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  • 1.
    Aazh, H
    et al.
    Ealing General Hospital.
    Moore, B
    Cambridge University.
    Peyvandi, AA
    Ealing General Hospital.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Influence of ear canal occlusion and static pressure difference on bone conduction thresholds: Implications for mechanisms of bone conduction2005In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, Vol. 44, no 5, 302-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of air pressure change on bone conduction (BC) hearing thresholds in the occluded ear was investigated. The pump manometer system of an impedance bridge was used to change the air pressure in the ear canal of twenty-two normally hearing subjects. BC thresholds were measured with: (1) open ear; (2) the ear canal occluded with a probe tube and application of 0 daPa air pressure; and (3) the ear canal occluded with a probe tube and application of -350 daPa air pressure. Thresholds were lower in condition 2 than in condition 1, the difference decreasing from 27 dB at 2500 Hz to 4.5 dB at 2000 Hz. Thresholds were higher in condition 3 than in condition 2. The results are interpreted in terms of changes in the relative contribution of the three routes of transmission for BC sound produced by occlusion and by a static pressure difference.

  • 2.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bilateral cochlear implants in children: Longitudinal results and parental experiences2010In: 11th International Conference on Cochlear Implants and Other Auditory Implantable Technologies, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 2, 77-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Study sample: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  • 4.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bilateral versus unilateral cochlear implants in children: Speech recognition, sound localization, and parental reports2012In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, Vol. 51, no 11, 817-832 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet and in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization of low and high frequency sounds in children with bilateral cochlear implants. Design: Bilateral performance was compared to performance of the implanted side with the best monaural speech recognition in quiet result. Parental reports were collected in a questionnaire. Results from the CI children were compared to binaural and monaural performance of normal-hearing peers. Study sample: Sixty-four children aged 5.1-11.9 years who were daily users of bilateral cochlear implants. Thirty normal-hearing children aged 4.8-9.0 years were recruited as controls. Results and Conclusions : Group data showed a statistically significant bilateral speech recognition and sound localization benefit, both behaviorally and in parental reports. The bilateral speech recognition benefit was smaller in quiet than in noise. The majority of subjects localized high and low frequency sounds significantly better than chance using bilateral implants, while localization accuracy was close to chance using unilateral implants. Binaural normal-hearing performance was better than bilateral performance in implanted children across tests, while bilaterally implanted children showed better localization than normal-hearing children under acute monaural conditions.

  • 5.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hur hör barn med bilaterala cochlea-implantat jämfört med normalhörande?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bernstein, Joshua G
    et al.
    National Military Audiology and Speech Pathology Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids2014In: Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts less than a third of the variance in speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners properly fit with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance is often attributed to a combination of su-prathreshold distortion in the auditory pathway and non-auditory factors such as cogni-tive processing. Distinguishing between these factors requires a measure of suprathresh-old auditory processing to account for the non-cognitive contributions. Preliminary re-sults in 12 HI listeners identified a correlation between spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity and speech intelligibility in noise presented over headphones. The cur-IHCON 2014 27 August 13-17, 2014rent study assessed the effectiveness of STM sensitivity as a measure of suprathreshold auditory function to predict free-field SRTs in noise for a larger group of 47 HI listeners with hearing aids.SRTs were measured for Hagerman sentences presented at 65 dB SPL in stationary speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble. Pre-recorded speech and masker stimuli were played through a small anechoic chamber equipped with a master hearing aid pro-grammed with individualized gain. The output from an IEC711 Ear Simulator was played binaurally through insert earphones. Three processing algorithms were examined: linear gain, linear gain plus noise reduction, or fast-acting compressive gain.STM stimuli consist of spectrally-rippled noise with spectral-peak frequencies that shift over time. STM with a 2-cycle/octave spectral-ripple density and a 4-Hz modulation rate was applied to a 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. Stimuli were presented over headphones at 80 dB SPL (±5-dB roving). The threshold modulation depth was estimated adaptively in a two-alternative forced-choice task.STM sensitivity was strongly correlated (R2=0.48) with the global SRT (i.e., the SRTs averaged across masker and processing conditions). The high-frequency pure-tone aver-age (3-8 kHz) and age together accounted for 23% of the variance in global SRT. STM sensitivity accounted for an additional 28% of the variance in global SRT (total R2=0.51) when combined with these two other metrics in a multiple-regression analysis. Correla-tions between STM sensitivity and SRTs for individual conditions were weaker for noise reduction than for the other algorithms, and marginally stronger for babble than for sta-tionary noise.The results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low carrier frequencies is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect slowly shifting spectral peaks. STM detection is a fast, simple test of suprathreshold auditory function that accounts for a substantial pro-portion of variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 7.
    Bernstein, Joshua G. W.
    et al.
    Walter Reed National Mil Medical Centre, MD 20889 USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Spectrotemporal Modulation Sensitivity as a Predictor of Speech-Reception Performance in Noise With Hearing Aids2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, 2331216516670387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with individualized frequency-specific gain. SRTs were measured for 65-dB SPL sentences presented in speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble to an individually programmed master hearing aid, with the output of an ear-simulating coupler played through insert earphones. Modulation-depth detection thresholds were measured over headphones for STM (2cycles/octave density, 4-Hz rate) applied to an 85-dB SPL, 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. SRTs were correlated with both the high-frequency (2-6 kHz) pure-tone average (HFA; R-2 = .31) and STM sensitivity (R-2 = .28). Combined with the HFA, STM sensitivity significantly improved the SRT prediction (Delta R-2 = .13; total R-2 = .44). The remaining unaccounted variance might be attributable to variability in cognitive function and other dimensions of suprathreshold distortion. STM sensitivity was most critical in predicting SRTs for listenersamp;lt;65 years old or with HFA amp;lt;53 dB HL. Results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low-frequency carriers is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect dynamic spectra. STM detection is a fast test of suprathreshold auditory function for frequencies amp;lt;2 kHz that complements the HFA to predict variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 8. Borch Petersen, E
    et al.
    Wöstmann, M
    Obleser, J
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Compensated hearing loss predicts generation of auditory evoked potentials.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Borch-Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Obleser, Jonas
    Frauenhaufer Institute.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Measuring cognitive load during listening: Changes in the EEG with noise level2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Brandt, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Properties of bone conduction hearing2006In: XXIV International Modal Analysis Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Chang, You
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kim, Nam Keun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Simulation of Bone-Conducted Sound Transmission in a Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Skull2015In: MECHANICS OF HEARING: PROTEIN TO PERCEPTION, AMER INST PHYSICS , 2015, Vol. 1703, no 060014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction (BC) is the transmission of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. This type of transmission is used in humans fitted with BC hearing aids as well as to classify between conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. The objective of the present study is to develop a finite-element (FE) model of the human skull based on cryosectional images of a female cadaver head in order to gain better understanding of the sound transmission. Further, the BC behavior was validated in terms of sound transmission against experimental data published in the literature. Results showed the responses of the simulated skull FE model were consistent with the experimentally reported data.

  • 12.
    Chang, You
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kim, Namkeun
    Incheon National University, South Korea.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound2016In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, no 3, 1635-1651 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploe) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission. The experimental data were obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans. The simulations showed multiple low-frequency resonances where the first was caused by rotation of the head and the second was close in frequency to average resonances obtained in cadaver heads. At higher frequencies, the simulation results of the impedance were within one standard deviation of the average experimental data. The acceleration response at the cochlear promontory was overall lower for the simulations compared with experiments but the overall tendencies were similar. Even if the current model cannot predict results in a specific individual, it can be used for understanding the characteristic of BC sound transmission in general. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 13.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    ent of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston Ontario, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Individual differences in working memory capacity modulate frontal cortical activity while listening to speech in noise2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Dobrev, Ivo
    et al.
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roosli, Christof
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Bolt, Lucy
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Pfiffner, Flurin
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Gerig, Rahel
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Huber, Alexander
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Hoon Sim, Jae
    University of Zurich Hospital, Switzerland.
    Influence of stimulation position on the sensitivity for bone conduction hearing aids without skin penetration2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 8, 439-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explores the influence of stimulation position on bone conduction (BC) hearing sensitivity with a BC transducer attached using a headband. Design:(1) The cochlear promontory motion was measured in cadaver heads using laser Doppler vibrometry while seven different positions around the pinna were stimulated using a bone anchored hearing aid transducer attached using a headband. (2) The BC hearing thresholds were measured in human subjects, with the bone vibrator Radioear B71 attached to the same seven stimulation positions. Study sample: Three cadaver heads and twenty participants. Results: Stimulation on a position superior-anterior to the pinna generated the largest promontory motion and the lowest BC thresholds. Stimulations on the positions superior to the pinna, the mastoid, and posterior-inferior to the pinna showed similar magnitudes of promontory motion and similar levels of BC thresholds. Conclusion: Stimulations on the regions superior to the pinna, the mastoid, and posterior-inferior to the pinna provide stable BC transmission, and are insensitive to small changes of the stimulation position. Therefore it is reliable to use the mastoid to determine BC thresholds in clinical audiometry. However, stimulation on a position superior-anterior to the pinna provides more efficient BC transmission than stimulation on the mastoid.

  • 15.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Mans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Tjellstrom, Anders
    University of Gothenburg.
    Granstrom , Gosta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Transmission of bone-conducted sound in the human skull measured by cochlear vibrations2008In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, Vol. 47, no 12, 761-769 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One limitation with the Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (Baha) is too poor amplification for patients with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing losses. Therefore, we investigated if bone conducted (BC) sound transmission improves when the stimulation approaches the cochlea. Also the influence from the squamosal suture on BC sound transmission was investigated. Both sides of the heads on seven human cadavers were used and vibrational stimulation was applied at eight positions on each side with a frequency range of 0.1-10 kHz. A laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the resulting velocity of the cochlear promontory. It was found that the velocity of the promontory increases as the stimulation position approaches the cochlea; this was especially apparent at distances within 2.5 cm from the ear canal opening and when the stimulation position was in the opened mastoid. At frequencies above 500 Hz there was on average 10 to 20 dB greater vibrational response at the cochlea when the stimulation was close to the cochlea compared with the normal Baha position. Moreover, even if there were general indications of attenuation of BC sound when passing the squamosal suture, an effect from the suture could not be conclusively determined.

  • 16.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Göteborg university.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Tagahavi, Hamidreza
    Chalmers.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers.
    Östli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Correlation between the velocity of the cochlear promontory and hearing perception – a pilot study2011In: 3rd International Symposium on Bone Conduction Hearing – Craniofacial Osseointegration, Sarasota, Florida, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Göteborg university.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg University.
    Benledd ljudtransmission som funktion av stimuleringsposition2006In: TeMA Hörsel 2006, Göteborg, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Göteborg university.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg University.
    Implications for contralateral bone conducted transmission as measured by cochlear vibrations2011In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 32, no 2, 192-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: The velocity response at the contralateral cochlea from bone-conducted (BC) stimulation depends on the stimulation position.

    Background: BC sound transmission in the human skull is complex and differs from air-conducted sound. BC sound stimulates both cochleae with different amplitudes and time delays influencing hearing perception in a way that is not completely understood. One important parameter is the stimulation position on the human skull.

    Method: By applying BC stimulation at 8 positions on both sides of 7 human cadaver skulls, the contralateral velocity response of the cochlear promontory was investigated in the frequency range of 0.1 to 10 kHz. Using previous data from ipsilateral stimulation, the transcranial transmission (TT) and effects of bilateral stimulation to one cochlea was calculated.

    Results: The contralateral transmission from the 8 positions showed small differences, but the TT showed a generally increased cochlear separation when the stimulation position approached the cochlea. The effect of simultaneous bilateral stimulation was calculated, showing a low-frequency negative effect for correlated signals, whereas uncorrelated signals gave 3-dB gain. At higher frequencies, there was less interaction of the combined stimulation because of the greater intercochlear separation. Also, the greatest time difference between ipsilateral transmission and contralateral transmission was at positions close to the cochlea.

    Conclusion: The stimulation position only slightly affects the amplitude and phase of the contralateral cochlear velocity response. However, because of the great influence from the ipsilateral transmission, a position close to the cochlea would be beneficial for patients with bilateral BC hearing aids.

  • 19.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Göteborg university.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg University.
    Optimal position of a new bone conduction implant (BCI)2010In: 11th International Conference on Cochlear Implants and Other Auditory Implantable Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taghavi, Hamidreza
    Chalmers.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Finizina, Catharina
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Transmission of bone conducted sound – correlation between hearing perception and cochlear vibration2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Taghavi, Hamidreza
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tengstrand, Tomas
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Finizia, Chatarina
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Transmission of bone conducted sound – Correlation between hearing perception and cochlear vibration2013In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 306, 11-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibration velocity of the lateral semicircular canal and the cochlear promontory was measured on 16 subjects with a unilateral middle ear common cavity, using a laser Doppler vibrometer, when the stimulation was by bone conduction (BC). Four stimulation positions were used: three ipsilateral positions and one contralateral position. Masked BC pure tone thresholds were measured with the stimulation at the same four positions. Valid vibration data were obtained at frequencies between 0.3 and 5.0 kHz. Large intersubject variation of the results was found with both methods. The difference in cochlear velocity with BC stimulation at the four positions varied as a function of frequency while the tone thresholds showed a tendency of lower thresholds with stimulation at positions close to the cochlea. The correlation between the vibration velocities of the two measuring sites of the otic capsule was high. Also, relative median data showed similar trends for both vibration and threshold measurements. However, due to the high variability for both vibration and perceptual data, low correlation between the two methods was found at the individual level. The results from this study indicated that human hearing perception from BC sound can be estimated from the measure of cochlear vibrations of the otic capsule. It also showed that vibration measurements of the cochlea in cadaver heads are similar to that measured in live humans.

  • 22.
    Feeney, Patrick
    et al.
    Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Hunter, Lisa
    Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Kei, Joseph
    University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.
    Lilly, David
    Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Margolis, Robert
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Nakajima, Heidi
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Neely, Stephen
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Prieve, Beth
    Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, USA.
    Rosowski, John
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Sanford, Chris
    Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, USA.
    Schairer, Kim
    James H. Quillen Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mountain Home, Tennessee, USA.
    Shahnaz, Navid
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voss, Susan
    Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts, USA.
    Consensus statement: Eriksholm workshop on wideband absorbance measures of the middle ear2013In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 34, no Supplement 1, 78s-79s p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The participants in the Eriksholm Workshop on Wideband Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear developed statements for this consensus article on the final morning of the Workshop. The presentations of the first 2 days of the Workshop motivated the discussion on that day. The article is divided into three general areas: terminology; research needs; and clinical application.The varied terminology in the area was seen as potentially confusing, and there was consensus on adopting an organizational structure that grouped the family of measures into the term wideband acoustic immittance (WAI), and dropped the term transmittance in favor of absorbance. There is clearly still a need to conduct research on WAI measurements. Several areas of research were emphasized, including the establishment of a greater WAI normative database, especially developmental norms, and more data on a variety of disorders; increased research on the temporal aspects of WAI; and methods to ensure the validity of test data. The area of clinical application will require training of clinicians in WAI technology. The clinical implementation of WAI would be facilitated by developing feature detectors for various pathologies that, for example, might combine data across ear-canal pressures or probe frequencies.

  • 23.
    Hakansson, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers Unviversity.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Mans
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers Unviversity.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology.
    Granstrom, Gosta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Percutaneous Versus Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implant System: A Feasibility Study on a Cadaver Head2008In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 29, no 8, 1132-1139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) is an important rehabilitation alternative for patients who have conductive or mixed hearing loss. However, these devices use a percutaneous and bone-anchored implant that has some drawbacks reported. A transcutaneous bone conduction implant system (BCI) is proposed as an alternative to the percutaneous system because it leaves the skin intact. The BCI transmits the signal to a permanently implanted transducer with an induction loop system through the intact skin. The aim of this study was to compare the electroacoustic performance of the BAHA Classic-300 with a full-scale BCI on a cadaver head in a sound field. The BCI comprised the audio processor of the vibrant sound bridge connected to a balanced vibration transducer (balanced electromagnetic separation transducer).

    Methods: Implants with snap abutments were placed in the parietal bone (Classic-300) and 15-mm deep in the temporal bone (BCI). The vibration responses at the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear promontories were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer, with the beam aimed through the ear canal.

    Results: Results show that the BCI produces approximately 5 dB higher maximum output level and has a slightly lower distortion than the Classic-300 at the ipsilateral promontorium at speech frequencies. At the contralateral promontorium, the maximum output level was considerably lower for the BCI than for the Classic-300 except in the 1-2 kHz range, where it was similar.

    Conclusion: Present results support the proposal that a BCI system can be a realistic alternative to a BAHA.

  • 24.
    Hakansson, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Mans
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Ostli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Taghavi, Hamidreza
    Chalmers.
    Adler, Johannes
    Chalmers.
    Gabrielsson, John
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granstrom, Gosta
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    A novel bone conduction implant (BCI): Engineering aspects and pre-clinical studies2010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AUDIOLOGY, ISSN 1499-2027, Vol. 49, no 3, 203-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Percutaneous bone anchored hearing aids (BAHA) are today an important rehabilitation alternative for patients suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss. Despite their success they are associated with drawbacks such as skin infections, accidental or spontaneous loss of the bone implant, and patient refusal for treatment due to stigma. A novel bone conduction implant (BCI) system has been proposed as an alternative to the BAHA system because it leaves the skin intact. Such a BCI system has now been developed and the encapsulated transducer uses a non-screw attachment to a hollow recess of the lateral portion of the temporal bone. The aim of this study is to describe the basic engineering principals and some preclinical results obtained with the new BCI system. Laser Doppler vibrometer measurements on three cadaver heads show that the new BCI system produces 0-10 dB higher maximum output acceleration level at the ipsilateral promontory relative to conventional ear-level BAHA at speech frequencies. At the contralateral promontory the maximum output acceleration level was considerably lower for the BCI than for the BAHA.

  • 25.
    Hato, Naohito
    et al.
    Ehime University.
    Gyo, Kiyofumi
    Ehime University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Welsh, Joe
    Stanford University.
    Goode, Richard
    Stanford University.
    Time delay of acoustic transmission in human middle ear2004In: Middle Ear Mechanics in Research and Otology / [ed] K. Gyo, H. Wada, N. Hato, and T. Koike, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2004, 51-55 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book aims to facilitate the exchange of ideas between otosurgeons and engineers on common topics such as middle ear function, tympanoplasty, implantable hearing devices and ear prostheses. Due to recent advances in technology, gene-therapy and tissue-engineering procedures will also be important issues in the treatment of middle ear

  • 26.
    Hato, Naohito
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Goode, Richard
    Stanford University.
    Three-dimensional stapes footplate motion in human temporal bones2003In: Audiology & neuro-otology, ISSN 1420-3030, E-ISSN 1421-9700, Vol. 8, no 3, 140-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hato, Naohito
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Welsh, Joe
    Stanford University.
    Goode, Richard
    Stanford University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Acoustic role of the buttress and posterior incudal ligament in human temporal bones2001In: Otolaryngology and head and neck surgery, ISSN 0194-5998, E-ISSN 1097-6817, Vol. 124, no 3, 274-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Håkansson, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Carlsson, Peder
    Chalmers.
    Brandt, Anders
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Linearity of sound propagation through the human skull in vivo1996In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 99, no 4, 2239-2243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Håkansson, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg Universitet.
    A transcutaneous bone conduction implant system – a future alternative to the percutaneous BAHA system?2008In: International Hearing Aid Conference (IHCON), Lake Tahoe, CA, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Håkansson, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    Chalmers.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Måns
    Göteborg University.
    Östli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Taghavi, Hamid
    Chalmers.
    Gabrielsson, J
    Chalmers.
    Adler, J
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg Universitet.
    A novel bone conduction implant (BCI)2009In: 2nd Int Symposium on Bone Conduction Hearing – Craniofacial Osseointegration, Göteborg, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Janssen, Thomas
    et al.
    Technische Universität München.
    Schirkonyer, Volker
    Technische Universität München.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A short overview on criteria, methods and technologies for performing adult hearing screening2010In: Adult Hearing Screening 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kim, Nam Keun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Possible Third Window for Bone Conducted Hearing: Cochlear Aqueduct vs. Vestibular Aqueduct2015In: Mechanics of hearing: Protein to perception, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015, Vol. 1703, no 060016, 060016-1-060016-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A third window, which is another cochlear fluid pathway different from the oval window and round window, is considered to be a significant factor in bone-conducted hearing. A three-dimensional finite element model of the human ear consisting of the middle ear and cochlea was used to investigate the effect of the third windows on bone-conducted heraing. This study is aimed to find the third window which causes the consistent cochlear responses with previous studies in air-conducted hearing, and causes the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio between the oval window and round window in bone-conducted hearing. The preliminary result shows that the cochlear aqueduct and the vestibular aqueduct with high impedance do not affect the basilar membrane velocity in air-conducted hearing. On the contrary, in bone-conducted hearing, the direction of the shaking structure for the bone-conducted stimulation as well as the third window can be a significant factor causing the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio found by Stenfelt et al.

  • 33.
    Kim, Namkeun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    You, Chang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, no 519429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Youngs modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation.

  • 34.
    Mishra, Sachin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Updating ability modulates the negative effect of noise on memory of speech for persons with age-related hearing loss but not for young adults with normal hearingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Seeing the talker’s face supports executive processing of speech in steady state noise2013In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 7, no 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listening to speech in noise depletes cognitive resources, affecting speech processing. The present study investigated how remaining resources or cognitive spare capacity (CSC) can be deployed by young adults with normal hearing. We administered a test of CSC (CSCT; Mishra et al., 2013) along with a battery of established cognitive tests to 20 participants with normal hearing. In the CSCT, lists of two-digit numbers were presented with and without visual cues in quiet, as well as in steady-state and speech-like noise at a high intelligibility level. In low load conditions, two numbers were recalled according to instructions inducing executive processing (updating, inhibition) and in high load conditions the participants were additionally instructed to recall one extra number, which was the always the first item in the list. In line with previous findings, results showed that CSC was sensitive to memory load and executive function but generally not related to working memory capacity (WMC). Furthermore, CSCT scores in quiet were lowered by visual cues, probably due to distraction. In steady-state noise, the presence of visual cues improved CSCT scores, probably by enabling better encoding. Contrary to our expectation, CSCT performance was disrupted more in steady-state than speech-like noise, although only without visual cues, possibly because selective attention could be used to ignore the speech-like background and provide an enriched representation of target items in working memory similar to that obtained in quiet. This interpretation is supported by a consistent association between CSCT scores and updating skills.

  • 36.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark .
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visual Information Can Hinder Working Memory Processing of Speech2013In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 56, no 4, 1120-1132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the new Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT), which measures aspects of working memory capacity for heard speech in the audiovisual and auditory-only modalities of presentation.

    METHOD:

    In Experiment 1, 20 young adults with normal hearing performed the CSCT and an independent battery of cognitive tests. In the CSCT, they listened to and recalled 2-digit numbers according to instructions inducing executive processing at 2 different memory loads. In Experiment 2, 10 participants performed a less executively demanding free recall task using the same stimuli.

    RESULTS:

    CSCT performance demonstrated an effect of memory load and was associated with independent measures of executive function and inference making but not with general working memory capacity. Audiovisual presentation was associated with lower CSCT scores but higher free recall performance scores.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    CSCT is an executively challenging test of the ability to process heard speech. It captures cognitive aspects of listening related to sentence comprehension that are quantitatively and qualitatively different from working memory capacity. Visual information provided in the audiovisual modality of presentation can hinder executive processing in working memory of nondegraded speech material.

  • 37.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Aided speech understanding and cognitive spare capacity2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive Spare Capacity Test2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity test: Preliminary findings2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity test: Some preliminary findings2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sick and tired of listening.2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speech understanding and cognitive spare capacity2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speech understanding and cognitive spare capacity2009In: Binaural Processing and Spatial Hearing, ISBN 87-990013-2-2 / [ed] Buchholz, J.M., Dau T., Dalsgaard, J.C., Poulsen, T., Ballerup: The Danavox Jubilee Foundation , 2009, 305-313 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Age-related sensory and cognitive decline make it harder to remember speech in noise across serial positions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. 3Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss2014In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 6, no 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are associated with speech recognition in adverse conditions, reflecting the need to maintain and process speech fragments until lexical access can be achieved. When working memory resources are engaged in unlocking the lexicon, there is less Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) available for higher level processing of speech. CSC is essential for interpreting the linguistic content of speech input and preparing an appropriate response, that is, engaging in conversation. Previously, we showed, using a Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT) that in young adults with normal hearing, CSC was not generally related to WMC and that when CSC decreased in noise it could be restored by visual cues. In the present study, we investigated CSC in 24 older adults with age-related hearing loss, by administering the CSCT and a battery of cognitive tests. We found generally reduced CSC in older adults with hearing loss compared to the younger group in our previous study, probably because they had poorer cognitive skills and deployed them differently. Importantly, CSC was not reduced in the older group when listening conditions were optimal. Visual cues improved CSC more for this group than for the younger group in our previous study. CSC of older adults with hearing loss was not generally related to WMC but it was consistently related to episodic long term memory, suggesting that the efficiency of this processing bottleneck is important for executive processing of speech in this group.

  • 46.
    Neely, Stephen
    et al.
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schairer, Kim
    Quillen Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mountain Home, Tennessee, USA.
    Alternative ear-canal measures related to absorbance2013In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 34, no Supplement 1, 72s-77s p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level, (2) forward pressure level, (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance, and (4) cochlear reflectance. These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wideband stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. Sound intensity level and forward pressure level have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared with sound pressure level because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. Time-domain ear-canal reflectance may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle ear pathology. Cochlear reflectance reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions, and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation.

  • 47.
    Niklas, Rönnberg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Testing effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity – the Auditory Inference Span Test2010In: Adult Hearing Screening 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Parazzi, Todi
    et al.
    Cyprus Audiology Center.
    Kramer, Sophia
    VU University Amsterdam.
    Davis, Adrian
    Manchester University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janssen, Tomas
    Technische Univärsität Munchen.
    Adult Hearing Screening: The Cyprus pilot Program2010In: Adult Hearing Screening 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Petersen, Eline B
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark, .
    Wöstmann, Malte
    International Max Planck Research School on Neuroscience of Communication, Leipzig, Germany, Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Obleser, Jonas
    Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory (WM). One neural signature of WM load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6–12 Hz). However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of WM when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62–86 years), with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss (HL), behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level) and HL; while alpha power increased with HL during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe HL under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of HL, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  • 50.
    Petersen, Eline Borch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Snekkersten, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Obleser, Jonas
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Influence of hearing impairment on alpha power during retention of auditory stimuli2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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