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  • 1.
    Bartelink, Eric J.
    et al.
    Calif State University of Chico, CA 95929 USA.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Institute, DC 20560 USA.
    Milligan, Colleen F.
    Calif State University of Chico, CA 95929 USA.
    Van Deest, Traci L.
    University of Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    A Case of Contested Cremains Analyzed Through Metric and Chemical Comparison2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 1068-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, cremation has become the fastest growing area of the U.S. funeral industry. At the same time, the number of litigations against funeral homes and cremation facilities has increased. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to determine whether the contents of an urn are actually cremated bone, and to address questions regarding the identity of the remains. This study uses both metric and chemical analyses for resolving a case of contested cremains. A cremains weight of 2021.8 g was predicted based on the decedents reported stature and weight. However, the urn contents weighed 4173.5 g. The urn contents also contained material inconsistent with cremains (e.g., moist sediment, stones, ferrous metal). Analysis using XRD and SEM demonstrated that the urn contained thermally altered bone as well as inorganic material consistent with glass fiber cement. Although forensically challenging, cremains cases such as this one can be resolved using a multidisciplinary approach.

  • 2.
    Bulut, Ozgur
    et al.
    Hitit University, Turkey.
    Petaros, Anja
    Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Hizliol, Ismail
    Turkish Police Forens Lab, Turkey.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hekimoglu, Baki
    Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
    Sexual dimorphism in frontal bone roundness quantified by a novel 3D-based and landmark-free method2016In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 261, no UNSP 162.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present a novel and landmark-free method for quantifying shape differences between male and female frontal bones. CT scans were recorded for 80 male and 80 female Turkish hospital patients, age 25-40. The frontal bones were first isolated from the 3D models by digital cutting along the bordering sutures, and then aligned to a CAD-based sphere. This allowed us to quantify the amount of frontal bone overlapping with the sphere (on average 43.2 +/- 6.5% for males and 33.9 +/- 6.6% for females, the difference is significant at p < 0.0001), and to identify areas of shape difference and deviation from the sphere surface in male and female bones. The larger proportion of spherical frontal bone surface in males challenges the common description of the female forehead as "rounder. Based on the overlap data, we developed discriminant functions able to correctly classify 77.5% of the frontal bone models as male/female. This demonstrates that 3D-based and landmark-free approaches to statistical shape analysis may become a viable alternative to the currently dominating landmark-based approaches for shape investigation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Frkovic, Vedran
    et al.
    Rijeka University Hospital, Croatia; Rijeka University Hospital, Croatia.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Petaros, Anja
    Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Spanjol-Pandelo, Iva
    Rijeka University Hospital, Croatia.
    Azman, Josip
    Rijeka University Hospital, Croatia; Rijeka University Hospital, Croatia.
    Finger width as a measure of femoral block puncture site: an ultrasonographic anatomical-anthropometric study2015In: Journal of clinical anesthesia, ISSN 0952-8180, E-ISSN 1873-4529, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 553-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: Femoral nerve blockade is a regional anesthetic procedure that may be used in prehospital and emergency settings in cases of femoral trauma. Its speed and performance depend on how well the puncture site can be accurately located, something that usually is achieved via visible landmarks and/or by combining various universal preestablished measurements. Most of these methods have been derived from cadaver studies, which often suffer limitations in clinical settings. To facilitate a quick and easy determination of the puncture site, we here attempt to find an in vivo anthropometric measure that closely corresponds to the distance between the femoral artery and femoral nerve. Design: This is a prospective observational study. Patients: The study includes 67 patients presenting for elective surgery. Measurements: The distance from the femoral nerve to the femoral artery, projected to the skin, was measured by a 13-MHz ultrasonographic linear probe. Anthropometric measurements of the width of the hand fingers were carried out at the distal interphalangeal joints. Results: The distance from the femoral artery to the femoral nerve projected to the skin was found to closely correspond to the width of the fifth finger of the dominant hand measured at the distal interphalangeal joint. Conclusion: Because it relies on individual anthropometric information, this finding offers an individualized approach to determining the puncture site in a given patient. We believe that such an approach can improve and simplify femoral nerve blockade procedures in prehospital and emergency settings. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Fyhrqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kan digitala 3D-bilder skyddas som kataloger eller databaser?2016In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 1, p. 17-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Petaros, Anja
    et al.
    National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Med, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden; Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Garvi, Heather M.
    Mercyhurst University, PA 16546 USA; Des Moines University, IA 50312 USA.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Institute, DC 20560 USA.
    Schlager, Stefan
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. UCLA, CA USA; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sexual dimorphism and regional variation in human frontal bone inclination measured via digital 3D models2017In: Legal Medicine, ISSN 1344-6223, E-ISSN 1873-4162, Vol. 29, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frontal bone is one of the most sexually dimorphic elements of the human skull, due to features such as the glabella, frontal eminences, and frontal inclination. While glabella is frequently evaluated in procedures to estimate sex in unknown human skeletal remains, frontal inclination has received less attention. In this study we present a straightforward, quick, and reproducible method for measuring frontal inclination angles from glabella and supraglabella. Using a sample of 413 human crania from four different populations (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, Portuguese, and Chinese), we test the usefulness of the inclination angles for sex estimation and compare their performance to traditional methods of frontal inclination assessment. Accuracy rates in the range 75-81% were achieved for the U.S. White, U.S. Black, and Portuguese groups. For Chinese the overall accuracy was lower, i.e. 66%. Although some regional variation was observed, a cut-off value of 78.2 for glabellar inclination angles separates female and male crania from all studied populations with good accuracy. As inclination angles measured from glabella captures two sexually dimorphic features (i.e. glabellar prominence and frontal inclination) in a single measure, the observed clear male/female difference is not unexpected. Being continuous variables, inclination angles are suitable for use in statistical methods for sex estimations.

  • 6.
    Petaros, Anja
    et al.
    Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Institute, DC 20560 USA.
    Slaus, Mario
    Croatian Academic Science and Arts, Croatia.
    Bosnar, Alan
    Rijeka University, Croatia.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Evaluating sexual dimorphism in the human mastoid process: A viewpoint on the methodology2015In: Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y. Print), ISSN 0897-3806, E-ISSN 1098-2353, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 593-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mastoid process is one of the most sexually dimorphic features in the human skull, and is therefore often used to identify the sex of skeletons. Numerous techniques for assessing variation in the size and shape of the mastoid process have been proposed and implemented in osteological research, but its complex form still presents difficulties for consistent and effective analysis. In this article, we compare the different techniques and variables that have been used to define, measure, and visually score sexual dimorphism in the mastoid process. We argue that the current protocols fail to capture the full morphological range of this bony projection, and suggest ways of improving and standardizing them, regarding both traditional and 3D-based approaches. Clin. Anat. 28:593-601, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 7.
    Shearer, Brian M
    et al.
    CUNY, NY USA NYCEP, NY USA University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA .
    Sholts, Sabrina B
    University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA .
    Garvin, Heather M
    Johns Hopkins University, MD 21205 USA .
    Warmlander, Sebastian K T S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sexual dimorphism in human browridge volume measured from 3D models of dry crania: A new digital morphometrics approach2012In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 222, no 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex estimation from the human skull is often a necessary step when constructing a biological profile from unidentified human remains. Traditional methods for determining the sex of a skull require observers to rank the expression of sexually dimorphic skeletal traits by subjectively assessing their qualitative differences. One of these traits is the prominence of the glabellar region above the browridge. In this paper, the volume of the browridge region was measured from digital 3D models of 128 dry crania ( 65 female, 63 male). The 3D models were created with a desktop laser scanner, and the browridge region of each 3D model was isolated using geometric planes defined by cranial landmarks. Statistical analysis of browridge-to-cranium volume ratios revealed significant differences between male and female crania. Differences were also observed between geographically distinct populations, and between temporally distinct populations from the same locale. The results suggest that in the future, sex determination of human crania may be assisted by quantitative computer-based volume calculations from 3D models, which can provide increased objectivity and repeatability when compared to traditional forensic techniques. The method presented in this paper can easily be extended to other volumetric regions of the human cranium.

  • 8.
    Warmlander, Sebastian K T S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; UCLA/Getty Conservation Programme, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, US.
    Varul, Liivi
    Institute of History and Archaeology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; School of Humanities, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koskinen, Juuso
    Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saage, Ragnar
    Institute of History and Archaeology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Schlager, Stefan
    Department of Anthropology, Medizinische Fakultät der Albert Ludwigs, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Estimating the Temperature of Heat-exposed Bone via Machine Learning Analysis of SCI Color Values: A Pilot Study2019In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 190-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining maximum heating temperatures of burnt bones is a long-standing problem in forensic science and archaeology. In this pilot study, controlled experiments were used to heat 14 fleshed and defleshed pig vertebrae (wet bones) and archaeological human vertebrae (dry bones) to temperatures of 400, 600, 800, and 1000 degrees C. Specular component included (SCI) color values were recorded from the bone surfaces with a Konica-Minolta cm-2600d spectrophotometer. These color values were regressed onto heating temperature, using both a traditional linear model and the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) machine-learning algorithm. Mean absolute errors (MAE) were computed for 1000 rounds of temperature prediction. With the k-NN approach, the median MAE prediction errors were 41.6 degrees C for the entire sample, and 20.9 degrees C for the subsample of wet bones. These results indicate that spectrophotometric color measurements combined with machine learning methods can be a viable tool for estimating bone heating temperature.

  • 9.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; UCLA, CA USA.
    Garvin, Heather
    Des Moines Univ, IA USA.
    Guyomarch, Pierre
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Petaros, Anja
    Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Med, Artillerigatan 12, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Smithsonian Inst, DC 20560 USA.
    Landmark Typology in Applied Morphometrics Studies: Whats the Point?2019In: ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, ISSN 1932-8486, Vol. 302, no 7, p. 1144-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landmarks are the hallmark of biological shape analysis as discrete anatomical points of correspondence. Various systems have been developed for their classification. In the most widely used system, developed by Bookstein in the 1990s, landmarks are divided into three distinct types based on their anatomical locations and biological significance. As Bookstein and others have argued that different landmark types possess different qualities, e.g., that Type 3 landmarks contain deficient information about shape variation and are less reliably measured, researchers began using landmark types as justification for selecting or avoiding particular landmarks for measurement or analysis. Here, we demonstrate considerable variation in landmark classifications among 17 studies using geometric morphometrics (GM), due to disagreement in the application of both Booksteins landmark typology and individual landmark definitions. A review of the literature furthermore shows little correlation between landmark type and measurement reproducibility, especially when factors such as differences in measurement tools (calipers, digitizer, or computer software) and data sources (dry crania, 3D models, or 2D images) are considered. Although landmark typology is valuable when teaching biological shape analysis, we find that employing it in research design introduces confusion without providing useful information. Instead, researchers should choose landmark configurations based on their ability to test specific research hypotheses, and research papers should include justifications of landmark choices along with landmark definitions, details on landmark collection methods, and appropriate interobserver and intraobserver analyses. Hence, while the landmarks themselves are crucial for GM, we argue that their typology is of little use in applied studies. Anat Rec, 302:1144-1153, 2019. (c) 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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