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  • 1.
    Aoki, T.
    et al.
    Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    青木洋貴, 坂尾知彦: 特集「組織継続のためのリスクマネジメント~サプライチェーンと医療を対象に~」を企画して [Editorial note for the special issue; risk management for sustainable organization - focusing on supply chain and medical treatment]2010In: Communications of JIMA, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 235-236Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Not Available

  • 2.
    Boonkanit, Prin
    et al.
    King Mongkut Institute of Technology.
    Lin, Han-Hsuan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Kengpol, Athakorn
    King Mongkut Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Industrial activities in EcoDesign - a comparison between Sweden and Thailand2008In: Joint International Congress and Exhibition Electronics Goes Green,2008, Berlin, 2008, p. 503-508Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Support for Designing Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions: Current Use and Requirements by Swedish Industry: Report from “Product and Service Design Support for REES” Project of Mistra REES program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the results of work packages (WPs) 2.1 and 2.2 in Project 2 (Product and Service Design Support for REES, i.e. resource efficient and effective solutions) of the Mistra REES program (www.mistrarees.se). WP 2.1 and WP 2.2 aim at documenting current use of design support and deriving requirements for design support, respectively. The document only covers results from interviews with companies, while the other reports will cover results, for instance, from scientific literature review (ISRN: LIU‐IEI‐RR‐‐17/00264—SE) and the design session with industry partners in the Mistra REES consortium. The results of this research into industrial practice will be a foundation for WP 2.3, which aims at developing new design support for designers.

    The document describes current use (i.e., “as‐is” status) of product and service design support when designing REES, as well as requirements for product and service design support for REES (i.e., information soon‐to‐be). Both of these are results of analysis in different phases of an early phase of design for REES. Those phases consist of requirement specification, conceptual design, and analysis and evaluation, which can be ordered temporally along the design process.

    Eight Sweden‐based companies that provide products and services in different sectors and work on resource efficiency participated in the interviews. They vary in terms of the size: from small to large. 24 individual interviews were conducted in total with the length being between 54 and 117 minutes (with two additional shorter follow up interviews via phone/skype). The 24 interviews were carried out all with face to face between May and July, 2016. The result from each company is described per section in this report, while cross‐company analysis will be made in a separate document.

  • 4.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    State of the Art of Design Methods for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions: Report from “Product and Service Design Methods for REES” Project of Mistra REES program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the results of work packages (WPs) 2.1 and 2.2 in Project 2 (Product and Service Design Methods for REES, i.e. resource efficient and effective solutions) of the Mistra REES program (www.mistrarees.se). WP 2.1 and WP 2.2 aim at documenting current use of design methods and deriving requirements for design methods, respectively. The document only covers results from the scientific literature review, while other reports to be developed will cover results, for instance, from the interview study and the design session with industry partners in the Mistra REES consortium. The results of the literature review will be a foundation for WP 2.3, which aims at developing new design methods. Note that methods here include frameworks, tools, and support for designers.

    The document describes current use (i.e., “as‐is” status) of product and service design methods when designing REES, as well as requirements for product and service design methods for REES (i.e., information soon‐to‐be). Both of these are results of analysis in different phases of an early phase of design for REES. Those phases consist of requirement specification, conceptual design, and analysis and evaluation, which can be ordered temporally along the design process.

    From the overall analysis, found is a lack of insights about methods for designing REES, although potentially useful methods are available. This means advancement of knowledge is insufficient for industry within the subject, which is relatively new. It may also mean the developed methods are not precisely according to the needs of companies. This shows a high potential of developing new methods in the rest of the project.

    More specifically, in the requirement specification, the literature shows that potentially useful methods include QFD (Quality Function Deployment), the Taguchi method, the Kano model, and data mining, among others. In the conceptual design, numerous methods exist, and most of them were developed in an older context, where REES was not as relevant as today. Those methods include DfX methods (X denotes cost, assembly, etc.), the functional block diagram, the checklist, morphological analysis, and the Fishbone Diagram. Only a few seem to be used widely in industry today. In the analysis and evaluation, available methods include Lifecycle Simulation, Lifecycle Costing, multi‐criteria decision making, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Most of the methods or tools available specialise in one area. This is a problem when developing an integrated offering of products and services, because designers need to have a holistic perspective for that.

    Regarding requirements for methods to be developed, the authors analysed literature as follows. In the requirement specification, requirements originating from multiple aspects and actors need to be taken into account. Since an enormous amount of data and information can be collected from products and by technologies implemented today, a huge opportunity is presented for enhancing requirement specification. Yet, there seems to be little insights to take this opportunity. In conceptual design, it is important to identify and involve relevant actors as well as their requirements according to a number of scientific reports. Especially, interaction between the relevant actors seems to be critical to be implemented. In analysis and evaluation, various pieces of earlier research works recommend different features to be implemented in methods. These features include visualization of information and information flows, graphical user interface, multiple users’ participation, and ability to handle environmental information, uncertainty and risk.

  • 5.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio Andres
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

  • 6.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahllöf, Lisbet
    Swedish Environmental Institute GothenburgSweden.
    Eriksson, Karin
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of an environmental evaluation tool in the transport sector and its impact on decision-making in the early stages of design2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies: From science to innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 381-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to government policies and regulations as well as customer and societal demands, organizations around the world are looking for ways to manage their economic, environmental and social sustainability. One of the most frequently used standards for organizations seeking to manage their environmental responsibilities is ISO 14001. This framework, however, is generic because it can be used by any organization irrespective of sector, activity or core values. Therefore, implementation of generic guidelines might result in the use of alternative tools that respond better to specific organizational needs and that provide outcomes that can be useful for decision-making. Through case study methodology, this paper shows how Volvo Group, a world-leading producer of transport solutions, developed an internal environmental evaluation tool called Environmental Screening (EnvS) to improve the environmental performance of its solutions.

  • 7.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis and evaluation in the early stages of designing resource efficient offerings: A comparison among large companies and small and medium enterprises2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 3161-3170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe there is a common vision to transform the economy into a sustainable one by 2050 which among other changes, calls for companies to address their offerings in a more resource-efficient manner. Therefore, efforts to provide design support namely, methods, guidelines and tools to specifically address natural resources and impact of products and services have been increasing. Moreover, companies of all sizes should integrate environmental concerns as early as possible to select profitable and environmentally sound offerings. However, knowledge of the analysis and evaluation of resourceefficient offerings seems currently insufficient especially with regards to similarities and differences among different company sizes. In this paper, the study of eight case companies: 3 large companies and 5 SMEs, shows how industry addresses the analysis and evaluation of their offerings. Commonalities among SMEs and large companies include decisions made by strategic or managerial boards, the use of mock-ups and project management skills, among others. These findings could help academics in providing relevant, useful and usable support to industry.

  • 8.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Requirements for REES design support: A survey among large companies and SMEs2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a survey carried out during 2017-2018 among 11 different companies as part of the REES programme (www.mistrarees.se) work package (WP) 2.2 of Project 2 (the project concerning design in the programme). The objective of the survey was to identify the most important requirements for design support that is being developed for REES designers in the manufacturing industry. The survey comprises results from a total of 25 participants from 5 SMEs and 6 large companies, which included 8 participants from SMEs and 17 from large companies. This classification was made according to the EU commission (2015) definition of SMEs (< 250 employees and ≤ EUR 50 million in annual turnover). The results presented are divided into Section 1 where an overview of the survey and the method is presented and section 2 results, where consolidated data and comparison between large companies and SMES is provided.

  • 9.
    Byers, Steven
    et al.
    College of Business, Idaho State University, USA.
    Groth, John
    Texas A & M University, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using Portfolio Theory to Improve Resource Efficiency of Invested Capital2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The diligent use of capital of all forms contributes to sustainability. In fact, capital employment is a common factor in sustainability research and in the practice of sustainability management.  For example, capital usage is included in research in environmental sustainability in the context of sustainable consumption. Product/Service Systems (PSS), which includes product sharing as one concrete form, has been addressed in research on that context. However, virtually no literature provides concrete, theory-based methods for quantifying the effects of sharing products. The goal of this paper is to describe the potential contribution of portfolio theory in order to quantify the effects and optimize the employment of capital in a theoretical and quantitative manner in the context of sustainability. Practices tied to the prescriptions of portfolio theory can contribute to environmental sustainability. The core perspective can be summarized as follows: the pooled, portfolio approach to asset management yields a reduction in assets employed and used relative to the volume of demanded resources used for need fulfillment.

    To reach this goal, the paper first provides a brief literature review from the “finance side” of literature. Then, the “engineering side” literature offers a few examples of others who have applied the prescriptions of portfolio theory to “engineering” application.

    After that, it provides an overview of the core issues and implications of portfolio theory, and develops some ideas to support application of portfolio theory. The provided insights illustrate how portfolio principles applied outside the arena of investments can yield benefits, including the fulfillment of needs with the least resource used – a core principle in sustainability. In particular, the “pooling” of assets/services to meet uncertain demands from different users of an asset/service pool may yield benefit from diversification effects.

    Furthermore, the paper offers additional avenues for future research. It describes how this special application of portfolio theory outside the realm of finance can yield benefits that positively affect the creation of value and resource use in an economy at large.

  • 10.
    Byers, Steven
    et al.
    College of Business, Idaho State University, USA.
    Groth, John
    Texas A & M University, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using portfolio theory to improve resource efficiency of invested capital2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited literature provides concrete, theory-based methods for quantifying the effects of sharing capital. This paper describes the potential contribution of portfolio theory to quantify the effects and optimize the employment of capital (human, tangible, financial, and service employing capital) in a theoretical and quantitative manner in the context of sustainability. Insights illustrate how portfolio principles can yield benefits, including the fulfillment of needs using fewer resources, consistent with sustainability. In particular, “pooling” assets to meet uncertain demands from different users of an asset pool may yield benefit from diversification effects. Suggests future research avenues such as the management of high-value, critical-value, and expiring resources to support sustainability.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 12.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Haber, Nicolas
    ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    PSS Modularization: A Customer Driven Integrated Approach2019In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 57, no 13, p. 4061-4077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from product ownership to integrated solutions (Product-Service Systems (PSSs)) is expected to lead to a highercustomer satisfaction in many cases compared to providing products and services separately. PSS providers are requiredto add more value to the products they offer, as well as to augment and diversify the services related to these products.To deal with this complex task, this paper proposes a practical methodology to support manufacturers in designingservices related to the proper functioning of their products fulfilling customers’ needs and expectations. This approach isbased on the synergic use of Quality Function Deployment for PSS (QFDforPSS), Axiomatic Design (AD) and theservice blueprint tools, providing a correlation between the customers’ expectations, the PSS components and the PSSmodules. The methodology was verified by means of a service modularisation for PSS at a company operating in thebiomedical sector. While the proposed approach needs to be validated through further studies in different contexts, itspositive results in reducing both the risk of overdesigning and the possibility of creating design conflicts can contributepractically to the scientific knowledge on the development of integrated solutions.

  • 13.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Dept. Precision Engineering The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Coordinating Ecodesign Methods in Early Stages of Industrial Product Design2008In: International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing, ISSN 1095-807X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 35-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of the concept of environmental sustainability in the industrial world has brought to light the importance assigned to the first stages of the product development, i.e. the early-phase design activities. It is of common knowledge that decisions made in these phases allow the products- optimization from the performances point of view, as well as more competitiveness on the market, drastically reducing the costs related to subsequent modifications and corrections of the product during the manufacturing phases or even after its introduction in the market. Ecodesign certainly represents the most effective design approach for the achievement of such goals. A large number of tools proposed in the recent years is an indicator of the great attention paid to such problems. However, the use of such tools by designers is still partial or not well organized, particularly in SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises). The research work carried out is an attempt to the solution of these difficulties. This paper proposes a design procedure, consisting in the integration of several design tools in a framework of a general nature aimed at reducing the gap between theory and practice. The study, performed throughout the development of a case study, analyzed the -usability- of the Ecodesign methods, and underlined their efficiency and effectiveness when used in a synergic way.

  • 14.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering , “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uncovering differences and similarities among Quality Function Deployment based methods in Design for X: benchmarking in different domains2017In: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 690-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability for a product or a service to meet customer needs and requirements efficiently before its market launch is a key-point in design and development activities. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) represents one of the most powerful design methods to achieve such a goal.This study investigates the QFD-based methods proposed in the last two decades, whose use in different ambits of Design for X (DfX) is reported to be effective.We selected most common QFD based methods, analysing how designers can implement and coordinate them in design activities effectively throughout their application to an identical case study.

  • 15.
    Haber, Nicolas
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Fargnoli, Mario
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating QFD for Product-Service Systems with the Kano model and fuzzy AHP2018In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a systematic procedure for the development of Product-ServiceSystems (PSSs) by focusing on the analysis of customer requirements, and theselection of those that can practically enhance the offerings’ value. With this goal inmind, the Quality Function Deployment for Product Service Systems (QFDforPSS)method was augmented by means of the Kano model to filter the customers’ needsand transform the attractive ones into Receiver State Parameters (RSPs), as thecornerstone of QFDforPSS. Then, to properly assess these parameters and theirinherent uncertainty, the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method wasalso integrated into the procedure. To validate the proposed procedure, it wasimplemented in a case study in the medical devices sector, in collaboration with ahaemodialysis equipment manufacturer, which operates in a regulated market ofproduct-oriented services.

  • 16.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    University of Tokyo.
    Arai, Tamio
    University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Service CAD System to Integrate Product Behavior and Service Activity for Total Value2008In: 15th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering,2008, Sydney: CIRP , 2008, p. 482-487Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Good combination of product and service is one of key issues toward environmental conscious business. This paper aims at demonstrating a design method and a CAD tool to integrate products and service activities for total value. Service Blueprint from marketing field is extended to cover product behavior by utilizing physical feature from engineering field. View model, which describes function structure of service for the receiver state, works as a bridge between product behavior and service activity. Both the above method and the CAD tool are demonstrated through an example presented herein.

  • 17.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo.
    Arai, Tamio
    The University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University .
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service CAD System to Integrate Product Behavior and Service Activity for Total Value2009In: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science & Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 262-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good combination of product and service is a key issue to balance economic growth with environmental concerns. This paper aims at demonstrating a design method to integrate products and service activities for total value. Our design method differs from Traditional Engineering and Concurrent Engineering in that products and service activities are designed in parallel according to customer value. To establish such design method, the service blueprinting method from marketing field, which describes service delivery processes, is extended to include product and its behavior. Function structure of service for the receiver state works as a bridge between product behavior and service activity. Both the above method and the CAD tool are demonstrated through an example presented herein.

  • 18.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    et al.
    Research into Artifacts, Center of Engineering (RACE), The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fukushima, Ryo
    Research into Artifacts, Center of Engineering (RACE), The University of Tokyo.
    Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design2019In: Mechanical Engineering Reviews, ISSN 2187-9753, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-20, article id 18-00184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customizing offerings to match customers’ specific needs is a common practice for manufacturers striving to maintain their competence in markets. Despite Product/Service Systems (PSSs) having developed substantially in industry and academia for the last two decades, no scientific review of PSS customization has been published. This prompted us to conduct a review of scientific papers relating to products, services, and PSS customization with a focus on design, with the aim of clarifying future research directions in PSS customization. In particular, distinct design models and methods were individually examined, with a special focus on service aspects, in terms of what to design and how to design it. The population of papers included in the review was those included in the Web of Science. Even though service customization has been utilizing the knowledge generated by product customization, which has been researched extensively for decades, there are differences between them, such as the difficulty associated with modularity. The same or even larger differences apply to PSS customization, because, apart from service characteristics, PSS also has product characteristics and thus is more complex. Results also include that the module-based platform strategy used in service customization can also be used for PSS. Although several papers concerned with PSS customization have been published thus far, their focus has been on the service aspect of PSS, providing further research opportunities. Existing methods to design PSS can be also applied to develop a method for PSS customization.

  • 19.
    Kaddoura, Mohamad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; CIRAIG, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is Prolonging the Lifetime of Passive Durable Products a Low-Hanging Fruit of a Circular Economy?: A Multiple Case Study2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 18, article id 4819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending the lifetime of passive products, i.e., products that do not consume materials or energy during the use phase, by implementing product-service systems (PSS) has a potential to reduce the environmental impact while being an attractive and straightforward measure for companies to implement.

    This research assesses the viability of introducing PSS for passive products, by documenting five real product cases of prolonging the lifetime through repair or refurbishment and by quantifying, through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC), the change in environmental and economic outcome.

    The environmental impact (measured as global warming potential over the life cycle) was reduced for all cases because extraction and production dominated the impact. This reduction was 45–72% for most cases and mainly influenced by the number of reuses and the relative environmental burden of the components whose lifetime was prolonged. The costs for the company (measured as LCC from the manufacturer’s perspective) decreased too by 8–37%. The main reason that costs reduced less than the environmental impact is that some costs have no equivalent in LCA, e.g., administration and labor costs for services. The decreases in both LCA and LCC results, as well as the willingness of the companies to implement the changes, demonstrate that this measure can be financially attractive for companies to implement and effectively contribute to a circular economy.

  • 20.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 128, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for sustainable development are arguably part of the most discussed issues among political and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by global challenges such as climate change, urbanization, and critical natural resource depletion. Sustainable development will require deep structural and wide-reaching changes in current institutions, technologies, and businesses. Furthermore, new approaches are needed to facilitate the development, diffusion, and implementation of environmental technologies. In the academic discourse different concepts, e.g., ecodesign and Product/Service System design, have been proposed within the framework of sustainable development. To deliver even more system-wide environmental improvements, these concepts have been challenged to be expanded in focus beyond products and services to include large technical systems encompassing non-technological dimensions. Motivated by these, the goal of this article is twofold. First, to offer an expanded view on ecodesign of product/service systems using a perspective of large technical systems. Second, to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems such as district heating supply, waste management, and renewable energy systems. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews and company documentation analysis, this study examines five companies that develop and diffuse large scaled environmental technology systems. As a result of these case studies, we propose components of business concepts that incorporate both technological and non-technological dimensions. Our proposed business concept components are: market (including regulation), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy are particularly important in the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems.

  • 21.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of business concept with environmental technology2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, strategies for sustainable development are arguably among the most discussed issues among political, public and corporate actors. These discussions are spurred by major trends such as climate change, rapid urbanization, critical material and energy resource depletion. To facilitate sustainable development, deep structural and wide reaching changes seem needed in current technologies, infrastructure, businesses and institutions. In the academic discourse, different concepts, methods and tools, have been proposed and continue to be expounded within the framework of sustainable development. Notable among them include the concepts of ecodesign, and product and service systems design. These concepts have contributed to environmental improvements but have been challenged by critics to be expanded beyond products and services to include non-technological changes in order to deliver system wide environmental improvements.

    Departing from this background, the goal of this article is twofold, first to offer an expanded view on environmental conscious design of products and services with large scaled sociotechnical systems and then to propose and discuss important components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems. In doing this, we offer a new way of describing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology systems which incorporates non-technological dimensions such as meeting formal and informal expectations. We propose a set of components to consider when developing business concepts based on large scaled environmental technology offering. These components are: market (including regulations), finance, resources, activities, partnership (especially public-private partnership), ownership and responsibility, and legitimacy. Among these factors, regulation, public-private partnership, and legitimacy were  found as particular for environmental technology diffusion.

  • 22.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Akasaka, Fumiya
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Requirement Analysis for User-Oriented Service Design2009In: 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Akasaka, Fumiya
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirement Analysis for User-Oriented Service Design2009In: Asian International Journal of Science and Technology Production & Manufacturing Engineering, ISSN 1906-151X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 11-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing, systems combining physical products and services have been attracting much attention. For such systems, designers need to focus on customer requirements rather than on the achievement of functionality. Methods are proposed in this paper for the analysis of requirements and extension of the design process proposed in Service Engineering. The focus is on the specification of service users in a client organization and on the extraction of their requirements in consideration of the organizational objectives of the client. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by an application, where a bank is a target client of a service.

  • 24.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    The University of Tokyo.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Arai, Tamio
    The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    An Integrated Analysis of Customer Value and Environmental Burden for Environmentally Conscious Design2009In: International journal of design engineering, ISSN 1751-5874, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    A failure analysis method for designing highly reliable product-service systems2018In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, product-service systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developingmeasures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failureanalysis in PSS design called PSS failure mode and effect analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends theframework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product andservice aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 26.
    Kumar, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trinh, Gian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How Uncertainty is Perceived and Managed in Design by PSS Providers?: Relation of PSS types Provided2012In: The Philosopher's Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012 / [ed] Yoshiki Shimomura, Koji Kimita, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , p. 91-96p. 91-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives new insight into how PSS providers perceive and react to different types of uncertainties regarding PSS in their planning, design, and development through an interview study. The companies were found to be most concerned about Market Uncertainty, Supplier Coordination Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Innovative Services, in this order. The uncertainty types perceived as opportunity by a greater number of firms were Market Uncertainty, Environment Uncertainty, and Uncertainty of Product Functioning. Furthermore, the companies that offer Use-Oriented Service or Result-Oriented Service seemed to perceive lower risks than those offering only Product-Oriented Service.

  • 27.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and Economic Contribution of Design Changes in Integrated Product Service Offerings2013In: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 435-446Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, and presents current research on product-service systems written by experts in the field.

  • 28.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    State-of-the-art in companies regarding customised offering design2013Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Actor's and System Maps for Integrated Product Service Offerings: Practical Experience from Two Companies2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 16, p. 320-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective is to analyze how proposed Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) actors and system maps can be utilized in order to identify and access IPSO-related requirements. Furthermore, the objective is to identify and analyze how IPSO-related requirements are managed and transformed into product-related design aspects. Literature review, interviews and workshops were the primary research methods used. The conclusion is that participating companies have realized that there are several issues within their operations that can be improved, and proposed maps provide support for this. These maps provide useful detailed information compared to other approaches, and are easy to use.

  • 30.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Hallberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Innovative Customized Offering Design2013Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business Implications of Integrated Product Service Offerings and Resulting Potential Engineering Issues2009In: ICED 09 - The 17th International Conference on Engineering Design, vol 4:: Product and Systems Design / [ed] Norell Bergendahl, M.; Grimheden, M.; Leifer, L.; Skogstad, P.; Lindemann, U., The Design Society, 2009, p. 71-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a shift in mechanical industry from a focus on physical products to product-service systems (PSS). The objective of this paper is to map out engineering implications and challenges based on five empirical examples of integrated product-service offerings (IPSOs). The paper is mainly based on case studies at Swedish manufacturing companies of different sizes. The following IPSOs were studied: (1) Lighting Function, (2) Core Plugs, (3) Material Handling, (4) Plate compacting, and (5) Thrust. These examples show that the orientation towards IPSOs implies several important strategic implications for a provider. Based on the examples, a discussion is presented concerning existing and potential engineering issues related to engineering requirements, development process and risks and opportunities with IPSOs.

  • 32.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Product/Service Systems Experiences: an International Survey of Swedish, Japanese, Italian and German Manufacturing Companies2009In: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2), Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 74-81Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service Systems have recently grown in manufacturers’ interest. This paper presents an international survey of manufacturers from Sweden, Japan, Italy and Germany. The results show that customer connection and demands along with increased competition were main driving forces for product/service systems. Also, most product/service systems include physical products, maintenance and repairs. Staff working with product development, marketing and after sales were the major actors in product/service system development. As in traditional product sales, most product/service systems still have the ownership of physical products transferred to the customer/user. Physical products used in product/service systems are seldom adapted for product/service systems.

  • 33.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business Implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings2009In: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2) Conference / [ed] Rajkumar Roy and Essam Shehab, Cranfield CERES , 2009, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the business implications of Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs). The objective is to show examples of the business implications of IPSOs from a supplier’s perspective, and to suggest specifications for supporting methods needed for such an industrial company. The paper is largely based on empirical case studies of 120 Swedish manufacturing companies of all sizes. Results from the case studies show that both small and large companies that conduct the transition towards IPSOs face several important strategic challenges, some of them associated with high risk.

  • 34.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and economic benefits of Integrated Product Service Offerings quantified with real business cases2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies environmental and economic benefits of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) in real practice from a life cycle perspective, in comparison with its corresponding product-sales type business as a reference. The paper also discusses the engineering activities contributing to those effects, as well as their enablers. To reach this goal, the paper investigates three IPSOs as real-life business cases in industry. Those cases are selected from different sectors and have different characteristics. In addition, the paper calculates and compares environmental impacts and economic costs of different offerings in each case through the use of Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing, respectively. In all three cases, IPSOs had environmental and economic advantages in comparison with the product-sales type business. The engineering activities contributing to those advantages under IPSOs were recycling, remanufacturing, reuse, maintenance, and holistic planning and operation. The enablers were found to be high flexibility for realizing products and services and close relationships with relevant actors.

  • 35.
    Lindkvist Haziri, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 1article id 4037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Company interest and research in the circular economy and remanufacturing have increased as a means of reducing negative environmental impacts. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby used products are returned to a state of like-new. However, few products are designed for remanufacturing, and further research and industrial efforts are needed to facilitate more widespread use of design for remanufacturing. One crucial factor facilitating design for remanufacturing is the integration of feedback in the product design process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse feedback flows from remanufacturing to product design. Hence, a literature study and multiple case studies were conducted at three companies that design, manufacture and remanufacture different kinds of products. The cross-case analysis revealed the five barriers of the lack of internal awareness, lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, lack of feedback channels and non-supportive organisational structures, and the five enablers of business opportunities, integrated design processes, customers’ demand, laws, regulations and standards, and new technologies. To establish improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design, the barriers need to be addressed and the enablers explored. Thus, improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design will improve the design of future products suited for a more circular economy.

  • 36.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the Use of Product Life-Cycle Information in Two Value Chains Including Remanufacturing2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Not many products are designed for remanufacturing. One of the reasons may be that the information flows to and from remanufacturers are not in level with the other information flows in the product life-cycle. In this paper, the information flows within two value chains including remanufacturing and PSS are investigated. The case studies show that the remanufacturing part of the value chain is not strongly included in the information flows in the product life-cycle. This means that valuable feedback about the product design and condition at end-of-life is neglected. Further, information feed forward, which could potentially make the remanufacturing process more efficient, is not satisfactorily implemented.

  • 37.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrated Product Service Engineering - Factors Influencing Environmental Performance2012In: Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory / [ed] Boris Cogan, InTech , 2012, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter endeavours to lead the scientific discussion regarding which IPSE factors are expected to, in theory, lower the environmental impact of a life cycle compared to a traditional product sales business. To do so, the IPSE concept is introduced, first with an emphasis on engineering processes rather than an object such as PSS. In the following sections, four aspects from theory will be discussed: product development, information asymmetry, economies of scale, and risk. These sections discuss how environmental impacts are influenced from a product life cycle perspective, and highlight crucial factors theoretically. They are followed by an overall discussion and an examination of some promising future work. The chapter provides the research community with a first theoretical cornerstone regarding environmental performance by IPSE. To practitioners, it will be an eye opener for how they engineer.

  • 38.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrated product service engineering: factors influencing environmental performance2011In: Design for Innovative Value Towards a Sustainable Society: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2011: 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing / [ed] M. Matsumoto, Y. Umeda, K. Masui, and S. Fukushige, Springer Netherlands, 2011, p. 386-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to lead theoretical discussion regarding which IPSE (Integrated Product Service System) factors are expected to increase environmental performance of a life cycle compared to a traditional product sales business. Existing theories such as theory of product development, transaction cost theory and theory for risk management are used and the paper theoretically analyzes and identifies the following crucial characteristics; complexity of the product, uncertainty of offering, control of product operation, asymmetric information and scale of economy.

  • 39.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical Environmental Comparison of Integrated Product Service Offerings vs. Traditional Sales2011In: Systems Engineering / [ed] Boris Cogan, IN-TECH, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book "Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory" is a collection of articles written by developers and researches from all around the globe. Mostly they present methodologies for separate Systems Engineering processes; others consider issues of adjacent knowledge areas and sub-areas that significantly contribute to systems development, operation, and maintenance. Case studies include aircraft, spacecrafts, and space systems development, post-analysis of data collected during operation of large systems etc. Important issues related to "bottlenecks" of Systems Engineering, such as complexity, reliability, and safety of different kinds of systems, creation, operation and maintenance of services, system-human communication, and management tasks done during system projects are addressed in the collection. This book is for people who are interested in the modern state of the Systems Engineering knowledge area and for systems engineers involved in different activities of the area. Some articles may be a valuable source for university lecturers and students; most of case studies can be directly used in Systems Engineering courses as illustrative materials.

  • 40.
    Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlhammar,, Carl
    IIIEE, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Editorial2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 2p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Procedia CIRP Special Issue is a collection of manuscripts from the 10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (CIRP IPS2 2018). Because our societies face increasing demands to better address resource and environmental challenges, this year’s theme was resource efficient and effective solutions (REES).

  • 41.
    Lozano, Francisco
    et al.
    Tecnol Monterrey, Dept Chem Engn, Monterrey Campus,Ave Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, Mexico.
    Freire, Paulo
    LaProma Lab Prod & Meio Ambiente, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Guillen-Gozalbez, Gonzalo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Reader Proc Syst Engn CPSE, London, England.
    Jimenez-Gonzalez, Concepcion
    GlaxoSmithKline, Res Triangle Pk, NC 27709 USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mac Dowell, Niall
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm Policy, Ctr Proc Syst Engn, London, England.
    Ortiz, María Gabriela
    Tecnol Monterrey, Dept Chem Engn, Monterrey Campus,Ave Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, Mexico.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Carpenter, Angela
    niv Leeds, Yorkshire, England.
    Viveros, Tomas
    Univ Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico.
    Editorial material: New perspectives for sustainable resource and energy use, management and transformation: approaches from green and sustainable chemistry and engineering2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 118, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Tecnol Monterrey, Mexico.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    Univ Gavle, Sweden; Org Sustainabil Ltd, Wales.
    Freire, Paulo
    LaProma Lab Prod and Meio Ambiente, Brazil.
    Jimenez-Gonzalez, Concepcion
    GlaxoSmithKline, NC 27709 USA; North Carolina State Univ, NC 27709 USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabriela Ortiz, Maria
    Tecnol Monterrey, Mexico.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Carpenter, Angela
    Univ Leeds, England.
    Viveros, Tomas
    Univ Leeds, England; Univ Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico.
    New perspectives for green and sustainable chemistry and engineering: Approaches from sustainable resource and energy use, management, and transformation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The special volume on green and sustainable chemistry and engineering has fourteen papers that were considered relevant to the present day issues and discussion, such as adequate use of raw materials and efficient energy, besides considering renewable sources for materials and energy; and changing economical canons towards circular economy. Businesses, governments and Society are facing a number of challenges to tread the sustainability path and provide wellbeing for future generations. This special volume relevance provides discussions and contributions to foster that desirable future. Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday activities. Their widespread presence provides benefits to societies wellbeing, but can have some deleterious effects. To counteract such effect, green engineering and sustainable assessment in industrial processes have been gathering momentum in the last thirty years. Green chemistry, green engineering, eco-efficiency, and sustainability are becoming a necessity for assessing and managing products and processes in the chemical industry. This special volume presents fourteen articles related to sustainable resource and energy use (five articles), circular economy (one article), cleaner production and sustainable process assessment (five article), and innovation in chemical products (three articles). Green and sustainable chemistry, as well as sustainable chemical engineering and renewable energy sources are required to foster and consolidate a transition towards more sustainable societies. This special volume present current trends in chemistry and chemical engineering, such as sustainable resource and energy use, circular economy, cleaner production and sustainable process assessment, and innovation in chemical products. This special volume provides insights in this direction and complementing other efforts towards such transition. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Marzal Lopez, Ana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musonda, Frazer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kebir, Noara
    MicroEnergy Int GmbH, Germany.
    Lessons learnt from designing PSS for Base of Pyramid2017In: 24TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING: Next stage of sustainable manufacturing in IoT Era, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 61, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In literature, theoretical elaboration of PSS on the context of Base of Pyramid (BoP) is limited. To fill the gap, this paper discusses theoretical aspects of PSS for BoP markets. Based on literature review and a case study with renewable energy sector in rural areas in Bangladesh, the paper identified main conditions in designing a PSS for BoP markets (e.g. need of a deep understanding of customers), customer values for a PSS on BoP markets (e.g. income generating opportunities), and design characteristics particularly relevant to BoP markets (e.g. who and where of design). (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 44.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing and providing integrated product-service systems: challenges, opportunities and solutions resulting from prescriptive approaches in two industrial companies2018In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 2150-2168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to customer pressure and growing competition, industrial companies are increasingly moving towards providing integrated offerings of products and services (PSS). Despite this trend, literature providing a deep understanding of the challenges associated with this transition is limited, while publications discussing approaches that focus on overcoming these challenges are particularly lacking. This article is based on a multi-case study of two Swedish industrial companies undergoing the transition to designing and providing PSS. It reports on the challenges identified at the case companies as well as opportunities arising from and solutions to these challenges. Subsequent to initial research on the challenges, prescriptive approaches such as a life cycle costing method and a PSS design method were applied in the case companies over an extended time frame. On the one hand, these prescriptive approaches provided both a deeper understanding of the challenges, which include a persistent product centred mindset, a lack of adjustment to changed incentive structures and the separation of product and service design. On the other hand, they also led to effective solutions such as focusing on customer value and introducing a PSS transition facilitator for the design team. These solutions were adapted to the situations in the respective companies and they partly went beyond the prescriptive measures first introduced. Therefore, the article shows the applicability of prescriptive approaches and methods to detect, understand and alleviate the challenges of PSS design and provision. Further, the article provides broadly applicable learning for industrial companies undergoing this process.

  • 45.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capturing and enhancing provider value in product-service systems throughout the lifecycle: A systematic approach2018In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the transition from product seller to product-service system (PSS) provider implies fundamental changes in both value creation for customers and value capture by the provider, prior research has largely focused on the investigation and enhancement of customer value through PSSs. In contrast, a discussion of the changes in how providers attain value and support to enhance this in industrial practice is lacking at this time. This article presents a systematic, empirically-based approach to analyze and enhance PSS providers’ value capture throughout the lifecycle. This is achieved by two methods provider value analysis (PVA) facilitates a structured assessment of the value capture during the provision of PSSs in the use phase of the lifecycle, while provider value evaluation (ProVa) operationalizes the results of this analysis in the design phase to facilitate an improved value capture in the coming iteration. As the approach was developed in close collaboration with a large-scale PSS provider, the article further reports the results of its application in a case study spanning two years. As a result of using PVA, value dimensions of broad relevance for PSS providers are presented, supported by findings of applying the method at an additional PSS provider. Through the approach presented and case study results attained, the article points out how the design and management of a PSS, focusing on the provider’s value and available benefits throughout the lifecycle, can be enhanced in industry, while extending the academic body of knowledge on the value capture of PSS providers and its implications for PSS design and provision.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-17 11:56
  • 46.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facilitating Industrial Adoption of Design Methods for Product-Service Systems2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of Engineering Design (ICED15) / [ed] Christian Weber, Stephan Husung, Gaetano Cascini, Marco Cantamessa, Dorian Marjanovic, Frederico Rotini, DESIGN SOC , 2015, Vol. 7, p. 301-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to increasing evidence detailing both economic and environmental advantages of Product-Service Systems (PSS), the number of PSS provided in the market is still limited. Limited adoption in general can in part be linked to a limited implementability of PSS-focused design methods.

    This paper aims to provide a first account of characteristics intended to support developers of PSS design methods in providing high levels of implementability and usability. Since fields adjacent to PSS design, such as engineering design or eco-design, have experienced similar challenges in method adoption, literature focusing on this was reviewed. The applicability of the challenges found for PSS design methods was subsequently evaluated with a questionnaire among practitioners involved with the trial of a PSS design method over an extended timeframe. In order to tackle the challenges identified, beneficial properties found in the literature on PSS design methods were utilized in order to derive six characteristics. These are intended as a first orientation for developers aiming to facilitate a broad adoption and use of PSS design methods, and as a discussion basis in the research community.

  • 47.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khanagha, Saeed
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Elfving, Sofi W.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Whats in it for the Provider? The Case of a Telecom Vendors Value Capturing from the Transition to Product-Service Systems2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In adopting highly integrated Product-Service Systems (PSS), incentive structures change and the value attainable for providers throughout the lifecycle becomes an issue of growing complexity. Nonetheless, value for PSS providers has up to now not been considered in a multidimensional fashion. In an effort to move towards a characterization of providers value, an offering in the information communication technology sector was examined through an investigation with ten staff-members of Ericsson, Sweden. This led to a value-categorization, which can be utilized in the PSS design process to enhance the value captured throughout the lifecycle beyond immediate monetary benefit. In an effort to provide general learnings, the results are discussed with a focus on PSS business models, PSS design and management communication. Overall, the results presented provide a more comprehensive picture of what a provider has to gain from a PSS offering throughout its entire lifecycle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  • 48.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ProVa – Provider Value Evaluation for Integrated Product Service Offerings2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the provision of integrated products and services, solution providers have more to gain than solely profit. This paper introduces the concept of provider value, which is novel in the area of integrated products and services. Further, a method is proposed (ProVa) to identify and evaluate the provider value of an integrated product service offering (IPSO) during the development process. ProVa allows for an assessment in terms of monetary value, but also with respect to other categories such as information and customer relations. In addition, aspects such as uncertainty and experience curve effects are considered.The functionality of ProVa is shown by application to a case in IPSO design.

  • 49. Mäki, Tomas
    et al.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Umeda, Yasushi
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environment - An Obstacle or an Opportunity in Business?: A Study of Leading Companies in Sweden and Japan2009In: 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Sapporo, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Müller, Patrick
    et al.
    Dept. of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toward Consolidation on Product/Service-Systems Design2010In: Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS2 Conference 2010 / [ed] Sakao, T., Larsson, T., Lindahl, M., Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 219-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Product-Service Systems (PSS) has been carried out for many years and in various disciplines. Nevertheless, design guidelines and standards for industrial application are hardly available. Even a standardized terminology has not yet been developed. Consolidation of PSS approaches among research projects and industrial branches is rudimentary. This is an obstacle for companies to incorporate and deploy PSS design approaches and to introduce efficient work or communication processes with customers and suppliers. Meanwhile, standardization on PSS design is “moving into” research agendas. This paper is based on literature analysis, experience in industrially applied research, and standardization practice of the authors. The contribution elaborates on various viewpoints and frequently raised issues in PSS research, which are important in order to consolidate PSS design approaches.

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