xiaoyong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Dai, Xingliang
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Ning, Zhijun
    Shanghai Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Ye, Zhizhen
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals as charge transporting layers for solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells2017In: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1730-1759Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals offer a unique combination of excellent low-temperature solution processability, rich and tuneable optoelectronic properties and intrinsic stability, which makes them an ideal class of materials as charge transporting layers in solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Developing new material chemistry and custom-tailoring processing and properties of charge transporting layers based on oxide nanocrystals hold the key to boosting the efficiency and lifetime of all-solution-processed light-emitting diodes and solar cells, and thereby realizing an unprecedented generation of high-performance, low-cost, large-area and flexible optoelectronic devices. This review aims to bridge two research fields, chemistry of colloidal oxide nanocrystals and interfacial engineering of optoelectronic devices, focusing on the relationship between chemistry of colloidal oxide nanocrystals, processing and properties of charge transporting layers and device performance. Synthetic chemistry of colloidal oxide nanocrystals, ligand chemistry that may be applied to colloidal oxide nanocrystals and chemistry associated with post-deposition treatments are discussed to highlight the ability of optimizing processing and optoelectronic properties of charge transporting layers. Selected examples of solution-processed solar cells and light-emitting diodes with oxide-nanocrystal charge transporting layers are examined. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the properties of oxide-nanocrystal charge transporting layers and device performance. Finally, three major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. We anticipate that this review will spur new material design and simulate new chemistry for colloidal oxide nanocrystals, leading to charge transporting layers and solution-processed optoelectronic devices beyond the state-of-the-art.

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  • 17.
    Lin, Yen-Hung
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Da, Peimei
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wu, Jiaying
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Sansom, Harry C.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Ramadan, Alexandra J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Mahesh, Suhas
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Liu, Junliang
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Oliver, Robert D. J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Lim, Jongchul
    Univ Oxford, England; Chungnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Aspitarte, Lee
    Oregon State Univ, OR 97331 USA.
    Sharma, Kshama
    Tata Inst Fundamental Res, India.
    Madhu, P. K.
    Tata Inst Fundamental Res, India.
    Morales-Vilches, Anna B.
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie GmbH, Germany.
    Nayak, Pabitra K.
    Univ Oxford, England; Tata Inst Fundamental Res, India.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grovenor, Chris R. M.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Johnston, Michael B.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Labram, John G.
    Oregon State Univ, OR 97331 USA.
    Durrant, James R.
    Imperial Coll London, England; Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Ball, James M.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wenger, Bernard
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Stannowski, Bernd
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie GmbH, Germany.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-halide perovskite solar cells2020In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 369, no 6499, p. 96-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Longevity has been a long-standing concern for hybrid perovskite photovoltaics. We demonstrate high-resilience positive-intrinsic-negative perovskite solar cells by incorporating a piperidinium-based ionic compound into the formamidinium-cesium lead-trihalide perovskite absorber. With the bandgap tuned to be well suited for perovskite-on-silicon tandem cells, this piperidinium additive enhances the open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency. This additive also retards compositional segregation into impurity phases and pinhole formation in the perovskite absorber layer during aggressive aging. Under full-spectrum simulated sunlight in ambient atmosphere, our unencapsulated and encapsulated cells retain 80 and 95% of their peak and post-burn-in efficiencies for 1010 and 1200 hours at 60 degrees and 85 degrees C, respectively. Our analysis reveals detailed degradation routes that contribute to the failure of aged cells.

  • 18.
    Liu, Ao
    et al.
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Zhu, Huihui
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Reo, Youjin
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Zou, Taoyu
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Kim, Myung-Gil
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Noh, Yong-Young
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    High-performance inorganic metal halide perovskite transistors2022In: Nature Electronics, ISSN 2520-1131, Vol. 5, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-type characteristic of solution-processed metal halide perovskite transistors means that they could be used in combination with their n-type counterparts, such as indium-gallium-zinc-oxide transistors, to create complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-like circuits. However, the performance and stability of perovskite-based transistors do not yet match their n-type counterparts, which limit their broader application. Here we report high-performance p-channel perovskite thin-film transistors based on inorganic caesium tin triiodide semiconducting layers that have moderate hole concentrations and high Hall mobilities. The perovskite channels are formed by engineering the film composition and crystallization process using a tin-fluoride-modified caesium-iodide-rich precursor with lead substitution. The optimized transistors exhibit field-effect hole mobilities of over 50 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and on/off current ratios exceeding 10(8), as well as high operational stability and reproducibility. By optimizing the doping and crystallization behaviour of solution-processed metal halide perovskite thin films, p-channel transistors with mobilities of 50 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) and on/off ratios of 10(8) can be fabricated.

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  • 19.
    Liu, Ao
    et al.
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Zhu, Huihui
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Reo, Youjin
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Kim, Myung-Gil
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, South Korea.
    Chu, Hye Yong
    Samsung Display, South Korea.
    Lim, Jun Hyung
    Samsung Display, South Korea.
    Kim, Hyung-Jun
    Samsung Display, South Korea.
    Ning, Weihua
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Noh, Yong-Young
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Article Modulation of vacancy-ordered double perovskite Cs(2)SnI(6 )for air-stable thin-film transistors2022In: Cell Reports Physical Science, E-ISSN 2666-3864, Vol. 3, no 4, article id 100812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vacancy-ordered halide double perovskites are promising non-toxic and stable alternatives for their lead-and tin (II)-based counterparts in electronic and optoelectronic applications. Despite extensive theoretical studies on this emerging family of materials, efforts devoted to the chemical modulation of their thin-film properties and their potential application in electronic devices remain rare. Here, we develop a facile one-step solution processing strategy to tune the film quality of cesium tin (IV) iodide (Cs2SnI6) perovskite and demonstrate its feasibility in thin-film transistor (TFT) application. We reveal critical roles of precursor stoichiometric ratio and solvent engineering in achieving uniform and highly crystalline Cs2SnI6 films with superior electron mobility. We further modulate the electronic properties by incorporating an external manganese (Mn2+) dopant, achieving high-performance air-stable n-channel TFTs and all-perovskite complementary inverters. We anticipate that the present study would pave the way for expanding the environmentally friendly and stable perovskites toward widespread applications.

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  • 20.
    Liu, Jiewei
    et al.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Pathak, Sandeep K.
    Indian Institute Technology, India.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    University of Oxford, England.
    Sheng, Rui
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Wang, Zhiping
    University of Oxford, England.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Identification and Mitigation of a Critical Interfacial Instability in Perovskite Solar Cells Employing Copper Thiocyanate Hole-Transporter2016In: ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 3, no 22, article id 1600571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising materials for photovoltaics (PVs), with power conversion efficiency of over 22% already demonstrated. In order to compete with traditional crystalline silicon PV, cost and stability are equally important issues that need to be considered besides efficiency. Copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) is an interesting candidate to be used as an inexpensive, thermally stable p-type charge conducting material in perovskite solar cells. Here, we report 13% efficient perovskite solar cells employing CuSCN as the hole-transport material. We compare the stability of cells employing CuSCN with those employing the archetypical organic hole-transporter 2,2 ,7,7 -Tetrakis (N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine) 9,9-Spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD), under elevated temperature in ambient atmosphere. Surprisingly, we find that the devices employing CuSCN degrade faster under elevated temperatures than the devices employing SpiroOMeTAD. We discover that an interfacial degradation mechanism occurs at the heterojunction between the perovskite absorber and the CuSCN, even in a dry nitrogen atmosphere, identifying the presence of a critical instability. Interestingly, with the additional coating of the completed cells with a thin film of insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), functioning as a rudimentary "on-cell" encapsulation, we significantly alleviate this issue and deliver efficient perovskite solar cells which survive for more than 1000 hours at 85 degrees C in air with only 25% degradation in performance. Beyond identifying a critical area to address in order to enable CuSCN to be useful for long term operation in perovskite solar cells, our findings indicate that the role of the "encapsulant" is to both keep the environment out, and keep degradation products within the cell.

  • 21.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Friend, Richard H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metal halide perovskites for light-emitting diodes2021In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 10-21Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of perovskite emitters, their use in light-emitting devices, and the challenges in enhancing the efficiency and stability, as well as reducing the potential toxicity of this technology are discussed in this Review. Metal halide perovskites have shown promising optoelectronic properties suitable for light-emitting applications. The development of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) has progressed rapidly over the past several years, reaching high external quantum efficiencies of over 20%. In this Review, we focus on the key requirements for high-performance PeLEDs, highlight recent advances on materials and devices, and emphasize the importance of reliable characterization of PeLEDs. We discuss possible approaches to improve the performance of blue and red PeLEDs, increase the long-term operational stability and reduce toxicity hazards. We also provide an overview of the application space made possible by recent developments in high-efficiency PeLEDs.

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  • 22.
    Ning, Weihua
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Xin-Gang
    Jilin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Klarbring, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ji, Fuxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Youtian
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Xiao-Ming
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lijun
    Jilin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermochromic Lead-Free Halide Double Perovskites2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 10, article id 1807375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead-free halide double perovskites with diverse electronic structures and optical responses, as well as superior material stability show great promise for a range of optoelectronic applications. However, their large bandgaps limit their applications in the visible light range such as solar cells. In this work, an efficient temperature-derived bandgap modulation, that is, an exotic fully reversible thermochromism in both single crystals and thin films of Cs2AgBiBr6 double perovskites is demonstrated. Along with the thermochromism, temperature-dependent changes in the bond lengths of Ag Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br (R-Ag Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br) and Bi Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br (R-Bi Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br) are observed. The first-principle molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial anharmonic fluctuations of the R-Ag Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br and R-Bi Symbol of the Klingon Empire Br at high temperatures. The synergy of anharmonic fluctuations and associated electron-phonon coupling, and the peculiar spin-orbit coupling effect, is responsible for the thermochromism. In addition, the intrinsic bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6 shows negligible changes after repeated heating/cooling cycles under ambient conditions, indicating excellent thermal and environmental stability. This work demonstrates a stable thermochromic lead-free double perovskite that has great potential in the applications of smart windows and temperature sensors. Moreover, the findings on the structure modulation-induced bandgap narrowing of Cs2AgBiBr6 provide new insights for the further development of optoelectronic devices based on the lead-free halide double perovskites.

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  • 23.
    Qing, Jian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Mingjie
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Sum, Tze Chien
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-Quality Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Films Based on In Situ Formed Organic Spacer Cations2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 41, article id 1904243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs), consisting of alternating organic spacer layers and inorganic layers, have emerged as a promising alternative to 3D perovskites for both photovoltaic and light-emitting applications. The organic spacer layers provide a wide range of new possibilities to tune the properties and even provide new functionalities for RPPs. However, the preparation of state-of-the-art RPPs requires organic ammonium halides as the starting materials, which need to be ex situ synthesized. A novel approach to prepare high-quality RPP films through in situ formation of organic spacer cations from amines is presented. Compared with control devices fabricated from organic ammonium halides, this new approach results in similar (and even better) device performance for both solar cells and light-emitting diodes. High-quality RPP films are fabricated based on different types of amines, demonstrating the universality of the approach. This approach not only represents a new pathway to fabricate efficient devices based on RPPs, but also provides an effective method to screen new organic spacers with further improved performance.

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  • 24.
    Qing, Jian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Mingjie
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Liu, Feng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiukalova, Elizaveta
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Duchamp, Martial
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Chen, Shi
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore; ASTAR, Singapore.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Lee, Chun-Sing
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Sum, Tze Chien
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Oxford, England.
    Aligned and Graded Type-II Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells2018In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 8, no 21, article id 1800185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) have attracted increasing interests due to their promising stability. However, the efficiency of solar cells based on RPPs is much lower than that based on 3D perovskites, mainly attributed to their poor charge transport. Herein, a simple yet universal method for controlling the quality of RPP films by a synergistic effect of two additives in the precursor solution is presented. RPP films achieved by this method show (a) high quality with uniform morphology, enhanced crystallinity, and reduced density of sub-bandgap states, (b) vertically oriented perovskite frameworks that facilitate efficient charge transport, and (c) type-II band alignment that favors self-driven charge separation. Consequently, a hysteresis-free RPP solar cell with a power conversion efficiency exceeding 12%, which is much higher than that of the control device (1.5%), is achieved. The findings will spur new developments in the fabrication of high-quality, aligned, and graded RPP films essential for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells.

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  • 25.
    Sun, Qing
    et al.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Fassl, Paul
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Becker-Koch, David
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Bausch, Alexandra
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Rivkin, Boris
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oxford, England.
    Hopkinson, Paul E.
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Vaynzof, Yana
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Role of Microstructure in Oxygen Induced Photodegradation of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Films2017In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 7, no 20, article id 1700977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of microstructure on the degradation rate of methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskite films upon exposure to light and oxygen. By comparing the oxygen induced degradation of perovskite films of different microstructure-fabricated using either a lead acetate trihydrate precursor or a solvent engineering technique-it is demonstrated that films with larger and more uniform grains and better electronic quality show a significantly reduced degradation compared to films with smaller, more irregular grains. The effect of degradation on the optical, compositional, and microstructural properties of the perovskite layers is characterized and it is demonstrated that oxygen induced degradation is initiated at the layer surface and grain boundaries. It is found that under illumination, irreversible degradation can occur at oxygen levels as low as 1%, suggesting that degradation can commence already during the device fabrication stage. Finally, this work establishes that improved thin-film microstructure, with large uniform grains and a low density of defects, is a prerequisite for enhanced stability necessary in order to make MAPbI(3) a promising long lived and low cost alternative for future photovoltaic applications.

  • 26.
    Tan, Yeshu
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Yatao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Linzhong
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qi
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Di
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Min
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ban, Muyang
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Chen
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Tian
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qiao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Highly Luminescent and Stable Perovskite Nanocrystals with Octylphosphonic Acid as a Ligand for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 3784-3792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) of CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or their mixture) are regarded as promising candidates for high-performance light-emitting diode (LED) owing to their high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) and easy synthetic process. However, CsPbX3 NCs synthesized by the existing methods, where oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OLA) are generally used as surface-chelating ligands, suffer from poor stability due to the ligand loss, which drastically deteriorates their PL QY, as well as dispersibility in solvents. Herein, the OA/OLA ligands are replaced with octylphosphonic acid (OPA), which dramatically enhances the CsPbX3 stability. Owing to a strong interaction between OPA and lead atoms, the OPA-capped CsPbX3 (OPA-CsPbX3) NCs not only preserve their high PL QY (amp;gt;90%) but also achieve a high-quality dispersion in solvents after multiple purification processes. Moreover, the organic residue in purified OPA-CsPbBr3 is only similar to 4.6%, which is much lower than similar to 29.7% in OA/OLA-CsPbBr3. Thereby, a uniform and compact OPA-CsPbBr3 film is obtained for LED application. A green LED with a current efficiency of 18.13 cd A(-1), corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 6.5%, is obtained. Our research provides a path to prepare high-quality perovskite NCs for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  • 27.
    Wang, Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Laboratory of Photomolecular Science (LSPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Laboratory of Photomolecular Science (LSPM), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Defects engineering for high-performance perovskite solar cells2018In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskites have achieved great success in photovoltaic applications during the last few years. The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells has been rapidly improved from 3.9% to certified 22.7% due to the extensive efforts on film deposition methods, composition and device engineering. Further investigation on eliminating the defect states in perovskite absorbers is necessary to push forward the PCE of perovskite solar cells approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit. In this review, we summarize the defect properties in perovskite films and present methodologies to control the defects density, including the growth of large size crystals, photo-curing method, grain boundary and surface passivation, and modification of the substrates. We also discuss the defects-related stability and hysteresis issues and highlight the current challenges and opportunities in defects control of perovskite films.

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  • 28.
    Wang, Yuming
    et al.
    Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cheng, Lu
    Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Nana
    Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Technical University of NanjingTech, Peoples R China; Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China; Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China.
    High-Efficiency Flexible Solar Cells Based on Organometal Halide Perovskites2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 4532-4540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible and light-weight solar cells are important because they not only supply power to wearable and portable devices, but also reduce the transportation and installation cost of solar panels. High-efficiency organometal halide perovskite solar cells can be fabricated by a low-temperature solution process, and hence are promising for flexible-solar-cell applications. Here, the development of perovskite solar cells is briefly discussed, followed by the merits of organometal halide perovskites as promising candidates as high-efficiency, flexible, and light-weight photovoltaic materials. Afterward, recent developments of flexible solar cells based on perovskites are reviewed.

  • 29.
    Wu, Tian
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Junnan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Yatao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Hao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wen, Kaichuan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Nanjing Tech Univ Nanjing Tech, Peoples R China; Nanjing Tech Univ Nanjing Tech, Peoples R China.
    Wan, Shanshan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    McLeod, John A.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Duhm, Steffen
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    High-Performance Perovskite Light-Emitting Diode with Enhanced Operational Stability Using Lithium Halide Passivation2020In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 4099-4105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defect passivation has been demonstrated to be effective in improving the radiative recombination of charge carriers in perovskites, and consequently, the device performance of the resultant perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs). State-of-the-art useful passivation agents in perovskite LEDs are mostly organic chelating molecules that, however, simultaneously sacrifice the charge-transport properties and thermal stability of the resultant perovskite emissive layers, thereby deteriorating performance, and especially the operational stability of the devices. We demonstrate that lithium halides can efficiently passivate the defects generated by halide vacancies and reduce trap state density, thereby suppressing ion migration in perovskite films. Efficient green perovskite LEDs based on all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite with a peak external quantum efficiency of 16.2 %, as well as a high maximum brightness of 50 270 cd m(-2), are achieved. Moreover, the device shows decent stability even under a brightness of 10(4) cd m(-2). We highlight the universal applicability of defect passivation using lithium halides, which enabled us to improve the efficiency of blue and red perovskite LEDs.

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  • 30.
    Xia, Yuxin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jin, Yizheng
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Chenhui
    University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Kroon, Renee
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Cheng
    University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    University of S Australia, Australia.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Inverted all-polymer solar cells based on a quinoxaline-thiophene/naphthalene-diimide polymer blend improved by annealing2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 3835-3843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the effect of thermal annealing on the photovoltaic parameters of all-polymer solar cells based on a quinoxaline-thiophene donor polymer (TQ1) and a naphthalene diimide acceptor polymer (N2200). The annealed devices show a doubled power conversion efficiency compared to nonannealed devices, due to the higher short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF), but with a lower open circuit voltage (V-oc). On the basis of the morphology-mobility examination by several scanning force microscopy techniques, and by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, we conclude that better charge transport is achieved by higher order and better interconnected networks of the bulk heterojunction in the annealed active layers. The annealing improves charge transport and extends the conjugation length of the polymers, which do help in charge generation and meanwhile reduce recombination. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and light intensity dependence measurements reveal how this morphological change affects charge generation and recombination. As a result, the J(sc) and FF are significantly improved. However, the smaller band gap and the higher HOMO level of TQ1 upon annealing causes a lower V-oc. The blend of an amorphous polymer TQ1, and a semi-crystalline polymer N2200, can thus be modified by thermal annealing to double the power conversion efficiency.

  • 31.
    Xu, Weidong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Hu, Qi
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Miao, Yanfeng
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borzda, Tetiana
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Barker, Alex J.
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Tyukalova, Elizaveta
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, Singapore.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kawecki, Maciej
    Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science, Empa, Dubendorf, Switzerland; Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, P. R. China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shi, Xiaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
    Duchamp, Martial
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, Singapore.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, P. R. China.
    Petrozza, Annamaria
    Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan, Italy.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.
    Liu, Li-Min
    Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, China; School of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Wei
    Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China; Shaanxi Institute of Flexible Electronics (SIFE), Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi’an, China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rational molecular passivation for high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes2019In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major efficiency limit for solution-processed perovskite optoelectronic devices, for example light-emitting diodes, is trap-mediated non-radiative losses. Defect passivation using organic molecules has been identified as an attractive approach to tackle this issue. However, implementation of this approach has been hindered by a lack of deep understanding of how the molecular structures influence the effectiveness of passivation. We show that the so far largely ignored hydrogen bonds play a critical role in affecting the passivation. By weakening the hydrogen bonding between the passivating functional moieties and the organic cation featuring in the perovskite, we significantly enhance the interaction with defect sites and minimize non-radiative recombination losses. Consequently, we achieve exceptionally high-performance near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes with a record external quantum efficiency of 21.6%. In addition, our passivated perovskite light-emitting diodes maintain a high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% and a wall-plug efficiency of 11.0% at a high current density of 200 mA cm−2, making them more attractive than the most efficient organic and quantum-dot light-emitting diodes at high excitations.

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  • 32.
    Xu, Weidong
    et al.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    McLeod, John A.
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yingguo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yimeng
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China; Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Zhongwei
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yusheng
    Soochow University, Peoples R China; Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China; Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Si, Junjie
    Zhejiang University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Rongbin
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Xingyu
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xinping
    Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China; Beijing University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Lijia
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Iodomethane-Mediated Organometal Halide Perovskite with Record Photoluminescence Lifetime2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 35, p. 23181-23189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organometallic lead halide perovskites are excellent light harvesters for high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, as the key component in these devices, a perovskite thin film with good morphology and minimal trap states is still difficult to obtain. Herein we show that by incorporating a low boiling point alkyl halide such as iodomethane (CH3I) into the precursor solution, a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) film with improved grain size and orientation can be easily achieved. More importantly, these films exhibit a significantly reduced amount of trap states. Record photoluminescence lifetimes of more than 4 mu s are achieved; these lifetimes are significantly longer than that of pristine CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films. Planar heterojunction solar cells incorporating these CH3I-mediated perovskites have demonstrated a dramatically increased power conversion efficiency compared to the ones using pristine CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. Photoluminescence, transient absorption, and microwave detected photoconductivity measurements all provide consistent evidence that CH3I addition increases the number of excitons generated and their diffusion length, both of which assist efficient carrier transport in the photovoltaic device. The simple incorporation of alkyl halide to enhance perovskite surface passivation introduces an important direction for future progress on high efficiency perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  • 33.
    Yang, Jie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bao, Chunxiong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ning, Weihua
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Bo
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Ji, Fuxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tao, Youtian
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sum, Tze Chien
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Wenjing
    Shenzhen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stable, High-Sensitivity and Fast-Response Photodetectors Based on Lead-Free Cs2AgBiBr6 Double Perovskite Films2019In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 7, no 13, article id 1801732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have demonstrated great advances on achieving high-performance photodetectors. However, the intrinsic material instability and the toxicity of lead still hinder the practical applications of MHPs-based photodetectors. In this work, the first highly sensitive and fast-response lead-free perovskite photodetectors based on Cs2AgBiBr6 double perovskite films are demonstrated. A convenient solution method is developed to deposit high-quality Cs2AgBiBr6 film with large grain sizes, low trap densities, and long charge carrier lifetimes. Incorporated within a photodiode device architecture comprised of optimized hole- and electron-transporting layers, lead-free perovskite photodetectors are achieved exhibiting a high detectivity of 3.29 x 10(12) Jones, a large linear dynamic range of 193 dB, and a fast response time of approximate to 17 ns. All the key figures of merit of the devices are comparable with the reported best-performing photodetectors based on lead halide perovskites. In addition, the resulting devices exhibit excellent thermal and environmental stability. The nonencapsulated devices show negligible degradation after thermal stressing at 150 degrees C and less than 5% degradation in the photoresponsivity after storage in ambient air for approximate to 2300 h. The results demonstrate the great potential of the lead-free Cs2AgBiBr6 double perovskite in applications for environmentally friendly and high-performance photodetectors.

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  • 34.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yan, Zhibo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jun-Ming
    Nanjing Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Room-temperature film formation of metal halide perovskites on n-type metal oxides: the catalysis of ZnO on perovskite crystallization2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 50, p. 6887-6890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of commonly used solution-processed TiOx, SnO2 and ZnO interlayers on the perovskite film crystallization process. We find that the ZnO/perovskite interface can efficiently catalyze the perovskite crystallization even without thermal annealing.

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  • 35.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interface-assisted cation exchange enables high-performance perovskiteLEDs with tunable near-infrared emissions2022In: Joule, E-ISSN 2542-4351, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 2423-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving high-quality cesium-formamidinium lead iodide (CsxFA1_xPbI3) perovskites with tunable band gaps is highly desired for optoelectronic applications including solar cells and light -emit-ting diodes (LEDs). Herein, by utilizing an alkaline-interface-assisted cation-exchange method, we fabricate highly emissive CsxFA1_x PbI3 perovskite films with fine-tunable Cs-FA alloying ratio for emis-sion-tunable near-infrared (NIR) LEDs. We reveal that the deproto-nation of FA+ cations and the formation of hydrogen-bonded gels consisting of CsI and FA facilitated by the zinc oxide underneath effectively removes the Cs-FA ion-exchange barrier, promoting the formation of phase-pure CsxFA1_xPbI3 films with tunable emis-sions filling the gap between that of pure Cs-and FA-based perov-skites. The obtained NIR perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) peaking from 715 to 780 nm simultaneously demonstrate high peak external quantum efficiencies of over 15%, maximum radiances exceeding 300 W sr_1 m_2, and high power conversion efficiencies above 10% at 100 mA cm_2, representing the best-performing LEDs based on solution-processed NIR emitters in a similar region.

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  • 36.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miao, Yanfeng
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pan, Kang
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Pinlei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lai, Jingya
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Unveiling the synergistic effect of precursor stoichiometry and interfacial reactions for perovskite light-emitting diodes2019In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 2818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal halide perovskites are emerging as promising semiconductors for cost-effective and high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Previous investigations have focused on the optimisation of the emissive perovskite layer, for example, through quantum confinement to enhance the radiative recombination or through defect passivation to decrease non-radiative recombination. However, an in-depth understanding of how the buried charge transport layers affect the perovskite crystallisation, though of critical importance, is currently missing for perovskite LEDs. Here, we reveal synergistic effect of precursor stoichiometry and interfacial reactions for perovskite LEDs, and establish useful guidelines for rational device optimization. We reveal that efficient deprotonation of the undesirable organic cations by a metal oxide interlayer with a high isoelectric point is critical to promote the transition of intermediate phases to highly emissive perovskite films. Combining our findings with effective defect passivation of the active layer, we achieve high-efficiency perovskite LEDs with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 19.6%.

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  • 37.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yingguo
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Zhongwei
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Weidong
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Xingyu
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Approximately 800-nm-Thick Pinhole-Free Perovskite Films via Facile Solvent Retarding Process for Efficient Planar Solar Cells2016In: ACS APPLIED MATERIALS and INTERFACES, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 8, no 50, p. 34446-34454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Device performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells significantly depends on the quality and thickness of perovskite absorber films. However, conventional deposition methods often generate pinholes within similar to 300 nm-thick perovskite films, which are detrimental to the large area device manufacture. Here we demonstrated a simple solvent retarding process to deposit uniform pinhole free perovskite films with thicknesses up to similar to 800 nm. Solvent evaporation during the retarding process facilitated the components separation in the mixed halide perovskite precursors, and hence the final films exhibited pinhole free morphology and large grain sizes. In addition, the increased precursor concentration after solvent-retarding process led to thick perovskite films. Based on the uniform and thick perovskite films prepared by this convenient process, a champion device efficiency up to 16.8% was achieved. We believe that this simple deposition procedure for high quality perovskite films around micrometer thickness has a great potential in the application of large area perovskite solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

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  • 38.
    Zhang, Jibin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Chunyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Fei
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Yuan
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Huazhong Inst Electroopt, Peoples R China.
    Yuan, Fanglong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Hongting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Rongwen
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tu, Guoli
    Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Highly Luminescent and Stable CsPbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Ligand Passivation for Red-Light-Emitting Diodes2021In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 2437-2443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CsPbI3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have recently emerged as promising materials for optoelectronic devices because of their superior properties. However, the poor stability of the CsPbI3 NCs induced by easy ligand desorption represents a key issue limiting their practical applications. Herein, we report stable and highly luminescent black-phase CsPbI3 NCs passivated by novel ligands of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Theoretical calculation results reveal a stronger adsorption energy of SDS molecules at the CsPbI3 surface than that of commonly used oleic acid. As a result, the defect formation caused by the ligand loss during the purification process is greatly suppressed. The optimized SDS- CsPbI3 NCs exhibit significantly reduced surface defects, much enhanced stability, and superior photoluminescence efficiency. The red perovskite light-emitting diodes based on the SDS-CsPbI3 NCs demonstrate an external quantum efficiency of 8.4%, which shows a 4-fold improvement compared to the devices based on the oleic acid-modified CsPbI3 NCs.

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  • 39.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Hak-Beom
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Choi, In-Woo
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cho, Eunkyung
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Konefal, Rafal
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Terado, Kosuke
    Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Kobera, Libor
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Chen, Mengyun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Mei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Bowen
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Suo, Jiajia
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Yang, Shih-Chi
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Yoshida, Hiroyuki
    Chiba Univ, Japan; Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brus, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Coropceanu, Veaceslav
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bredas, Jean-Luc
    Univ Arizona, AZ 85721 USA.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Dong Suk
    Korea Inst Energy Res KIER, South Korea.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion-modulated radical doping of spiro-OMeTAD for more efficient and stable perovskite solar cells2022In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 377, no 6605, p. 495-501, article id eabo2757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Record power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been obtained with the organic hole transporter 2,2,7,7-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Conventional doping of spiro-OMeTAD with hygroscopic lithium salts and volatile 4-tert-butylpyridine is a time-consuming process and also leads to poor device stability. We developed a new doping strategy for spiro-OMeTAD that avoids post-oxidation by using stable organic radicals as the dopant and ionic salts as the doping modulator (referred to as ion-modulated radical doping). We achieved PCEs of >25% and much-improved device stability under harsh conditions. The radicals provide hole polarons that instantly increase the conductivity and work function (WF), and ionic salts further modulate the WF by affecting the energetics of the hole polarons. This organic semiconductor doping strategy, which decouples conductivity and WF tunability, could inspire further optimization in other optoelectronic devices.

  • 40.
    Zhao, Baodan
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Kim, Vincent
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Lamboll, Robin
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Shivanna, Ravichandran
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Auras, Florian
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Richter, Johannes M.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Yang, Le
    Univ Cambridge, England; ASTAR, Singapore.
    Dai, Linjie
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Alsari, Mejd
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    She, Xiao-Jian
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Liang, Lusheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jiangbin
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Lilliu, Samuele
    Univ Sheffield, England; UAE Ctr Crystallog, U Arab Emirates.
    Gao, Peng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Greenham, Neil C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Friend, Richard H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Di, Dawei
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    High-efficiency perovskite-polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes2018In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 783-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite-based optoelectronic devices are gaining much attention owing to their remarkable performance and low processing cost, particularly for solar cells. However, for perovskite light-emitting diodes, non-radiative charge recombination has limited the electroluminescence efficiency. Here we demonstrate perovskite-polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes exhibiting external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.1% (at current densities of 0.1-1 mA cm(-2)). The light-emitting diode emissive layer comprises quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D/3D) perovskites and an insulating polymer. Photogenerated excitations migrate from quasi-2D to lower-energy sites within 1 ps, followed by radiative bimolecular recombination in the 3D regions. From near-unity external photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and transient kinetics of the emissive layer with and without charge-transport contacts, we find non-radiative recombination pathways to be effectively eliminated, consistent with optical models giving near 100% internal quantum efficiencies. Although the device brightness and stability (T-50 = 46 h in air at peak external quantum efficiency) require further improvement, our results indicate the significant potential of perovskite-based photon sources.

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  • 41.
    Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Hongting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Luo, Xiyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Teng, Pengpeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Yin, Chunyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zeng, Peng
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Ying
    Nanjing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Lian
    Tsinghua Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Mingzhen
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    High-Brightness Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on FAPbBr(3) Nanocrystals with Rationally Designed Aromatic Ligands2021In: ACS Energy Letters, E-ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 2395-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite rapid developments of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on emerging perovskite nanocrystals (PeNCs), it remains challenging to achieve devices with integrated high efficiencies and high brightness because of the insulating long-chain ligands used for the PeNCs. Herein, we develop highly luminescent and stable formamidinium lead bromide PeNCs capped with rationally designed short aromatic ligands of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (NSA) for LEDs. Compared with commonly used oleic acid ligands, the NSA molecules not only preserve the surface properties of the PeNCs during the purification but also notably improve the electrical properties of the assembled emissive layers, ensuring efficient charge injection/transport in the devices. The resulting champion LED with electroluminescence approaching the Rec. 2020 green primary color demonstrates a high brightness of 67 115 cd cm(-2) and a peak external quantum efficiency of 19.2%. More impressively, the device shows negligibly decreased efficiency at an elevated brightness of 20 000 cd cm(-2) and a well-retained efficiency of over 10% at around 65 000 cd cm(-2), presenting a breakthrough in LEDs based on PeNCs.

  • 42.
    Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China; Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wei, Linfeng
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China; Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Peng
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China; Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xiaochun
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China; Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Mingzhen
    Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China; Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Efficient and High-Luminance Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals Synthesized from a Dual-Purpose Organic Lead SourceIn: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, article id 2003939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rational engineering of the surface properties of perovskite nanocrystals (PeNCs) is critical to obtain light emitters with simultaneous high photoluminescence efficiency and excellent charge transport properties for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the commonly used lead halide sources make it hard to rationally optimize the surface compositions of the PeNCs. In addition, previously developed ligand engineering strategies for conventional inorganic nanocrystals easily deteriorate surface properties of the PeNCs, bringing additional difficulties in optimizing their optoelectronic properties. In this work, a novel strategy of employing a dual-purpose organic lead source for the synthesis of highly luminescent PeNCs with enhanced charge transport property is developed. Lead naphthenate (Pb(NA)(2)), of which the metal ions work as lead sources while the naphthenate can function as the surface ligands afterward, is explored and the obtained products under different synthesis conditions are comprehensively investigated. Monodispersed cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) with controllable size and excellent optical properties, showing superior photoluminescence quantum yields up to 80%, is obtained. Based on the simultaneously enhanced electrical properties of the Pb(NA)(2)-derived PeNCs, the resultant LEDs demonstrate a high peak external quantum efficiency of 8.44% and a superior maximum luminance of 31 759 cd cm(-2).

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  • 43.
    Zhu, Huihui
    et al.
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Liu, Ao
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Shim, Kyu In
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea; Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Jung, Haksoon
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Zou, Taoyu
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Reo, Youjin
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Kim, Hyunjun
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Han, Jeong Woo
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea; Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    Chen, Yimu
    Harbin Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Chu, Hye Yong
    Samsung Display Inc, South Korea.
    Lim, Jun Hyung
    Samsung Display Inc, South Korea.
    Kim, Hyung-Jun
    Samsung Display Inc, South Korea.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Elect Sci & Technol China, Peoples R China.
    Noh, Yong-Young
    Pohang Univ Sci & Technol, South Korea.
    High-performance hysteresis-free perovskite transistors through anion engineering2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the impressive development of metal halide perovskites in diverse optoelectronics, progress on high-performance transistors employing state-of-the-art perovskite channels has been limited due to ion migration and large organic spacer isolation. Herein, we report high-performance hysteresis-free p-channel perovskite thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on methylammonium tin iodide (MASnI(3)) and rationalise the effects of halide (I/Br/Cl) anion engineering on film quality improvement and tin/iodine vacancy suppression, realising high hole mobilities of 20 cm(2) V-1 s(-1), current on/off ratios exceeding 10(7), and threshold voltages of 0 V along with high operational stabilities and reproducibilities. We reveal ion migration has a negligible contribution to the hysteresis of Sn-based perovskite TFTs; instead, minority carrier trapping is the primary cause. Finally, we integrate the perovskite TFTs with commercialised n-channel indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs on a single chip to construct high-gain complementary inverters, facilitating the development of halide perovskite semiconductors for printable electronics and circuits. Progress on high-performance transistor employing perovskite channels has been limited to date. Here, Zhu et al. report hysteresis-free tin-based perovskite thin-film transistors with high hole mobility of 20 cm(2)V(-1)S(-1), which can be integrated with commercial metal oxide transistors on a single chip.

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  • 44.
    Zou, Yatao
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ban, Muyang
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yingguo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Chen
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Han, Yujie
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Tian
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tan, Yeshu
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Qi
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Xingyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qiao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Boosting Perovskite Light-Emitting Diode Performance via Tailoring Interfacial Contact2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 28, p. 24320-24326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solution-processed perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted wide attention in the past several years. However, the overall efficiency and stability of perovskite-based LEDs remain inferior to those of organic or quantum dot LEDs. Nonradiative charge recombination and the unbalanced charge injection are two critical factors that limit the device efficiency and operational stability of perovskite LEDs. Here, we develop a strategy to modify the interface between the hole transport layer and the perovskite emissive layer with an amphiphilic conjugated polymer of poly[(9,9-bis(3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propy1)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN). We show evidences that PFN improves the quality of the perovskite film, which effectively suppresses nonradiative recombination. By further improving the charge injection balance rate, a green perovskite LED with a champion current efficiency of 45.2 cd/A, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 14.4%, is achieved. In addition, the device based on the PFN layer exhibits improved operational lifetime. Our work paves a facile way for the development of efficient and stable perovskite LEDs.

  • 45.
    Zou, Yatao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Teng, Pengpeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zheng, Guanhaojie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lin, Weihua
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Yin, Jun
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Kobera, Libor
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Abbrent, Sabina
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Li, Xiangchun
    Nanjing Univ Posts & Telecommun, Peoples R China.
    Steele, Julian A.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Solano, Eduardo
    Alba Synchrotron Light Source, Spain.
    Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Li, Jun
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Cai, Lei
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Scheblykin, Ivan G.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Brus, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Zheng, Kaibo
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Yang, Ying
    Nanjing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Peoples R China.
    Mohammed, Omar F.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Bakr, Osman M.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Pullerits, Tönu
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manipulating crystallization dynamics through chelating molecules for bright perovskite emitters2021In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 4831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidentate molecular additives are widely used to passivate perovskite, yet the role of chelate effect is still unclear. Here, the authors investigate a wide range of additives with different coordination number and functional moieties to establish correlation between coordination affinity and perovskite crystallisation dynamics. Molecular additives are widely utilized to minimize non-radiative recombination in metal halide perovskite emitters due to their passivation effects from chemical bonds with ionic defects. However, a general and puzzling observation that can hardly be rationalized by passivation alone is that most of the molecular additives enabling high-efficiency perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) are chelating (multidentate) molecules, while their respective monodentate counterparts receive limited attention. Here, we reveal the largely ignored yet critical role of the chelate effect on governing crystallization dynamics of perovskite emitters and mitigating trap-mediated non-radiative losses. Specifically, we discover that the chelate effect enhances lead-additive coordination affinity, enabling the formation of thermodynamically stable intermediate phases and inhibiting halide coordination-driven perovskite nucleation. The retarded perovskite nucleation and crystal growth are key to high crystal quality and thus efficient electroluminescence. Our work elucidates the full effects of molecular additives on PeLEDs by uncovering the chelate effect as an important feature within perovskite crystallization. As such, we open new prospects for the rationalized screening of highly effective molecular additives.

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  • 46.
    Zou, Yatao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Tian
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cai, Lei
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yajuan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Ruiying
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Weidong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yingguo
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Xingyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Thermal-induced interface degradation in perovskite light-emitting diodes2020In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 8, no 43, p. 15079-15085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) have experienced rapid improvements in device efficiency during the last several years. However, the operational instability of PeLEDs remains a key barrier hindering their practical applications. A fundamental understanding of the degradation mechanism is still lacking but will be important to seek ways to mitigate these unwanted processes. In this work, through comprehensive characterizations of the perovskite emitters and the interfacial contacts, we figure out that Joule heating induced interface degradation is one of the dominant factors affecting the operational stability of PeLEDs. We investigate the interfacial contacts of PeLEDs based on a commonly used device structure, with an organic electron transport layer of 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimiazole-2-yl)benzene (TPBi), and observe obvious photoluminescence quenching of the perovskite layer after device operation. Detailed characterizations of the interlayers and the interfacial contacts reveal that photoluminescence quenching is mainly due to the element inter-diffusion at the interface induced by the morphological evolution of the TPBi layers under Joule heating during the operation of PeLEDs. Our work provides direct insights into the degradation pathways and highlights the importance of exploring intrinsically stable interlayers as well as interfacial contacts beyond the state-of-the-art to further boost the operational stability of PeLEDs.

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  • 47.
    Zou, Yatao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Hao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Siying
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Song, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kuai, Liang
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bai, Sai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Baoquan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Spectral-Stable Blue Emission from Moisture-Treated Low-Dimensional Lead Bromide-Based Perovskite Films2019In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1728-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on metal halide perovskites with green, red, and near-infrared electro-luminescence have been widely demonstrated. However, the development of their blue counterparts is still hampered due to the difficult deposition of efficient and spectral-stable blue-emitting active layers. Here, we report a facile and general approach that uses a moisture treatment in combination with the precursor stoichiometry engineering for the fabrication of efficient and color stable blue-emitting perovskite films. We find that, with a short-term moisture exposure, light emission from Ruddlesden Popper lead bromide-based perovskite films exhibit a continuous blue-shift from 512 to 475 nm through incorporating excess CsBr in the precursors. In addition, we observe that the formed Cs4PbBr6 phase under CsBr-rich condition is favorable to stabilize the blue emission of the resulting films. The corresponding blue-emitting perovskite films exhibit a photoluminescence quantum efficiency of over 20%, delivering sky-blue perovskite LEDs with no change in the light emission even under high voltage. Our strategy provides an alternative way for realizing efficient and spectrally stable active layers for the further development of blue-emitting perovskite LEDs.

  • 48.
    Ortega Soto, Celina (Cover designer)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bai, Zhihe (Cover designer)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergmark, Beatrice (Cover designer)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Atkins, Hannah (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kraler, Esther (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Freisleben, Kisya (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McCarthy, Holly (Editor, Photographer)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Voices of Norrköping2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Voices of Norrköping is a collection of collaborative projects on the topics of migration, diversity, and belonging. These projects, infor­med by the stories and standpoints of a variety of people, were cre­ated by master’s students of the Ethnic and Migration Studies programme at REMESO, Linköping University.

    While Norrköping is unique in many ways, it also serves as an example of how a city and its community can be transformed by immigration. The articles, essays and art projects presented in this compendium take Norrköping and its inhabitants as a starting point for the discussion of issues which have a broader societal resonance.

    This publication, the second in a series, would not have been possible without the input and support of those whose voices are featured. Throughout our master’s programme, we have explored the idea that each person’s experience is informed by their position at the in­tersection of different privileges and oppressions. By understanding that each individual has a unique worldview, we can appreciate that their stories may differ substantially. As a class, we hope that presenting a broad range of views will illustrate that there is no single narrative when it comes to the themes discussed.

    By listening to these voices, we can begin to understand, and by understanding, we can become more critical of how these themes are presented and dealt with. While some voices are still yet to be heard, we hope that future installments of this series will continue to encourage listening and understanding.

    Ethnic and Migration Studies (EMS)

    Class of 2019

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