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  • 1.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Characterisation of torsional actuation in highly twisted yarns and fibres2015In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 46, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly twisted oriented polymer fibres and carbon nanotube yarns show large scale torsional actuation from volume expansion that can be induced, for example, thermally or by electrochemical charging. When formed into spring-like coils, the torsional actuation within the fibre or yarn generates powerful tensile actuation per muscle weight. For further development of these coil actuators and for the practical application of torsional actuators, it is important to standardise methods for characterising both the torsional stroke (rotation) and torque generated. By analogy with tensile actuators, we here introduce a method to measure both the free stroke and blocked torque in a one-end-tethered fibre. In addition, the torsional actuation can be measured when operating against an externally applied torque (isotonic) and actuation against a return spring fibre (variable torque). A theoretical treatment of torsional actuation was formulated using torsion mechanics and evaluated using a commercially available highly-oriented polyamide fibre. Good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated values was obtained. The analysis allows the prediction of torsional stroke under any external loading condition based on the fundamental characteristics of the actuator: free stroke and stiffness.

  • 2.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Controlled and scalable torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, no 13, p. 1278-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large‐scale torsional actuation occurs in twisted fibers and yarns as a result of volume change induced electrochemically, thermally, photonically, and other means. A quantitative relationship between torsional actuation (stroke and torque) and volume change is here introduced. The analysis is based on experimental investigation of the effects of fiber diameter and inserted twist on the torsional stroke and torque measured when heating and cooling nylon 6 fibers over the temperature range of 26–62 °C. The results show that the torsional stroke depends only on the amount of twist inserted into the fiber and is independent of fiber diameter. The torque generated is larger in fibers with more inserted twist and with larger diameters. These results are successfully modeled using a single‐helix approximation of the twisted fiber structure

  • 3.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Effect of anisotropic thermal expansion on the torsional actuation of twist oriented polymer fibres2017In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 129, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torsional actuation of twisted polymer fibres is the basis for high performance tensile actuation when these fibres are formed into coils. The thermally-induced torsional actuation of twisted polyamide-6 fibres can be predicted by a single helix approximation when the measured diameter and length direction thermal expansion coefficients are known. The single helix model illustrates the sensitivity of the magnitude of torsional actuation to the volume expansion anisotropy for a given volume change. The applicability of the model has been further assessed by investigating three polymer fibres that display different thermal expansion anisotropies. Commercially available polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamide-6 fibres were twisted to the maximum extent without coiling and then heat treated to fix the twisted structure. Heating the twisted fibres between 26 and 62 °C resulted in a partial untwist which was reversed during cooling. The single-helix model of the twisted fibres was used to accurately predict the torsional stroke based on the measured fibre length and diameter change during heating. Comparative torsional stroke of twisted polyamide-6, polyethylene and polypropylene was explained in terms of materials thermo-physical properties. Generated blocked torques was also correctly predicted by the single-helix model when combined with the measured fibre torsional stiffness. Variances between torsional stiffnesses were found to be dependent of different anisotropic thermal properties of tested fibres.

  • 4.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Thermomechanical effects in the torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2017In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 134, no 47, article id 45529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally induced torsional and tensile actuators based on twisted polymeric fibers have opened new opportunities for the application of artificial muscles. These newly developed actuators show significant torsional deformations when subjected to temperature changes, and this torsional actuation is the defining mechanism for tensile actuation of twisted and coiled fibers. To date it has been found that these actuators require multiple heat/cool cycles (referred to as “training” cycles) prior to obtaining a fully reversible actuation response. Herein, the effect of annealing conditions applied to twisted nylon 6 monofilament is investigated and it is shown that annealing at 200 °C eliminates the need for the training cycles. Furthermore, the effect of an applied external torque on the torsional actuation is also investigated and torsional creep is shown to be affected by the temperature and load

  • 5.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Rashid, Suraya Abdul
    University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Rahmanian, Saeed
    University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Salleh, Mohamad Amran
    University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Experimental evaluation of the interfacial properties of carbon nanotube coated carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites2015In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1941-1950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) unit was utilized to grow CNT onto the surface of carbon fiber (CF). The surface morphology of the resultant fibers, CNT population density and alignment pattern were found to be depended on the CNT growth temperature, growth time, and atmospheric conditions within the CVD chamber. In contrast to the neat‐CF reinforced composites, improved interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between CF and matrix were obtained when the surface of CF was coated by CNT. Particularly, CF treatment condition for CNT‐coating with 700°C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time has shown a considerable increase in IFSS approximately of 45% over that of the untreated fiber from which it was processed. The proper justification of fiber–matrix adhesion featured by composite interfacial properties was explained through IFSS.

  • 6.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Rashid, Suraya
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab , Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Salleh, Mohamad Amran Mohd
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Theoretical Prediction of CNT-CF/PP Composite Tensile Properties Using Various Numerical Modeling Methods2013In: Fullerenes, nanotubes, and carbon nanostructures (Print), ISSN 1536-383X, E-ISSN 1536-4046, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 411-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of effective models to predict tensile properties of ‘carbon nanotube coated carbon fibre reinforced polypropylene (CNT-CF/PP)’ composites is briefly discussed. The composite taken as the reference is based on the highest growth mechanism of CNTs over carbon fibres. Halpin-Tsai and Combined Voigt-Reuss model has been implemented. Young's modulus for CNT-CF/PP composites has been found 4.5368 GPa and the tensile strength has been estimated 45.367 MPa considering the optimum operating condition of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Stiffness of the composite is represented through the stress-strain plots; stiffness is proportional to the steepness of the slope. There are slight deviations of results that have been found theoretically over the experimental issues.

  • 7.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Suraya, A. R.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Group, Materials Processing and Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Rahmanian, S.
    Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Group, Materials Processing and Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Salleh, M.A. Mohd
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Group, Materials Processing and Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Effect of fibre coating and geometry on the tensile properties of hybrid carbon nanotube coated carbon fibre reinforced composite2014In: Materials & Design, ISSN 0261-3069, Vol. 54, p. 660-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchically structured hybrid composites are ideal engineered materials to carry loads and stresses due to their high in-plane specific mechanical properties. Growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of high performance carbon fibres (CFs) provides a means to tailor the mechanical properties of the fibre–resin interface of a composite. The growth of CNT on CF was conducted via floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The mechanical properties of the resultant fibres, carbon nanotube (CNT) density and alignment morphology were shown to depend on the CNT growth temperature, growth time, carrier gas flow rate, catalyst amount, and atmospheric conditions within the CVD chamber. Carbon nanotube coated carbon fibre reinforced polypropylene (CNT-CF/PP) composites were fabricated and characterized. A combination of Halpin–Tsai equations, Voigt–Reuss model, rule of mixture and Krenchel approach were used in hierarchy to predict the mechanical properties of randomly oriented short fibre reinforced composite. A fractographic analysis was carried out in which the fibre orientation distribution has been analyzed on the composite fracture surfaces with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and image processing software. Finally, the discrepancies between the predicted and experimental values are explained.

  • 8.
    Bidita, B. S.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Suraya, A. R.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Group, Materials Processing and Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Salleh, M.A. Mohd
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Group, Materials Processing and Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Idris, A.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Preparation, characterization and engine performance of water in diesel nanoemulsions2016In: Journal of the Energy Institute, ISSN 1743-9671, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 354-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in diesel (W/D) nanoemulsions were prepared by the aid of high energy emulsification method. The formulation was accomplished in the presence of Triton X-100 surfactant. A wide range of surfactant concentration (0.25%–0.40% v/v) with varying amount of water percentage (0.50%–0.90% v/v) was used in the preparation of W/D nanoemulsion fuels. The droplet size of the nanoemulsions at different water:surfactant:diesel ratio increased as surfactant concentration decreased. High kinetic stability was observed in the nanoemulsions. The stability of nanoemulsions with 0.40% surfactant concentration was persisted more than two weeks without phase separation. The droplet size of the nanoemulsions increased with time proving the influence of breakdown processes such as Ostwald ripening. Combustion characteristics of W/D nanoemulsions were studied in terms of different formulating compositions. An engine test bed of diesel engine was used to combust the nanoemulsions to study the exhaust emission concentrations such as CO, CO2, NH3 and NO, and performance parameters include brake power, thermal efficiency. The highest reduction in the exhaust gas emissions concentrations was notified by using surfactant concentration of 0.40% with 0.90% water content. The lowest calorific value of prepared W/D nanoemulsions was achieved 38.48 MJ/kg by using surfactant concentration of 0.40% with 0.90% water. The highest brake power and thermal efficiency was also obtained with 0.40% surfactant concentration and 0.90% water content. In addition, the characteristic evaluation of W/D nanoemulsions was made on the basis of emission characteristics of neat diesel. It has been observed that the use of W/D nanoemulsions in diesel engine has evidently led to the reduction in exhaust emissions, anticipating its application as an alternative eco-friendly fuel in the internal combustion engine.

  • 9.
    Foroughi, Javad
    et al.
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Mirabedini, Azadeh
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Jeiranikhameneh, Ali
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Wallace, Gordon G
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Kozlov, Mikhail E
    Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States.
    Baughman, Ray H
    Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States.
    Knitted Carbon-Nanotube-Sheath/Spandex-Core Elastomeric Yarns for Artificial Muscles and Strain Sensing2016In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly stretchable, actuatable, electrically conductive knitted textiles based on Spandex (SPX)/CNT (carbon nanotube) composite yarns were prepared by an integrated knitting procedure. SPX filaments were continuously wrapped with CNT aerogel sheets and supplied directly to an interlocking circular knitting machine to form the three-dimensional electrically conductive and stretchable textiles. By adjusting the SPX/CNT feed ratio, the fabric electrical conductivities could be tailored in the range of 870 to 7092 S/m. The electrical conductivity depended on tensile strain, with a linear and largely hysteresis-free resistance change occurring on loading and unloading between 0 and 80% strain. Electrothermal heating of the stretched fabric caused large tensile contractions of up to 33%, and generated a gravimetric mechanical work capacity during contraction of up to 0.64 kJ/kg and a maximum specific power output of 1.28 kW/kg, which far exceeds that of mammalian skeletal muscle. The knitted textile provides the combination of strain sensing and the ability to control dimensions required for smart clothing that simultaneously monitors the wearer's movements and adjusts the garment fit or exerts forces or pressures on the wearer, according to needs. The developed processing method is scalable for the fabrication of industrial quantities of strain sensing and actuating smart textiles.

  • 10.
    Kim, Shi Hyeong
    et al.
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lima, Márcio D.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kozlov, Mikhail E.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Haines, Carter S.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Choi, Changsoon
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Sim, Hyeon Jun
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Wang, Xuemin
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Lu, Hongbing
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Qian, Dong
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Madden, John D. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Material and Process Engineering Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Baughman, Ray H.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kim, Seon Jeong
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Harvesting temperature fluctuations as electrical energy using torsional and tensile polymer muscles2015In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 8, p. 3336-3344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse means have been deployed for harvesting electrical energy from mechanical actuation produced by low-grade waste heat, but cycle rate, energy-per-cycle, device size and weight, or cost have limited applications. We report the electromagnetic harvesting of thermal energy as electrical energy using thermally powered torsional and tensile artificial muscles made from inexpensive polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread. We show that a coiled 27 μm-diameter nylon muscle fiber can be driven by 16.7 °C air temperature fluctuations to spin a magnetic rotor to a peak torsional rotation speed of 70 000 rpm for over 300 000 heating–cooling cycles without performance degradation. By employing resonant fluctuations in air temperature of 19.6 °C, an average output electrical power of 124 W per kg of muscle was realized. Using tensile actuation of polyethylene-based coiled muscles and alternating flows of hot and cold water, up to 1.4 J of electrical energy was produced per cycle. The corresponding per cycle electric energy and peak power output, per muscle weight, were 77 J kg−1 and 28 W kg−1, respectively.

  • 11.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Escobar, Freddy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milad, Milad Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

  • 12.
    Md. Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Rashid, Suraya Abdul
    University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia; .
    Rahmanian, Saeed
    University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran
    University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Application of CNT Enhanced Carbon Fibers in Hybrid Composites with Improved Interfacial Properties2014In: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Nanoengineering, Trans Tech Publications, 2014, Vol. 832, p. 237-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the surface of high performance carbon fibers (CF) offers a means to tailor the mechanical properties of the fiber-matrix interface of a composite. In the context of this work, a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) unit was utilized to grow CNT onto the surface of CF. The surface and mechanical properties of the resultant fibers, CNT density and alignment morphology were explained to depend on the CNT growth temperature, growth time, and atmospheric conditions within the CVD chamber. Single fiber/Epoxy composite coupons were fabricated by using both neat and CNT-coated CF to conduct single fiber fragmentation test (SFFT). It was observed that the coating of CNT onto CF surface improves the IFSS between CF and matrix when compared with neat-CF. Particularly, CF treatment condition for CNT-coating with 700 °C reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time has shown a considerable increase in IFSS approximately of 45% over that of the untreated fiber from which it was processed. The fiber-matrix adhesion was analyzed by using SEM on cryogenically fractured surface of both types of composites. The proper justification of fiber-matrix adhesion featured by composite interfacial properties was explained through IFSS.

  • 13.
    Mirabedini, Azadeh
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, Fairy Meadow, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, Fairy Meadow, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, Fairy Meadow, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, Fairy Meadow, Australia.
    Wet-Spun Biofiber for Torsional Artificial Muscles.2017In: Soft Robotics, ISSN 2169-5172, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 421-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for new types of artificial muscles continue to grow and novel approaches are being enabled by the advent of new materials and novel fabrication strategies. Self-powered actuators have attracted significant attention due to their ability to be driven by elements in the ambient environment such as moisture. In this study, we demonstrate the use of twisted and coiled wet-spun hygroscopic chitosan fibers to achieve a novel torsional artificial muscle. The coiled fibers exhibited significant torsional actuation where the free end of the coiled fiber rotated up to 1155 degrees per mm of coil length when hydrated. This value is 96%, 362%, and 2210% higher than twisted graphene fiber, carbon nanotube torsional actuators, and coiled nylon muscles, respectively. A model based on a single helix was used to evaluate the torsional actuation behavior of these coiled chitosan fibers.

  • 14.
    Rahmanian, S.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Suraya, A. R.
    Materials and Processing Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Zahari, R.
    Department of Aerospace Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Zainudin, E. S.
    Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Mechanical characterization of epoxy composite with multiscale reinforcements: Carbon nanotubes and short carbon fibers2014In: Materials & Design, ISSN 0261-3069, Vol. 60, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and short carbon fibers were incorporated into an epoxy matrix to fabricate a high performance multiscale composite. To improve the stress transfer between epoxy and carbon fibers, CNT were also grown on fibers through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to produce CNT grown short carbon fibers (CSCF). Mechanical characterization of composites was performed to investigate the synergy effects of CNT and CSCF in the epoxy matrix. The multiscale composites revealed significant improvement in elastic and storage modulus, strength as well as impact resistance in comparison to CNT–epoxy or CSCF–epoxy composites. An optimum content of CNT was found which provided the maximum stiffness and strength. The synergic reinforcing effects of combined fillers were analyzed on the fracture surface of composites through optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  • 15.
    Rahmanian, S.
    et al.
    Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Thean, K. S.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Suraya, A. R.
    Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Salleh, M.A. Mohd
    Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Yusoff, H. M.
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Carbon and glass hierarchical fibers: Influence of carbon nanotubes on tensile, flexural and impact properties of short fiber reinforced composites2013In: Materials & Design, ISSN 0261-3069, Vol. 43, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown uniformly on the surface of carbon fibers and glass fibers to create hierarchical fibers by use of floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. Morphologies of the CNTs were investigated using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Larger diameter dimension and distinct growing mechanism of nanotubes on glass fiber were revealed. Short carbon and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites were fabricated using the hierarchical fibers and compared with composites made using neat fibers. Tensile, flexural and impact properties of the composites were measured, which showed evident enhancement in all mechanical properties compared to neat short fiber composites. SEM micrographs of composite fracture surface demonstrated improved adhesion between CNT-coated fiber and the matrix. The enhanced mechanical properties of short fiber composites was attributed to the synergistic effects of CNTs in improving fiber–matrix interfacial properties as well as the CNTs acting as supplemental reinforcement in short fiber-composites.

  • 16.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    et al.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Bakarich, Shannon E.
    US Army, MD 20783 USA; Cornell Univ, NY 14850 USA.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Xin, Hai
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Using force-displacement relations to obtain actuation parameters from artificial muscles2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 290, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different test methods are currently used to characterise the output of artificial muscle materials but few studies report the full range of possible force and displacements that can be generated by a given material when activated with a given input stimulus but when operated against different external loads. The measurement of the loading and unloading force extension curves in tension in both the un-activated and activated states is investigated as a means for efficiently characterising the full range of outputs for three different types of artificial muscles: pneumatically operated braided muscle and thermally operated shape memory alloy spring and twisted / coiled polymer fiber. A graphical method of analysis was applied whereby the force-extension curves obtained before and after actuator activation were plotted on the same axes. By overlaying the external loading conditions, the graphical method provided the equilibrium starting and finishing forces and displacements and successfully predicted the isotonic strokes, isometric forces and combined force and displacement generated when the actuator was operated against an external spring. Complications in the interpretation of the force-stroke curves were encountered as all three artificial muscles displayed a degree of loading-unloading hysteresis and non-ideal mechanical behavior. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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