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  • 1.
    Crepaldi, Chiara
    et al.
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan, Italy.
    Barbera, Marzia
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan, Italy.
    Ravelli, Fabio
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, Milan, Italy.
    Scarpa, Simone ()
    University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy.
    Ciuciucu, Roxana ()
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Cancer and in general long-term illnesses at workplaces: Study IP/A/EMPL/FWC/2006-05/SC32008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor health represents a major factor of exclusion from the labour market due to the influenceit exerts on early retirement. A key issue for policy makers is how to maintain the worker withresidual potentialities in active life and at the same time cope with the difficulties the workerand employer come up with continued presence in the workplace.The aim of this study is to gain an understanding of the barriers but also of the facilitatorsenhancing reintegration outcomes for chronically sick and absent workers. Without such anunderstanding, it is difficult to design and develop appropriate and transferable interventionsand approaches. Cancer is addressed as a specific long-term illness throughout the study, inorder to delimit, and, at the same time, concretise issues and proposals. The study also intendsto highlight the characteristics of national legislations concerning support for workers withlong-term illnesses to regain, where possible, social inclusion and integration in the labourmarket. The different schemes and approaches applied across the Member States are analysedto point out the level and duration of social protection of sick workers as well as how differentcountries support the workers’ wages and previous standard of living during and after sickleave. The study also intends to analyse ‘return to job’ problems, policies and forms ofreintegration of workers.

  • 2.
    Crepaldi, Chiara
    et al.
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Boccagni, Paolo
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Barbera, Marzia
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Naaf, Sandra
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Scarpa, Simone ()
    University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy.
    Pesce, Flavia ()
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    Radu, Marieta ()
    Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale (IRS), Milano, Italy.
    The social situation of the Roma and their improved accessto the labour market in the EU: Study: IP/A/EMPL/FWC/2006-05/SC42008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to analyse the social and legal situation of the Roma and the policies of inclusion adopted in the European Countries with particular attention to those fostering accessto the labour market. To address these issues the study outlines the legal and socio-economic condition of the Roma Community across Europe, providing a brief overview of the maincharacteristics of a population composed of sub-communities with some common features butwith different historic and cultural backgrounds. The study focuses more on the differencesbetween the communities than on the similarities. As the aim of the study is to offersuggestions and policy options, it is worth pointing out that policies designed to take thesedifferences into account have better chances of being accepted by the communities, and soproving more effective, than ‘generic’ polices for ‘the Roma’. For example, policiesaddressing isolated and rural communities of illegal Roma have to consider specific issuesdifferent from those for urban Protestant Roma legally resident in the country and vice versa.Specific attention is paid to the legal status of the Roma, as it is highly differentiated acrossthe European Member States and within each country according to the specific group considered.

  • 3.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Immigration policy regimes, welfare states and urban inequality patterns: A comparison between Malmo and Genoa2016Inngår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 862-877Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general consensus that welfare states influence urban inequality patterns in cities experiencing increases in immigration. Whereas much of the existing research focused on the extent to which welfare states affect the well-being of immigrants after their admission, this study focuses on how immigration policy regimes affect the extent to which immigrant flows, and subsequent labour supply, match variations and fluctuations in the composition of demand in urban labour markets. In particular, the article develops a comparison between Malmo and Genoa, an Italian and a Swedish city with similar urban histories that display considerably different patterns of urban inequality. Immigration to Malmo was fuelled largely by humanitarian emergencies in the countries of origin and occurred in a period of economic decline for the city. The growth of the immigrant population was associated with a worsening of the labour market situation for immigrants and an increase in ethnic residential segregation. Immigration to Genoa was mainly driven by demand for cheap labour, particularly in the private-care sector. Therefore, the growth of the immigrant population was associated with an ethnic segmentation of the labour market, but it also resulted in a more dispersed distribution of immigrants than in Malmo. The differences in the urban inequality patterns in Malmo and Genoa can be only partly explained by policies affecting the living conditions of admitted immigrants. An important role has also been played by the immigration policy regimes of the two countries, which prescribed the integration potential of immigrant flows.

  • 4.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Looking beyond the neighbourhood: income inequality and residential segregation in Swedish metropolitan areas, 1991–20102016Inngår i: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 963-984Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, residential segregation has become a major issue in the Swedish policy debate. The prevailing view is that residential segregation is a crucial contributing factor to the development of income inequality, since individual income prospects are thought to be influenced by the population characteristics of their neighbourhoods. This study takes the opposite approach and analyses the extent to which, in the period 1991–2010, rising income inequality contributed to the development of residential segregation by income in Swedish metropolitan areas. The period was characterized by unprecedented growth in income inequality, which was associated with a decline in the redistributive power of the welfare state. Residential segregation by income mirrored locally the general trend in income inequality. Another factor was the change in income dispersion in neighbourhoods, relative to the metropolitan areas as a whole, which indicates a tendency towards increased population homogeneity in neighbourhoods with respect to income.

  • 5.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    New Geographically Differentiated Configurations of Social Risks: Labour Market Policy Developments in Sweden and Finland2013Inngår i: Changing Social Risks and Social Policy Responses in the Nordic Welfare States / [ed] Ivan Harsløf and Rickard Ulmestig, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, s. 220-244Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparative social policy studies, Nordic welfare systems are grouped together as belonging to the same welfare model (e.g. Esping-Andersen & Korpi, 1987; Esping-Andersen, 1990; Kangas & Palme, 2005). Nordic welfare systems are known for providing allencompassing coverage of their social security systems. This coverage has traditionally included a combination of basic security and earning-related measures. In addition, the Nordic welfare systems have been characterized by the generosity of the benefits provided, by the high level of effectiveness of their income redistribution policies and by the large development of their social service infrastructures. Apart from a few exceptions (e.g. Saraceno, 2002; Lähteenmäki-Smith, 2005; Scarpa, 2009), comparative social policy studies have nevertheless also implicitly assumed that Nordic welfare systems display these ‘hallmarks’ in a geographically homogeneous manner and that, in these countries, regional variation of living conditions and also in the level of protection from social risks is minimal.

  • 6.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Social Work, Linnaeus Univeristy, Växjö.
    The Emergence of a Swedish ‘Underclass’?: Welfare State Restructuring, Income Inequality and Residential Segregation in Malmö, 1991-20082013Inngår i: Economia & Lavoro, ISSN 2088-6365, E-ISSN 1579-1475, nr 2, s. 121-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political and academic debates in Sweden have been dominated by a view of urban problems as endogenously generated by the spatial concentration of individuals with similar ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics within the same neighbourhoods. The impact of welfare state retrenchment on income inequality and residential segregation instead remained an under-investigated and somehow neglected issue in recent research. This paper aims at filling this gap by analysing income inequality dynamics in Malmö in the period 1991-2008. This city offers an interesting case of analysis, given the high rates of social problems compared to other Swedish cities. The results reveal that the increase in income inequality in Malmö has been especially due to the reduced redistributive impact of the Swedish welfare state. Furthermore, the increase in residential segregation by income can be attributed to the parallel increase in citywide income inequality rather than to an alleged increase in neighbourhood sorting.

  • 7.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linneaus University, Sweden.
    The impact of income inequality on economic residential segregation: The case of Malmo, 1991-20102015Inngår i: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 906-922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As in other Western countries, in Sweden there is a widespread conviction that residential segregation influences the opportunities for residents social mobility and therefore is a cause of income inequality. But the opposite direction of causality, from income inequality to residential segregation, is often ignored. The paper fills this gap and analyses income inequality and economic residential segregation developments in Malmo in the years 1991-2010. During this period, changes in population composition owing to increased immigration had a negligible impact on income inequality, while the latter was primarily influenced by changes in the distribution of labour market earnings and capital incomes. At the same time, neighbourhood income inequality was predominantly driven by overall household income inequality and only to a much lower extent by the increase in residential sorting by income. Policy influencing income distribution rather than area-based strategies should thus be at the centre of current debates on residential segregation in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The local welfare system as a scale question2016Inngår i: Combating poverty in local welfare systems – active inclusion strategies in European cities / [ed] Alexandru Panican and Håkan Johansson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, s. 29-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Rescaling of Immigration and the Creation of “Areas of Outsiderness” in Sweden. The Case of Landskrona2015Inngår i: Sociologica, ISSN 1971-8853, Vol. 2, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, ethnic residential segregation has been a problem associated traditionally with the largest metropolitan areas of the country. In recent years, however, growing attention has been paid to the areas of immigrant concentration located outside the largest metropolitan areas. Landskrona is one of the most renowned Swedish municipalities, among those located outside the largest metropolitan areas, in which the recent growth of the immigrant population has led to high levels of ethnic residential segregation and, therefore, to the appearance of what Swedish policymakers define as “areas of outsiderness.” Whereas Swedish debates on ethnic residential segregation are dominated by attention to the social and ethnic composition of segregated neighbourhoods, this article focuses on how immigrant settlement patterns in Landskrona have been influenced primarily by immigration policy developments over time as well as by the downscaling of this city within the Swedish urban hierarchy. In recent decades, Landskrona has in fact gone from being an economically buoyant and socially balanced industrial city into a declining and polarized city which is struggling to find a new post-industrial identity. The growth of the immigrant population in Landskrona also has been encouraged by the general unravelling of the Swedish welfare state, which has been associated with an increase in regional imbalances in economic development as well as in housing availability and affordability.

  • 10.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015Inngår i: The European Social Model Adrift. Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis, Routledge, 2015, s. 107-126Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015Inngår i: The European Social Model Adrift. : Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis / [ed] Serena Romano, ‎Gabriella Punziano (Eds.), Routledge, 2015, s. 107-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Swedish Model during the International Financial Crisis: Institutional Resilience or Structural Change?2015Inngår i: The European Social Model Adrift: Europe, Social Cohesion and the Economic Crisis / [ed] Serena Romano and Gabriella Punziano, Routledge, 2015, s. 107-125Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter is structured as follows. The second section addresses the first of the two research questions and provides a brief and by no means exhaustive description of welfare state developments under the period in question. In particular, the focus is on the reforms of the Swedish income maintenance system, on both the tax and benefit sides, and on whether the implementation of these reforms produced new patterns of inequality between those who benefited and those who did not. The third section seeks to identify the rationale behind the policy-making process and to examine the motives that drove the reforms. Thereby, the attention is on the degree of consensus on the policy goals between the different political actors as well as between political and non-political actors. The fourth section illustrates the case study of Stockholm Metropolitan Area and examines the impact of welfare reforms on income differences between different groups (defined by employment status and ethnic background) and between neighbor hoods with different population composition. The fifth and last section reviews the main conclusions and attempts to answer the question that titles this chapter.

  • 13.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Harsløf, Ivan
    Nygaard Anderse, Synøve
    Changing Population Profiles and Social Risk Structures in the Nordic Countries2013Inngår i: Changing Social Risks and Social Policy Responses in the Nordic Welfare States, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, s. 25-49Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Who Undermines the Welfare State? Austerity-Dogmatism and the U-Turn in Swedish Asylum Policy2018Inngår i: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 199-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EU, the so-called “refugee crisis” has been predominantly dealt with as an ill-timed and untenable financial burden. Since the 2007-08 financial crisis, the overarching objective of policy initiatives by EU-governments has been to keep public expenditure firmly under control. Thus, Sweden’s decision to grant permanent residence to all Syrians seeking asylum in 2013 seemed to represent a paradigmatic exception, pointing to the possibility of combining a humanitarian approach in the “long summer of migration” with generous welfare provisions. At the end of 2015, however, Sweden reversed its asylum policy, reducing its intake of refugees to the EU-mandated minimum. The main political parties embraced the mainstream view that an open-door refugee policy is not only detrimental to the welfare state, but could possibly trigger a “system breakdown”. In this article, we challenge this widely accepted narrative by arguing that the sustainability of the Swedish welfare state has not been undermined by refugee migration but rather by the Swedish government’s unbending adherence to austerity politics. Austerity politics have weakened the Swedish welfare state’s socially integrative functions and prevented the implementation of a more ambitious growth agenda, harvesting a potentially dynamic interplay of expansionary economic policies and a humanitarian asylum policy.

  • 15.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Is migration bad for welfare?: reconfigurations of welfare, labour and citizenship in Sweden2019Inngår i: Inequalitities and migration: challenges for the Swedish welfare state / [ed] Sven Trygged & Erica Righard, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 31-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this chapter is to challenge an axiomatic assumption made in current public debates, namely that the sustainability of the welfare state in an age of globalization requires the imposition of limits on immigration. With a particular focus on Sweden and recent changes of Swedish welfare policy, the chapter shows how the current crisis of the Swedish welfare model has in fact haunted this model for decades. The argument presented is that the socially-integrative capacities of the Swedish model had been compromised well before the start of the post-2015 refugee crisis in Europe. The argument made is that it was not the scale of immigration that made the Swedish welfare state unsustainable. Rather, it is the austerity-driven retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state that, in the past quarter of a century, has steadily undermined the capacity of the welfare model to offer emancipatory and non-discriminatory pathways of incorporation to immigrants. With the neoliberal reforms implemented since the early 1990s, the current reality in Sweden is that of deepening, and increasingly ethnically tinged, class divisions and long-term social exclusion of sizeable population groups from substantial citizenship rights.

  • 16.
    Scarpa, Simone
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The end of the swedish model?: reconfigurations of welfare and citizenship in the new millennium2016Inngår i: Social inequalities and migration: challenges to social work in the swedish welfare state / [ed] Sven Trygged, Erica Righard, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    How the Swedish model was (almost) lost: migration, welfare and the politics of solidarity2017Inngår i: Reimagineering the Nation. : essays on Twenty First Century Sweden / [ed] Aleksandra Ålund, Carl-Ulrik Schierup, Anders Neergaard, Bern Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, s. 41-83Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the shift from an expansive Swedish welfare state with full employment as its paramount priority to an austerity-driven neoliberal model subordinating social and employment policies to the goals of inflation control and debt reduction. The authors discuss implications of this for rising inequality and social exclusion, with a focus on the Swedish welfare state in general and immigration and integration policies in particular.

  • 18.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Migration: ett hot mot välfärden?2018Inngår i: Nation i ombildning: essäer om 2000-talets Sverige / [ed] Aleksandra Ålund, Carl-Ulrik Schierup och Anders Neergaard, Stockholm: Boréa Bokförlag, 2018, 1, s. 31-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska samhällsekonomiska modellensupplösning under 2000-talet har följts av en djup politisk kris. Det är enkris som har tagits till intäkt för den upprepade berättelsen om liberalt präglad invandrings- och mångfaldspolitik som misslyckat experiment. Författarna ifrågasätter denna berättelse genom attvända på argumentet om det negativa förhållandet mellan migrationoch välfärdsstatlig solidaritet. De hävdar således att det främst är deneuropeiska och svenska åtstramningspolitiken som sedan tidigt 90-talhar undergrävt samhällets socialpolitiska integrationspotential, skapat fördjupade etniskt präglade klasskillnader, permanentat social exkluderingav stora befolkningsgrupper från sociala och medborgerliga rättigheter,samt i sin konsekvens medfört bristande solidaritet kring välfärdsstatens institutioner.

  • 19.
    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Scarpa, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Umeå universitet.
    Modelo en desorden: Estado de bienestar, dogmatismode austeridad y cambio radical en las políticasde migración suecas2018Inngår i: Migración y Desarollo, ISSN 1870-7599, Vol. 16, nr 31, s. 71-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The winds of xenophobia hovering over Europe have swept the moral politicalfoundations of an inclusive Swedish migration policy into the dustbin of history and twistedan enlightened left-right consensus on an open and humanitarian asylum policy into its mirroropposite. Lured by advances of the extreme right the main political parties have, since2015, come to indiscriminately embrace the view that immigration, etno-cultural diversityand an open-door refugee policy is detrimental to welfare and, in consequence, curbing migrationhas become the all dominant political strategem in vying for votes. The authorschallenge this widely accepted narrative by arguing that the sustainability of the Swedishwelfare state has not been undermined by migration but by consecutive Swedish governments'unbending adherence to austerity politics since the beginning of the 1990s. Austeritypolitics have, step by step, weakened the Swedish Model's socially integrative functions andprevented the implementation of an ambitious agenda, harvesting a potentially dynamic interplayof expansionary economic and social policies and a humanitarian asylum policy.

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