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  • 1.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Swedish furniture industry - a study of strategic groups and performance2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 488-501Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this article is a longitudinal strategic group study with a special focus on the strategic group-performance relationship. The empirical context is the Swedish Furniture Industry, a very heterogeneous industry well suited for this type of "middle-ground study" between industry and firm levels. The research questions are finding suitable strategic dimensions to use when in a next step splitting up into different strategic groups followed by an analysis of the strategic group-performance relationship. Finally, an explanatory approach is taken with the purpose of increasing our understanding of performance differences between strategic groups. The empirical investigation is a total population study of 143 companies (micro companies excluded) and the period of analysis is 2004 up to 2017. Empirical data consist of yearly income statements, public statistics, results from two questionnaires and multiple (firm) case descriptions. The explanatory part is of a qualitative nature and points out the major differences between the strategic groups regarding environmental forces and competitive advantage. Nine strategic groups are identified and stable performance differences between groups are noted which are mainly related to different demand conditions between three customer sectors - household, institutional and B2B - but also to the mix of micro product/customer segments within these sectors.

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  • 2.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Swedish wood manufacturing sector: findings from a contextually adapted structure-conduct-performance model2021In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 878-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this article is an inter-industry study of the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Sector (WMS), examined from the perspective of the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) paradigm in the theoretical field of Industrial Organization. The four research questions are: (1) identify the industries within the sector, (2) construct a contextually adapted SCP model and form the basis for hypotheses of relationships between the different variables in the model, (3) establish quantitative correlations between the variables, and finally (4) present a basically qualitative, explanatory interpretive analysis. The empirical investigation is a total population study of 311 firms. Nine industries are identified, and an SCP model is presented including four explanatory variables - exposure to international competition, value-added scope, domestic demand growth potential and (domestic industry) seller concentration - and two performance variables - industry profitability (ROA) and industry growth. The combined qualitative and quantitative explanatory analysis identifies some important relationships in the SCP model. The most prominent findings are the strong negative relationships between exposure to international competition and industry profitability and industry growth. Another finding is that strong positive relationships are found between the degree of value-added scope and industry profitability and industry growth.

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  • 3.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of value chains in volume-intensive market segments - exploiting economies of sclae, scope and integration2012In: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Forest Economics: Hyytiälä, Finland, 23–26 May 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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    sammanfattning
  • 4.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Structural Engineering, Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering , Luleå University of Technology , Luleå, Sweden.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 482-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industriellt byggande i trä - nuläge och prognos mot 20252017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av samhälleliga utmaningar kopplade till demografi, klimat, sysselsättning och krav på resurseffektivitet kan industriellt träbyggande bidra med följande i ett tidsperspektiv fram till 2025:

    • Bygga upp en kapacitet för industriell träbyggande som kan leverera 50 % av flerbostadshusen som byggs på den svenska marknaden (17 500 lägenheter varav 15 000 producerade inom landet) och samtidigt nå en 30-35%-ig materialandel inom segmentet lokaler.
    • Därigenom skapa 8 000 nya jobb inom prefabricering i fabriksmiljö och bidra till att flytta 6 000 jobb från storstad till landsbygd. Detta kan vara en dellösning på bristen på inhemsk byggarbetskraft – att flytta ut jobben på landet och att ”göra om” snickare till maskinoperatörer. Detta kan även vara en möjlighet för integrering av nyanländ arbetskraft.
    • Utnyttja träets potential för minskad klimatbelastning jämfört med andra byggmaterial. Ett industriellt flerbostadshus har 40 % lägre CO2 utsläpp än ett jämförbart betonghus. Motsvarande siffra för lokaler är minus 35-40% (baserat på sammanfattande och nya analyser av Tyréns).
    • Minska klimatbelastningen med 0,7-0,8 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter genom att substituera från betong till trä – en besparing som utgör knappt 3 % av den totala mängd utsläpp som Sveriges handlande och icke handlande sektorer ska anpassa sig till för år 2030. Om träets kollagring adderas till substitutionseffekten så blir den kalkylmässiga besparingen 2-4 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter.
    • Bygga resurseffektivare med industriellt byggande och framförallt utnyttja den potential till fortsatta effektivitetsförbättringar som ligger i att öka volymerna. Detta sker genom högre nivåer på byggproduktionen i kombination med kraftigt ökade marknadsandelar. Industriellt byggande har bättre kontroll över processer som även inkluderar underentreprenörer och konsulter och kan genom bättre integration och partnerskap verka dämpande på en marknad som kännetecknas av stora svängningar i lägen präglade av överhettning respektive nedgång och stiltje.

    En avslutande kommentar gäller behovet av kapacitet på den svenska marknaden för bostadsbyggande. Svensk skogs- och träindustri verkar i dagsläget stiga in med stora kapacitetsutbyggnader i ett läge där det inte är särskilt troligt att svensk betongindustri fortsätter att expandera. Vi bedömer att osäkerheten vad gäller klimatfrågan är för stor för att man från betongsidan ska ge sig in på stora investeringar i nuläget. De stora byggbolagen verkar ägarmässigt frikoppla sig från betongbranschen och är därmed ännu mera obundna att gå över till en trästrategi när incitamenten blir tillräckligt stora och tydliga. Detta är en stor möjlighet för industriell träbyggande.

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    Industriellt byggande
  • 6.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2013In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-3, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit.

  • 7.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Transforming business models: a well-being and ecosystem approach2017In: 24th NORDIC ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT CONFERENCENFF 2017 - NORDIC OPPORTUNITIES, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that we are spending more times indoors, there is a need for re-formulation of business model in the wood-product industry. A business model transformation (BMT) towards an outward-looking business model with the user’s well-being in loci is surfacing. This study develops a framework for how a business model can be configured based on well-being and value in context.

    Preliminary result indicates a business model transformation; from emphasizing products to emphasizing well-being and the experiences of the customer (e.g., how the end-user perceive in-door wooden material). Interestingly, the business model expand the market view from a

    narrow focus on e.g., market shares and total revenues, to include the whole ecosystem and hence including environmental considerations as well as human well-being.

    Given that markets are shaped by the actors engaging in market activities, this research emphasize key factors in business model transformation by companies aiming to form sustainable business models where the well-being of humans are emphasized and where environmental effects are taken into considerations. We believe the Nordic countries with their expanding wood-industry can serve as a raw-model for developing sustainable business models that can meet future requirements of sustainable markets.

  • 8.
    Ebadazadeh Semnani, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Relational Factors Affecting the Transition to New Business Models2017In: Exploring a changing view on organizing value creation:: Developing New Business Models / [ed] Baumgartner, R.J., Fuellsack, M., Gelbmann, U., Rauter, R, Graz: Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research , 2017, p. 362-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual study, aims at contributing to theoretical development of New Business Models (NBMs), by creating a better initial understanding of relational factors affecting the transition to NBMs in the age of digitalization. Considering that co-value creation with stakeholders is one of the main characteristics in NBMs, the studies on how the relationships with stakeholders are created, maintained and utilized are of great importance. Furthermore, the relationship intensive nature of B2B exchanges made them an interesting area of focus in this study. The study objective was achieved through incorporating the scholarly contributions in three interconnected relational concepts of legitimacy, social capital and trust in NBMs and digitalization studies. An interesting observation was the existence of an interplay between opposing economic and social values when implementing NBMs in light of digitalization. This was evident in all three relational concepts under the focus of this study and in line with a proposition previously made by other scholars. This interplay can be between information transparency and privacy, opportunism and trust or between efficiency and legitimacy. This study has also developed this proposition further by suggesting that apart from their complementary nature, it is possible for the opposing values in these three areas to reinforce each other as well.

  • 9.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Business Model Innovation Cases from the Wood Products Industry2017In: Forest sector innovations for a greener future: Final program, proceedings and abstracts, Vancouver, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business Model Innovation Cases from the Wood Products Industry

    Globalization is further spurred by ICT in operations as well as customer relations also in the wood products industry. For meeting the increased competition, firms have to optimize internal resources to external opportunities. Increasingly, the Business Model (BM) concept has been a useful analytical tool. The BM concept offers good abstraction of activities and enables comparison between different business contexts. Emergently, studies have shifted focus from technology innovations towards innovations in BMs. However, the majority of studies in this field have treated all cases of BM innovations as a homogenous group and, as a result, paid little attention to the need for a fit between organizational and industry/contextual related factors.

    To address this gap, our research presents a study of two cases of BM innovations under transformations taking place in the wood products industry. These changes are brought about by (1) the need for an interplay between “upstream” and “downstream” strategies in the industry; and (2) the increasing need for servitization and solution-based models in organizations’ offerings. This research aims to study the influencing factors, consequences, challenges and order of changes in elements of BMs, in regard to the BM innovations that took place in the two case companies.

     

    Keywords: Business Model, Innovation, Transformation, Wood Industry, Case study

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Hållbar samhällsbyggnad.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Östman, Birgit
    Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Hållbar samhällsbyggnad.
    Kartläggning av brandincidener i flervåningshus med trästomme: Erfarenhet av 20 års brukande2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis in this project shows that modern multi-story wooden buildings for housing exhibit a lower fire incident rate than the rest of the multi-family housing stock. This is not surprising since the studied buildings are relatively new. Only one of the incidents in the total of more than 10,000 homes have any connection to the structural material.

    In recent years, the question of fire safety of modern wood construction has been raised from new perspectives. The applied technology for 20 years has been based on the fire safety requirements in the national building code (based on EU:s Construction Products Directive), largely validated through laboratory tests. When the construction technology is now recognized and is expected to increase significantly, the requirement for an evaluation of its function in the real world comes from many actors. This report presents the experiences from built projects in use.

    Modern wood construction is defined in this project as apartment buildings higher than two storeys, where the load-bearing structural material is wood, according to the revised Swedish building regulations in 1994 or later versions. All apartment buildings, including student housing and assisted living, have been included. The project has completed and analysed a total inventory of these homes.

    Data has been collected directly from the component manufacturing companies, developers and contractors who manufactured and erected apartment buildings with more than two stories since 1994. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) has delivered extracts from its incident database of fire incidents for all of these buildings.

    Data is thus available on more than 10,000 apartments from 188 construction project, which is estimated to represent more than 95 % of completed projects. Respondents in the industry is reporting a total of 3 cases of fire incidents for the years from 1998 to 2014 and the MSB data expands the number with minor incidents to a total of 22 cases for these years, three of which were in separate garbage buildings.

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  • 11.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In Search of the New Product Launch Process from the Reseller PerspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It has been proven that a proficient product launch is one of the specific priorities that best separate successful from failed product innovations. However, a majority of existing product launch research takes the supplier’s perspective and focuses on the aspects managed by suppliers, while the role of resellers has been largely overlooked. To contribute to this research gap, the purpose of this study is to investigate the new product launch process from the reseller perspective by taking an exploratory approach. Two research questions were examined in order to increase understandings of reseller new product launches: (1) what is process of the reseller new product launch? (2) What is the role of reseller in new product launches?

    Method: Two leading building material resellers in Sweden were chosen as the case companies. Data was primarily collected through open-ended interviews with managers at the central level. In the case of Beijer, a questionnaire was used to collection opinions of managers at the branch level.

    Findings: The process of the reseller new product launch can be described in six steps: (1) preliminary agreement with supplier, (2) product/focus group review, (3) launch plan setup, (4) management review, (5) sales of new products, and (6) launch evaluation. The research finding supports the division between strategic and tactical launch decisions. The process of the new product launch includes new product adoption decisions and new product sales at stores. When selecting new products, resellers pay attention not only to product variables, but also to profit and category variables. Providing marketing-, sales-, and merchandising-related services are key roles that resellers perform for suppliers.

    Originality/value: First, this study responds to the research demand around launch activity conceptualisation. Second it adds to existing knowledge about the role of resellers.

  • 12.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification and retail positioning into strategic groups: The case of DIY retailers and builders' merchants in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 570-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To understand the potential for various types of retailers, it is essential to appreciate retailer' positioning in the marketplace. Positioning has a critical effect on retailers' competitiveness and performance. Despite the significance and popularity of retail positioning, a few gaps remain that prompt the need for this research. First, little has been written about positioning in the building materials distribution industry, as compared with other retail sectors. Second, the retail classification literature has rarely included positioning as a dimension of retailer characteristics, although, in essence, they are both ways to understand retailer strategy and behaviour. To fill these research gaps, the objective of this research is to contribute to retail positioning research, using the Swedish building material distribution industry as a study setting. Specifically, it has two key goals: to develop a classification framework focusing on the Swedish building material distribution market; and to analyse those distributors by strategic groups and identify their common business priorities.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research looked at a majority of building material distributors in the Swedish market. A total of 23 interviews were conducted with managing directors or similar from case companies. Interviews ranged from 40 to 90 minutes in duration. This research adapted materials developed for other purposes in order to enhance and strengthen primary data.

    Findings – This study develops a classification framework of building material distributors and provides an overview of distributors operating in the Swedish markets. Drawing on theory from retail positioning and classification, the research result suggests that the studied distributors can be classified into three strategic groups: DIY-service focused; DIY-cost focused; and builders' merchant (BM)-service focused. Research also showed that distinguishing building material distributor by customer type is not as effective as it once was; there is a trend of internationalisation in the Swedish building material distribution industry; and distributors exert growing central control over certain areas, such as purchasing and marketing.

    Originality/value – The building material distribution industry attracts little research attention when compared to other sectors, for instance food and grocery retailing. Given this, the value of this article lies in identifying the leading companies in Sweden and offering strategic analysis of their business developments and focus. Insights into building material distributors' supply requirements are provided.

  • 13.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Distributor support in New Product launch2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In search of critical launching factors influencing new product success-A case study from the reseller’s perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Processes of new product launches: Case studies of wood product suppliersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that a strong launch effort is fundamental to new product success. Most new product development (NPD) studies focus on the entire process; few consider the process of the new product launch stage alone. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what actually happens in that process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on exploratory case studies. Evidence is drawn from four wood product suppliers based in Sweden. Eight semistructured interviews and one workshop with managers working with top management and in R&D, marketing, and sales were conducted to collect data. Pattern-matching logic was the primary data analysis technique.

    Findings: Results largely support the relevance of strategic and tactical launch decision variables for a new product launch. They also show that the new product launch process can generally be divided into strategic planning, selling and negotiating with customer/channel partner, sales of new products, and launch evaluation stages. This study argues that distribution channel strategy of new product launch should be regarded as a dimension of strategic decisions rather than tactical decisions, because it is made in the early stages of new product launches, and has significant impact on tactical launch decisions regarding the marketing mix.

    Originality/value: In theoretical terms, this study contributes to an understanding of the process of the new product launch that has been given scant theoretical or empirical attention in either new product or marketing literature. We provide empirical evidence from wood product suppliers to support the separation of strategic launch variables and tactical launch variables.

  • 16.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semnani Kenlind, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tomas Nord.
    Affärsmodell för påbyggnader: Utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer från olika påbyggnadsprojekt2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Holtström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semnani Kenlind, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Project-based business models in the construction industry - key success factors for sustainable timber extension projects2024In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building construction has significant negative impacts on the environment. However, various measures can mitigate these impacts, including using wood as a building material and improving the building and construction process. The need to renovate and extend existing buildings increases with urbanization and a growing population. Wood is an attractive option for adding new floors to existing structures because of its superior strength-to-weight ratio, allowing for the potential to "build on top" of existing buildings. In order to achieve higher levels of sustainability in wood extension building projects, this study aimed to highlight the benefits of adopting a project-based business model approach by studying the technical, economic, social, and environmental attributes associated with timber building extension projects. Unlike the common firm-level business model approach, a project-based business model allows for a comprehensive view of the value creation, delivery, proposition, and capture of all the key actors involved in a construction project. The study results emphasize the success factors of an extension building project and conclude with critical factors related to the business model's resources, activities, and actors, which would enhance the outcomes of a wood extension project. Such factors relate to knowledge and experience derived from wood construction, and to a holistic perspective on planning, and involvement of all relevant actors from the design phase to project completion.

  • 18.
    Hosseini, Mojtaba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A combined focused industry and company size investigation of the internationalization-performance relationship: The case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the Swedish wood manufacturing industry2018In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current literature has failed to deliver a coherent explanation of the internationalization-performance (I-P) relationship. The empirical findings are quite confusing and even contradictory. Researchers have found positive, negative, U-shaped, inverted U-shaped, S-shaped, and inverted S-shaped relationships between degree of internationalization and performance. Based on plausible theoretical explanations such as networking effects, cost and benefit mechanisms and minimum efficient scale (MES), the recommendation for further research is to change focus - from an overall level to a more detailed country-industry and company size contextual level. The underlying assumption is that more specific contextual aspects are paramount to the existence and shape of the I-P relationship. Building on the resource-based view and the S-shape theory of internationalization, this paper aims at such an empirically focused investigation of SMEs within the Swedish wood manufacturing industry. A repeated cross-sectional survey study using hierarchical regression analysis has revealed a linear negative relationship between internationalization and performance. Given that wood manufacturing is a low-tech industry, not highly automated and with a low level of MES, the results are expected. The size of the Swedish market is big enough to amortize the initial investments of establishing a small wood manufacturing business, and the costs associated with internationalization diminish overall performance. In addition, the follow-up tests of ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) and piecewise regression revealed a non-linear relationship between (1) internationalization and performance for highly internationalized firms in 2001, (2) internationalization and growth for low internationalized companies in 2001, and (3) internationalization and performance for highly internationalized groups in the pooled dataset. Considering the costs and benefits associated with international activities, the non-linear effects of internationalization on performance or growth is plausible.

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  • 19.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    et al.
    Department of Management and Organization, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Customer perceived value and emerging business models in the wood building components industry – learnings from Swedish public building projects2017In: Nordic Opportunities, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of efficient business models in the Swedish wood-building industry, seen from the public customers’ point of view. The building industry is currently ongoing rapid development and wood is prescribed as building material in a growing number of public building projects. The industry is generally under pressure to innovate and decrease costs and the changes combined have on the one hand have created dialogs between regards how new wooden constructions on sustainable building principles can be created. From the public procurers’ point of view, crucial questions concerns what value that can be created for long term sustainable economy of the buildings and what environmental performance that can be obtained.

    For assessing the perceived value of effects of three different business models a comparative case study were conducted. The cases were analysed deploying business model theory and construction management theory on perceived values. As regards the business models there was a particular focus on the degree of prefabrication, services and potential partnering options in creating offerings and undertaking production and erection of wooden bearing constructions. The cases were chosen due to that they differed with respect to the types of contracting applied, mirroring three business models and degrees of “in-house” involvement.

  • 20.
    Hurmekoski, Elias
    et al.
    European Forest Institute (EFI), Joensuu, Finland.
    Jonsson, Ragnar
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC),Ispra, Italy .
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Context, drivers, and future potential for wood-frame multi-story construction in Europe2015In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 99, p. 181-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to many manufacturing industries, there have been few major improvements over the past few decades in the productivity, profitability, or the environmental impact of construction. However, driven by institutional changes, promotion campaigns, and technological development in the 1990s, novel industrial wood-frame multi-story construction (WMC) practices have been emerging in some European countries. The aim of the study is to explore the WMC market potential in Europe by combining two complementary approaches: Top-down scenario analysis and bottom-up innovation diffusion analysis. The results show that the WMC diffusion is heavily dependent on the regulatory framework and the structure of the construction industry. The risk-averse nature of the construction value chain resisting the uptake of new practices appears to be a more significant hindrance for the future market potential of WMC, compared to the possible competition from alternative construction practices. It would require both increasing competition within the WMC sector and increasing co-operation between wood product suppliers and the construction sector to attract investments, to reduce costs, and to make the WMC practices more credible throughout the construction value chain.

  • 21.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlborg, Per
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges for growing SMEs: A managerial perspective2022In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit of growth is a key endeavor of all types of firms, but it is particularly important for SMEs. From a managerial perspective, growing SMEs face a wide range of challenges; this study proposes a broad framework that emphasizes not only the various types of managerial challenges, but also the importance of taking a balanced, broad approach to facing them. In a qualitative study of 44 Swedish SMEs, the researchers identify, map, and aggregate distinct challenges to SME growth, proposing three overarching themes - business model, leadership, and people. Multiple lower-level categories and individual challenges make up each of these themes suggesting that firms that seek to excel in growth should be aware of and manage all three themes in a balanced manner. This research provides insights into each theme and potential consequences for SMEs; it also offers an overarching, integrative perspective on SME growth challenges opening future research avenues.

  • 22.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooperative Engagement to Define and Deliver Client Value in the Construction Industry2012In: Modelling value: Selected Papers of the 1st International Conference on Value Chain Management / [ed] Jodlbauer, H; Olhager, J; Schonberger, R., Heidelberg, Germany: Physica Verlag, 2012, p. 139-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations in the construction industry are traditionally of arms-length, and client value is realized by contractual arrangements. Partnering, as a concept of strategic and project alliances, has been suggested to change the adversarial behaviour by moving towards a more cooperative climate. In the consumer market there are recent examples of changes from firm-centric view of value creation to a co-creation view, with intimate interaction between consumer communities and producers to jointly define and deliver value. The case study has an explorative purpose of describing a cooperative contracting engagement of a local Swedish contractor, when engaging in a recent project. The result shows the opportunities of applying the building blocks of improved interactions to reach co-creation of value: dialogue, access, risk-benefit and transparency. The early and interactive involvement of the contractor with the developer and end-user established project objectives valued and favoured by all parties before the procurement. Important capabilities of the contractor included project management, cooperative behaviour and design and calculation, and a strive to have a pleasant and friendly realisation of the project.

  • 23.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings universitet.
    En framtida hållbar trävärdekedja: Struktur, utveckling och möjligheter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det samlade värdet av sågverks-, trämanufaktur- och möbelindustrin – trävärdekedjan – uppgick år 2004 till knappt 70 Mdr SEK för företag med fler än 9 anställda. En kraftig tillväxt följde innan omvärldsfaktorer som finanskris, minskat bostadsbyggande, valutaoro och så vidare bromsade in utvecklingen. Under de efterföljande åren har värdekedjan återhämtat sig delvis tack vare en ökad klimat- och miljödebatt som gynnat ett förnybart material. År 2012 omsatte värdekedjan knappa 90 Mdr SEK.

    Branschorganisationerna Svenskt Trä och Trä- och Möbelindustriföretagen, TMF, önskade en uppdatering av hur värdekedjan utvecklats under de senaste tio åren och vilka framtida möjligheter som kan skönjas. Genomförandet har skett genom insamling av ekonomiska siffror för samtliga företag inom respektive industrigren och men bredare insamling för företag med fler än 9 anställda. En enkät och företagens syn på framtiden samt ett antal workshops med företag inom några delindustrier (sågverk, träbyggande och komponenttillverkare).

    Utvecklingen för sågverksindustrin har utmärkts av en fortsatt konsolidering där de stora företagen (>500 milj SEK i omsättning) har vuxit. Denna grupp omsatte 28 Mdr SEK av totalt 35 Mdr för sågverksindustrin. Lönsamhetsmässigt är det dock de mellanstora företagen som visar bäst siffror på mellan 5 och 10 % under perioden.

    Trämanufakturindustrin bestående av de strategiska grupperna, småhus, dörrar, fönster, golv, kök/bad, snickeri, förpackningar, limträ/limfog, byggsystem och inredningar visar en varierad bild. Byggsystem, kök/bad och inredningar har vuxit med mellan 50 och 100 % under perioden medan golv och småhus backat. Totalt sett omsatte dessa industrier 35 Mdr SEK. Räknas företag med färre än 10 anställda med ökar omsättningen med dryga 5 Mdr SEK. Lönsamhetsmässigt låg kök/bad, fönster och förpackningar i topp med siffror över 10 %. Till skillnad från sågverksindustrin är det de stora företagen i de flesta delindustrierna som visar på bäst tillväxt och lönsamhet. Förutom stordriftsfördelar visar det sig att närhet till slutkund samt en mer komplex produkt (hus, byggsystem, kök) har en högre lönsamhet. Med direktkontakt och möjlighet att anpassa leveransen ökar möjlighet till värdeskapande.

    Möbelindustrin har haft en mer måttlig tillväxt och med delindustrin kök/bad flyttad till trämanufaktur uppgick omsättningen till 16 Mdr SEK. Mikroföretagen omsatte omkring 4 Mdr SEK som också skall inkluderas. Störst tillväxt har design, kontor och stora underleverantörer haft med siffror på mellan 30 och 40 %. Speciellt designföretagens utveckling är positiv då denna grupp visade mindre bra siffror för perioden fram till 2004. Lönsamhetsmässigt är bilden densamma som för tillväxt, dvs. lönsamhet följer med tillväxt. Liksom för trämanufaktur är det de stora företagen som överlag uppvisar bäst siffror. Effektiv produktion och möjlighet till automatisering skapar lönsamhet samtidigt som svensk design verkar ha en positiv effekt på företagens lönsamhet.

    Påverkande omvärldsfaktorer är den demografiska utvecklingen i landet, bostadsbyggande, valutakursen och på senare år en ökad debatt om klimatpåverkan. Under perioden har befolkningen ökat i antal och åldersklasserna har förskjutits ytterligare mot en äldre befolkning. Det medför ändrade preferenser och en fortsatt stark bostadsefterfrågan. En ökad andel äldre och en ungdomsgrupp som också växer skapar en brist på små och medelstora lägenheter i storstadskommuner. Svensk ekonomi fram till 2008 var förhållandevis god och exporten positiv vilket bidrog till efterfrågan på trävärdekedjans produkter överlag. Finanskrisen med en påverkan på valutakursen fick en negativ inverkan på utvecklingen. Klimataspekten och den allt eskalerande debatten om resursknapphet har hittills inte kunnat tillgodoräknas för företag med en förnybar resurs och med effektiva resurssnåla produktionsprocesser.

    Den sammanvägda bilden av trävärdekedjan är att den påverkas av externa faktorer och att företagen har arbetat intensivt med effektiviseringsåtgärder för att förbättra sin kostnadsposition. Det finns därmed grunder för en positiv utveckling baserad på god kontroll över interna processer och med ökad marknadsnärvaro.

    I ett framtida positivt scenario där svensk ekonomi visar en god och stark tillväxt ser möjligheterna för trävärdekedjan goda ut. Tre drivkrafter och tillika strategiska vägval ser vi framför oss.

    Substitution – träprodukter har inneboende egenskaper som passar för ett framtida resursanpassat och biobaserat samhälle. Det finns goda möjligheter för positiv substitution där träprodukter ersätter andra material

    Produktutveckling – modern teknik medför snabb omställning av produktion och skapandet av nya produkter. Trävärdekedjans företag ligger bra till för att ta till sig denna teknik och ytterligare ökad produktutveckling.

    Export – svensk träbaserad industri har ett gott anseende på den utländska marknaden och flera svenska företag är med och konsoliderar den europeiska träbaserade industrin. Detta bör fortsätta och att små- och medelstora företag tar steget ut på exportmarknaden.

    I ett positivt scenario visar trävärdekedjan upp en omsättningsökning på dryga 50 % fram till 2024 med en positiv utveckling av medelstora företag. En stark motor för utvecklingen är det moderna träbaserade byggandet. Bedömningen är att det skapas nya företag som utvecklar ett modernt träbyggande men inte minst att affärskonstellationer bestående av byggmästare, komponenttillverkare och även byggmaterialhandeln utvecklas. Affärsinnovationer bidrar positivt till värdekedjans utveckling där klimat- och miljöaspekter blir en tydlig del i erbjudanden. Inom möbelsektorn utvecklas exporten fortsatt starkt och bygger på en resurseffektiv tillverkning och närhet mellan beställare, designer och tillverkning.

    Med bas i de tre inriktningarna, utvecklad samverkan mellan industri, forskning och samhälle och en samsyn kring visionen ” Träprodukter är det naturliga valet i ett modernt byggande, för designanpassade interiöra lösningar och stommen i ett hållbart, biobaserat och klimatanpassat samhälle” framtida hållbar trävärdekedja skall nås.

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    En framtida hållbar trävärdekedja: Struktur, utveckling och möjligheter
  • 24.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Struktur, konkurrenskraft och utveckling i snickerisegment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det samlade värdet av sågverks-, trämanufaktur- och möbelindustrin – trävärdekedjan – uppgick år 2017 till drygt 100 Mdr SEK för företag med fler än 9 anställda. En kraftig tillväxt följde innan omvärldsfaktorer som finanskris, minskat bostadsbyggande, valutaoro och så vidare bromsade in utvecklingen. Under de efterföljande åren har värdekedjan återhämtat sig delvis tack vare en ökad klimat- och miljödebatt som gynnat ett förnybart material. År 2017 omsatte värdekedjan knappa 90 Mdr SEK.

    I projektet ”E-handelns påverkan på snickeriindustrin” har ingått att beskriva ett antal delbranscher inom trävärdekedjan och analysera vilka hot och möjligheter som dessa branscher har stått inför. Ingående delbranscher är dörrar, fönster, trappor, men ytterligare närliggande delbranscher har valts att redovisa i denna rapport. Beskrivningen bygger på ekonomiska data insamlade via företagens årsredovisningar för perioden 2008 till 2017, på branschstudier som visar respektive bransch samt generella konjunkturella studier för den svenska marknaden.

    Bilden som framträder är branscher som mår förhållandevis bra. Omsättningsökning, måttligt god lönsamhet och tillväxt. Det finns dock orosmoln som tornar upp sig, där mindre företag uppvisar en sämre lönsamhet, konkurrensen från utlandet och mer standardiserade produkter kommer in, samt att mellanleden har en fortsatt stark roll i värdekedjan.

    Framtidsutsikterna ser generellt positiva ut, och analysen kan delvis påvisa vikten av fortsatt nära relation med slutkunder, vikten av att hitta unika produkter som kan modulariseras och snabbt utvecklas vidare, och att noggrant följa hur näthandeln utvecklar sig.

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  • 25.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Företagsekonomi, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Beslutsstöd för upphandling av gröna byggprojekt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Beslutsstöd för upphandling av gröna byggprojekt” ingår som ett delprojekt i det strategiska forskningsprogrammet Bioinnovations ”Framtidens biobaserade byggande och boende (FBBB). Delprojektet tar sin utgångspunkt i de marknadsmässiga svårigheter som trä i byggande haft i att uppfattas som ett likvärdigt alternativ till övriga stommaterial. Ett antal kommuner i landet har därför utarbetat  träbyggnadsstrategier för att synliggöra trä som lämpligt stommaterial och ett material som har höga miljömässiga prestanda.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att belysa hur kommunala strategiska handlingsmönster kan påverka utvecklingen till att trä i byggande kommer in som ett likvärdigt byggnadsmaterial. Målet med denna rapport är att utifrån av ett antal strategier, och byggprojekt visa hur framtida upphandlingar kan se ut.

    Tio stycken träbyggnadsprojekt i tre kommuner med träbyggnadsstrategi har valts ut och beskrivits, via insamlad sekundärdata och intervjuer med berörda personer. Urvalet av byggprojekt grundades på att få en bredd av byggnadstyper och upphandlingsformer snarare än skillnader i kommuners handlingar och överväganden i de enskilda projekten.

    Sammanställningen av de tio byggprojektens genomförande visar att förekomsten av kommunala träbyggnadsstrategier har haft en positiv påverkan på introduktion och utveckling av träbyggandet. Detta tillsammans med dynamiken i den regionala/ lokala byggmarknaden. Genom att det finns en målsatt strategi skapar det en tydlighet från kommunalt håll om kommunens ambition och vilja att bygga med trä, vilket är en viktig grund för förändringen som visar sig i sammanställningen. Entreprenörerna har därmed fått incitament att lära sig träbyggande eftersom det skapar en konkurrensfördel. Den kommunala beställaren har en viktig roll i att tolka och förmedla den av politiker antagna träbyggnadsstrategin och skapa en intern förståelse och kompetens om träbyggande. Slutligen visar de  enskilda projektprocesserna på vikten av ett systematiskt lärande och intern spridning av kunskap för lyckade resultat.

    Slutsats: Kommunerna bör beskriv och definiera långsiktiga mål med byggandet i kommunen där trä ska ingå som ett konkurrenskraftigt alternativ i beskrivningen av möjliga lösningar. 

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  • 26.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tykkä, Saana
    Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien.
    McCluskey, Denise
    Forest Products, SLU.
    Bajric, Fahrudin
    Technological institute for forestry, cellulose, construction timber and furniture.
    Bouriaud, Laura
    Stefan cel Mare University of Suceva.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Forest Products, SLU.
    Nyrud, Anders Q
    Treteknisk, OSLO.
    Ollonqvist, Pekka
    METLA, Joensuu.
    Roos, Anders
    Forest Products, SLU.
    Ukrainski, Kadri
    University of Tartu.
    Bysheim, Kristian
    Treteknisk Oslo.
    Role of Policies and National Programmes on Innovations in Timber-frame Construction2011In: Innovation in Forestry: Territorial and Value Chain Relationships / [ed] Weiss, Gerhard; Pettenella, Davide; Ollonqvist, Pekka and Slee, Bill, Wallingford, UK: CAB International , 2011, p. 204-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market share of timber frame construction has increased in many European countries after the revision of national building regulations, implementation of national development programs as well as marketing efforts of the forest industry. Our research within COST E51 has looked at the timber construction industry and assessed the innovation process in eight European countries,the role and position of this industry in the construction process, and the influence of policies as drivers of knowledge creation.

    Results indicate that innovative timber construction firms have acted on the changed regulations overcoming the lock-in effects of construction industry standards and culture and have in some countries been in the forefront to adjust the traditional construction process. These firms have in most cases come from the forest industry sector as they have had the most to gain. The innovation type and progress differ indicating that construction is a local activity influenced by national traditions,both in industry behaviour and policy aim. It is recommended that policy makers support the establishment of local and regional timber based competence centres. Also,public construction clients ought to have bigger leeway to support innovative construction products and processes, as a mean to generating new innovations, knowledge creation and transfer necessary to create a sustainable future society.

  • 27.
    Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Widmark, Nina
    VINNOVA.
    Trämanufaktur i ett uthålligt samhällsbyggande: Åtgärder för ett samverkande innovationssystem2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Nationell och internationell konkurrenskraft i en hållbar samhällsutveckling”.

    Så lyder visionen år 2020 för innovationssystemet Trämanufaktur, med delsektorerna industriellt träbyggande, ROT-sektorn samt interiöra lösningar. Visionen understryker den roll som innovationssystemet kring trä och träprodukter har i en framtida hållbar samhällsutveckling, i första hand i Sverige, men även på en internationell arena.

    Hållbarhetsperspektivet innehåller tre delar: ekonomisk, ekologisk och social hållbarhet. Alla behöver samverka för att nyttja naturresurserna på bästa sätt idag och imorgon. Träets roll i ett hållbarhetsperspektiv ses ofta enbart ur en ekologisk synvinkel, men det ekonomiska perspektivet lyfts alltmer fram. Det gäller särskilt tankar kring industriella processer med målet optimal resursanvändning. Träets egenskaper som ett starkt men lätt material innebär goda transportmöjligheter. Det har också god buffringsförmåga och estetiska förtecken som attraherar människor. Social hållbarhet innebär bland annat människors lika rätt, i vilken bostadsmiljön är en viktig faktor. Träprodukter, både synliga och strukturella, ger möjlighet till effektiva produktionslösningar och hållbar design i det befintliga och framtida bostadsbeståndet, vilket kan minska på utanförskap och ge hållbara bostadsmiljöer. Träprodukter kan därmed kopplas till hållbarhetsbegreppets tre delar: ekonomisk, ekologisk och social hållbarhet.

    Visionen och målbilden som är resultaten av framsynen utmålar en industri med förutsättning att öka sin omsättning från cirka 75 Mdr SEK idag, till omkring 90 Mdr SEK år 2020. Industriellt träbyggande bedöms etablera sig på bostadsmarknadens samtliga segment tack vare åtgärder som skapar kostnads- och produktionseffektivitet. Hus med trästommar ökar från knappa 50 % (varav 90 % utgörs av småhus och 10 % av flerbostadshus) till knappa 60 % (90 % småhus, 40 % flerbostadshus). Med ett årligt bostadsbehov om knappa 40 000 lägenheter ökar träbyggnadsindustrins leveranser till cirka 23 000 lägenheter per år och omsättning omkring 35 Mdr SEK.

    Debatten kring energihushållning och klimatfrågan leder till utveckling av nya affärsmodeller inom ROT-sektorn. Kompetensnätverk utvecklas kring träbyggsystem, både för mindre renoveringsarbeten och för större påbyggnadsprojekt. Trämanufakturindustrin tar ledning i denna utveckling. En marknadspotential på minst 5 Mdr SEK har skapats inom ROT-arbeten vid periodens utgång, samt ytterligare 5 Mdr inom underhåll. Tack vare ROT-avdraget i början av perioden fortsätter GDS-marknaden att utvecklas positivt även för träprodukter. Den bedöms uppgå till 15 Mdr SEK år 2020.

    Interiöra lösningar med bas i träprodukter kopplas samman med både nybyggande och renovering och utvecklar nya spännande systemlösningar utifrån funktionella behov. Inom den interiöra industrin skapar den inhemska möbelindustrin konkurrensfördelar via effektiva produktionsprocesser och produkter baserade på hållbarhetssynsätt. Möbelindustrins omsättning ökar till dryga 30 Mdr SEK.

    För att nå de uppställda målen och den ekonomiska potentialen i visionen krävs åtgärder av samtliga aktörer i innovationssystemet. En utveckling från samsyn, via samverkan, till samhandling kommer att krävas inom flertalet föreslagna åtgärder för att nå uppställda mål på kort och lång sikt. Alla aktör har möjlighet att bidra. Vinsten av att vara aktiv är stor och påtaglig.

    Åtgärdsförslagen är uppdelade i tre strategiområden: ”Affärsutveckling”, ”Industriella processer” och ”Hållbarhet”. Nedan presenteras målbild, målbeskrivning, konkreta åtgärdsförslag och ett förslag på potentiella aktörer som genomförare för respektive strategiområde och för varje delindustri (industriellt träbyggande, ROT och interiöra lösningar). Det är viktigt att inledningsvis skapa en grupp, bestående av företrädare för de olika delområdena, som tar ansvar för samordning av åtgärderna. Representanter från TMF, Skogsindustrierna och forskningsutförare bör ingå.

    Åtgärdsförslagen är framtagna för att nå visionen och anpassade efter potentiella framtidsbilder. Dessa framtidsbilder arbetades fram under projektets gång och bygger på en bred omvärldsbeskrivning och efterföljande scenarioarbete. Omvärldsbeskrivning gav ett antal drivkrafter som vägdes samman till två påverkansfaktorer – ”Totala byggnadsinvesteringar” och ”Träets konkurrenskraft” – vilka gav fyra scenarier:

    • Sky is the limit
    • Trägen vinner
    • Historien igen
    • Allt är svart

    Respektive scenario innehåller en framtidsbild för år 2020 samt en presentation om vägen från nuläge till framtidsläge.

    Sky is the limit: Högkonjunkturscenario där byggandet tar fart och träbyggande ökar sina marknadsandelar. Anledningen är aktivitet i industriella processer, fokus på energioch hållbarhetsfrågor, standardiseringsarbete internationellt m.m. Resultatet blir en 40 %-ig andel trä i flerbostadsbyggandet och en fortsatt dominans för trä på småhusmarknaden.

    Sky is the limit: Högkonjunkturscenario där byggandet tar fart och träbyggande ökar sina marknadsandelar. Anledningen är aktivitet i industriella processer, fokus på energioch hållbarhetsfrågor, standardiseringsarbete internationellt m.m. Resultatet blir en 40 %-ig andel trä i flerbostadsbyggandet och en fortsatt dominans för trä på småhusmarknaden.

    Historien igen: Låg konkurrenskraft för trä, under det att en högkonjunktur råder. Byggandet kommer igång, men eftersom det inte finns utvecklade träbyggalternativ dominerar traditionella material. Däremot används trä mycket inom interiöra lösningar och svenska företag konkurrerar framgångsrikt med internationella producenter på den marknaden.

    Allt är svart: Ett riktigt mörkt scenario med en fortsatt lågkonjunktur och minskad konkurrenskraft för trä. Trångboddhet, lägre levnadsstandard, statliga bygg- och forskningssatsningar på alternativa material till trä och ingen systemsyn som passar trämanufakturindustrin, är resultatet av denna utveckling.

    I scenarierna framträder tydligt vikten av en aktiv industri och viljan till samhandling och förändring. Genom att samarbeta och samhandla skapar industrin möjligheter även i sämre ekonomiska tider. Aktivitet är i detta fall viktigare än ekonomiskt goda förutsättningar. Genom en större samverkan och samhandling inom innovationssystemet kommer innovationskraften att öka hos företag och organisationer. Förutsättningar finns därmed för att förändra befintligt beteenden inom exempelvis byggindustrin, och att utifrån nya förutsättningar ta en ledande position i framväxten av nya affärs- och produktkoncept.

    Projektarbetet med att få fram en vision och en väl förankrad åtgärdskarta har bedrivits med hjälp av framsynsmetodik. Fyra workshops med tillfrågade representanter från industri, akademi och samhälle har genomförts i syfte att skapa en karta av alternativa åtgärder, beroende på olika framtida utfall. Varje workshop har innehållit diskussioner om drivkrafter på området Trämanufaktur, skapandet av alternativa scenarier, framtagande av en bred åtgärdskarta samt avslutningsvis en fördjupning inom vissa åtgärdsgrupper med mål att identifiera aktörer. Totalt har cirka 100 personer deltagit, representerande ett stort antal företag och organisationer med koppling till IS Trämanufaktur. Resultatet av arbetet är väl förankrat hos ledande organisationer inom Trämanufaktur, vilket borgar för ett snabbt genomförande av åtgärdsförslagen. Slutsatsen av projektarbetet är att metoden lämpar sig väl för att ta fram och förankra en vision, samt för att skapa åtgärdsförslag både på industri- och företagsnivå.

    Avslutningsvis kan konstateras att:

    • det fortfarande finns en stor potential för det industriella träbyggandet, samt att produktutbudet bör breddas,
    • ett nytt koncept, ”Green, Lean and Made in Sweden”, kan lyfta möbelindustrin ytterligare, och
    • industriell ROT är ett nytt område med stor potential för Trämanufakturindustrin, som sammankopplar funktionella produkt- och organisationslösningar med trä som gemensam nämnare.
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    Trämanufaktur i ett uthålligt samhällsbyggande: Åtgärder för ett samverkande innovationssystem
  • 28.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Building a new supply chain position: an exploratory study of companies in the timber housing industry2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1071-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is an important source of growth for many companies. It is also challenging, as it may require that the companies build a new position in the supply chain. The literature is devoid of analysis of different ways to build such positions in the construction industry. The purpose here is to explore the challenges involved in implementing innovations that require companies to establish new positions in a construction supply chain. Three in-depth case studies in the Swedish timber housing industry illustrate different challenges that arise with the different modes of repositioning of organic growth, collaboration and acquisition, and with moving either backward or forward in the supply chain. Organic growth is a slow process that prevents companies from taking a first-mover advantage. Acquisitions can involve difficulties with exploiting acquired competences. Collaboration brings the risks of diversity of interests and transient solutions. Furthermore, and as shown in the cases studied, challenges are associated with pre-existing competencies and relationships, with technology-oriented companies facing customer-related difficulties and market-oriented companies mainly facing ones involving technological solutions. The construction industry's idiosyncrasies amplify these challenges, as its fragmentation makes it difficult to connect with external companies at new positions. Stronger ties with business partners are likely to enable construction companies to exploit more easily innovations that require repositioning in the supply chain.

  • 29.
    Nyrud, Anders
    et al.
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Bysheim, Kristian
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Glasö, Geir
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrielt trebyggeri: erfaringer fra norske projekter2011Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ollonqvist, Pekka
    et al.
    Metla, Joensuu.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pirc, Andreja
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb.
    Ukrainski, Kadri
    University of Tartu, Erstland.
    Takala-Schreib, Vuokko
    Seinäjoki Univrsity of Applied Sciences, Jurva.
    Teder, Melis
    University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Strykowski, Wladyslav
    Wood Technology Institute Poznan, Poland.
    Viitala, Anne
    Nikkarikeskus Furniture Industry Development Center, Jurva.
    Networks and Local Mileus as a Furniture Industry Innovation Platform2011In: Innovation in Forestry: Territorial and Value Chain Relationships / [ed] Weiss, Gerhard; Pettenella, Davide; Ollonqvist, Pekka and Slee, Bill, Wallingford, UK: CAB International , 2011, p. 233-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is increasingly recognised as a key factor in environmental protection and sustainable development in forestry and forest-based industries. This volume provides a comprehensive theoretical foundation for the analysis of innovation processes and policies in a traditional, rural sector as well as presenting empirical analyses of innovation processes from major innovation areas. This book is essential reading for researchers and policy makers in forestry and environmental sciences

  • 31.
    Roos, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Hoen, Hans-Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Norway.
    Aguilar, Francisco X.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Haapala, Antti
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Hurmekoski, Elias
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Jussila, Jaakko
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Lahtinen, Katja
    Nat Resources Inst Finland LUKE, Finland.
    Mark-Herbert, Cecilia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toivonen, Ritva
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Toppinen, Anne
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Impact of prospective residents dwelling requirements on preferences for house construction materials2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 1275-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated peoples requirements for multi-story housing attributes and preferences for apartments in wooden-structure versus steel/concrete-structure multi-story buildings. Data came from an online survey conducted in Finland and Sweden that screened for respondents who expressed a preference for living in an apartment, as compared with a low-rise dwelling. Responses were analyzed using exploratory factor and regression analyses. Swedish respondents assigned significantly higher requirements to factors related to environmental and social sustainability performance than Finnish respondents. Requirements in both countries were described across three factors: environmental and social sustainability, quality, and design. Factor scores differed between socioeconomic sub-groups, particularly regarding quality, between urban and non-urban respondents. Preferences to live in an apartment in a wooden building were positively associated with respondents requirements for environmental and social sustainability, and negatively with requirements for quality-related attributes. Opposite relationships were found in the Swedish sample for apartments in non-wooden structure houses. Design requirements had no significant association with preferences for a specific material in load-bearing structures for multi-story buildings, in either country. The findings can contribute toward enhanced marketing efforts and customized value propositions to increase the social acceptability of multi-story wooden buildings and advance climate-related goals within the housing sector.

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    fulltext
  • 32.
    Tykkae, Saana
    et al.
    Environmental and Natural Resource Policy, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Vienna, Austria.
    McCluskey, Denise
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ollonqvist, Pekka
    Managerial Economics and Entrepreneurship, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roos, Anders
    Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ukrainski, Kadri
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Q Nyrud, Anders
    Norsk Treteknisk Institutt, Oslo, Norway.
    Bajric, Fahrudin
    The Economics, Energy and Prospective Department of the Technological Institute for Forestry, Cellulose, Construction Timber and Furniture, Paris, France.
    Development of timber framed firms in the construction sector - Is EU policy one source of their innovation?2010In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 199-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enhance competition in the construction industry, EU policies have created and harmonised functional building codes. Moreover, many actors advocate the construction industry moves towards a lean production, process-based way of working for quality and cost reasons. Here, Timber Framed Engineering approaches are considered to have a competitive and environmental advantage. There is however underlying concerns that conservatism in the construction industry, and lack of timber engineering skills, may be obstacles to change. This paper therefore assesses whether EU construction policy innovation contributed to innovation at the firm level. Timber framed innovators in six European countries were identified, and their sources of innovation assessed. The results indicate that timber framed firms have become actors in the construction industry. Firms have made product, process and organisation innovations. All case firms have similar sources for innovation. The common factor that triggers the firms to innovate is business opportunities that arise from demographic changes in the environment outside the firm, such as environmental sustainability and affordable housing for lower income groups. To address these opportunities, the case firms implicitly recognised that traditional project and site-based construction approaches are an incongruity. The firms have consequently established in-house prefabrication, including developed of lean production processes to ensure quality as well as effectiveness. The firms have all recognised that a fundamental barrier to their business was the lack of timber framed engineering competencies in their customers organisations. Accordingly, a business necessity for the case firms was developing construction design competencies. Firms benefited from governmental policy instruments that support timber framed Randamp;D and knowledge transfer. However, firms also gained new knowledge from their own experiences, which they also use in their operations. Accordingly, policy instruments are not a sole or dominant source for innovation in the case firms. Nonetheless, the change in building codes has been a pre-requisite the firms commercial developments.

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    FULLTEXT01
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