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  • 1.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cyclist efficiency and its dependence on infrastructure and usual speed2018Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 54, s. 148-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicyclists are a heterogeneous group, with varying abilities, traffic education and experience. While efficiency was identified as an important factor on utility bicycle trips, it might be traded for experienced safety, for example by choosing different pathways in a given situation, or by relinquishing ones right of way. In a semi-controlled study with 41 participants, a grouping was made according to self-reported riding speed in relation to other cyclists. The participants cycled twice along a 3 km inner-city route, passing four intersections with different priority rules. The cyclists were free to choose how to negotiate the intersections. Speed and the traffic surroundings were recorded via gps and cameras on the bike of the participant and of a following experimenter. For each cyclist, the base speed on undisturbed segments was determined as reference. Based on this, the efficiency in different types of intersections was computed per cyclist group. It turned out that infrastructural aspects, cyclist group and the presence and behaviour of interacting traffic influenced cyclist efficiency. Faster cyclists were delayed more when the infrastructure required a stop regardless of the traffic situation, like at a red traffic light or a stop sign. The members of the so-called comfort cyclists group were delayed the most in a roundabout with mixed traffic, where many chose to get off their bike and walk. In a society working for equality of access to the transport system, it is recommended to develop solutions that consider and accommodate the behaviours of different cyclist groups when planning bicycling infrastructure. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Adaptive behaviour in traffic: An individual road user perspective2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att trafikanterna anpassar sig är en förutsättning för ett välfungerande vägsystem. Genom anpassning försöker trafikanten säkerställa en känsla av komfort med hänsyn till hans eller hennes nuvarande tillstånd och förmåga. I denna avhandling undersöks bilförares och cyklisters anpassningsbeteende i samband med olika faktorer, utifrån ett individuellt trafikantperspektiv. Forskningen är inriktad på att undersöka hur anpassning i vägtrafikmiljön kan beskrivas, samt vilka anpassningar trafikanter gör i relation till statisk och dynamisk vägutrustning, extrauppgifter och andra trafikanter.

    En simulatorstudie och tre fältstudier i verklig trafik har genomförts. Studieresultaten antydde att den roll som trafikanten har för tillfället, samt de förutsättningar som den rollen innebär i form av fordon och infrastruktur, påverkar anpassningsbeteendet. Resultaten visade också att om den visuella ledningen är över en viss nivå har inte mer detaljerad visuell information någon effekt på hastighetsanpassningen i icke-komplexa situationer. Trafikanterna föredrar dock mer detaljerad information om den gör det lättare att bedöma hur trafiksituationen kommer att utvecklas. Om komplexiteten ökar kan fordonshastigheten minskas för att bibehålla tillräckligt stora säkerhetsmarginaler. Hur man interagerar med extrauppgifter är individuellt och beror på vilken svårighetsnivå för interaktion som individen själv upplever är acceptabel.

    En konceptuell modell för anpassning föreslås som tar hänsyn till trafikmiljön och trafikantens upplevelse av säkerhet och känsla av komfort. Framtida trafiksystem bör utformas för att stödja trafikanternas anpassningsbeteenden.

    Delarbeten
    1. The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 72, s. 341-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how different delineator post configurations affect driver speed in night-time traffic. In addition, the potential speed effect of introducing a secondary task was investigated. The study was carried out in a car simulator on a road stretch including straight road sections as well as curves with different radii. Fourteen drivers participated in the study and the results show that absence of delineator posts leads to reduced speed. However, provided that there are delineator posts continuously present along the road, the overall driver speed is basically the same, regardless of the spacing between the delineator posts. The results also imply that to reduce driver speed in curves with small radius, using more compact spacing of posts in these curves as compared to in curves with a larger radius, could be a potential strategy. Additionally, the speed reducing effect of a secondary task was only prevailing where the task was initiated.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Delineator posts; Simulator study; Night-time traffic; Distraction; Driver speed
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Data- och informationsvetenskap Annan samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112463 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.023 (DOI)000343843700035 ()25118126 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-28 Skapad: 2014-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 377-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Mobile phone; Bicyclist; Attention; Behavioural adaptation; Text message; Music
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150233 (URN)10.1007/s10111-018-0478-y (DOI)000439906300004 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Stiftelsen Lansforsakringsbolagens Forskningsfond

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-22 Skapad: 2018-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-06
    3. Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Road users, such as cyclists and car drivers, are constantly adapting to each other and to the road infrastructure. This study aimed to investigate what trade-offs can be observed when drivers and cyclists adapt to other road users and to the infrastructure. Methods A semi-controlled study was carried out in an urban traffic environment, where all participants travelled the same route twice, once as a cyclist and once as a car driver. The extended control model was used as an analytical framework to examine how people adapt depending on their main and current road-user role, experiencing different infrastructure and complexity. Results The results revealed possible trade-offs made while adapting, mainly in relation to rule-following. No differences in adaptive behaviour between people who mostly drive and people who mostly cycle were found. The current situational demands influence both the need to adapt and the adaptation carried out. A more complex traffic environment led to increased information intake, measured by glance behaviour.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    SPRINGEROPEN, 2020
    Nyckelord
    Behavioural adaptation; Cyclist; Driver; ECOM; Comfort zone; Complexity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Data- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165002 (URN)10.1186/s12544-020-0396-y (DOI)000520478200001 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation Programme (FFI) - Swedish state; Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation Programme (FFI) - Swedish automotive industry

    Tillgänglig från: 2020-04-08 Skapad: 2020-04-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-05-06
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 3.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments2018Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 377-388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trade-offs in traffic: does being mainly a car driver or a cyclist affect adaptive behaviour while driving and cycling?2020Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Road users, such as cyclists and car drivers, are constantly adapting to each other and to the road infrastructure. This study aimed to investigate what trade-offs can be observed when drivers and cyclists adapt to other road users and to the infrastructure. Methods A semi-controlled study was carried out in an urban traffic environment, where all participants travelled the same route twice, once as a cyclist and once as a car driver. The extended control model was used as an analytical framework to examine how people adapt depending on their main and current road-user role, experiencing different infrastructure and complexity. Results The results revealed possible trade-offs made while adapting, mainly in relation to rule-following. No differences in adaptive behaviour between people who mostly drive and people who mostly cycle were found. The current situational demands influence both the need to adapt and the adaptation carried out. A more complex traffic environment led to increased information intake, measured by glance behaviour.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The effect of different delineator post configurations on driver speed in night-time traffic: A driving simulator study2014Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 72, s. 341-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how different delineator post configurations affect driver speed in night-time traffic. In addition, the potential speed effect of introducing a secondary task was investigated. The study was carried out in a car simulator on a road stretch including straight road sections as well as curves with different radii. Fourteen drivers participated in the study and the results show that absence of delineator posts leads to reduced speed. However, provided that there are delineator posts continuously present along the road, the overall driver speed is basically the same, regardless of the spacing between the delineator posts. The results also imply that to reduce driver speed in curves with small radius, using more compact spacing of posts in these curves as compared to in curves with a larger radius, could be a potential strategy. Additionally, the speed reducing effect of a secondary task was only prevailing where the task was initiated.

1 - 5 av 5
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