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  • 1.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Reenacting and Recombining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration2016In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an “inner world” that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world – prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory–motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations and tested on a Robosoft Kompaï robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, toward a goal specified by top-down contextual information. The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where the execution of actions is inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory–motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an “inner world” generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly. We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior toward specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

  • 2.
    Einarsson, Anna
    et al.
    Royal Coll Mus Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first authors artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers and audiences attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we believe that the theoretical perspectives and concrete examples discussed in this paper help to elucidate how situations-and with them affordances-are dynamically constructed through the interactions of various mechanisms as people engage in embodied and situated activity.

  • 3.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Skovde, Sweden.
    A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives2014In: Frontiers in Neurorobotics, ISSN 1662-5218, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  • 4.
    Sakreida, Katrin
    et al.
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, German.
    Effnert, Isabel
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, German.
    Thill, Serge
    Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Menz, Mareike
    Department of Systems Neuroscience and Neuroimage Nord, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, German.
    Jirak, Doreen
    Knowledge Technology Group, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Eickhoff, Claudia
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Eickhoff, Simon B.
    Cognitive Neuroscience Group, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany / Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.
    Borghi, Anna
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy / nstitute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Binkofski, Ferdinand
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany / Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany / JARA − Translational Brain Medicine, Germany.
    Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways2016In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 69, p. 89-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of affordances indicates “action possibilities” as characterized by object properties the environment provides to interacting organisms. Affordances relate to both perception and action and refer to sensory-motor processes emerging from goal-directed object interaction. In contrast to stable properties, affordances may vary with environmental context. A sub-classification into stable and variable affordances was proposed in the framework of the ROSSI project ( Borghi et al., 2010; Borghi and Riggio, 2015, 2009). Here, we present a coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional imaging studies on object interaction targeting consistent anatomical correlates of these different types of affordances. Our review revealed the existence of two parallel (but to some extent overlapping) functional pathways. The network for stable affordances consists of predominantly left inferior parietal and frontal cortices in the ventro-dorsal stream, whereas the network for variable affordances is localized preferentially in the dorso-dorsal stream. This is in line with the proposal of differentiated affordances: stable affordances are characterized by the knowledge of invariant object features, whereas variable affordances underlie adaptation to changing object properties.

  • 5.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Lundberg, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Tom, Ziemke
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    What Is It Like to Be a Bot?: Toward More Immediate Wizard-of-Oz Control in Social Human–Robot Interaction2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Wizard-of-Oz techniques have been developed to make robots appear autonomous and more social in human-robot interaction. Many of the existing solutions use control interfaces that introduce significant time delays and hamper the robot operator's ability to produce socially appropriate responses in real time interactions. We present work in progress on a novel wizard control interface designed to overcome these limitations:a motion tracking-based system which allows the wizard to act as if he or she is the robot. The wizard sees the other through the robot's perspective, and uses his or her own bodily movements to control it. We discuss potential applications and extensions of this system, and conclude by discussing possible methodological advantages and disadvantages.

  • 6.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Physical vs. Virtual Agent Embodiment and Effects on Social Interaction2016In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 16th International Conference, IVA 2016, Los Angeles, CA, USA, September 20–23, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] David Traum, William Swartout, Peter Khooshabeh, Stefan Kopp, Stefan Scherer, Anton Leuski, Cham: Springer, 2016, Vol. 10011, p. 412-415Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work indicates that physical robots elicit more favorable social responses than virtual agents. These effects have been attributed to the physical embodiment. However, a recent meta-analysis by Li [1] suggests that the benefits of robots are due to physical presence rather than physical embodiment. To further explore the importance of presence we conducted a pilot study investigating the relationship between physical and social presence. The results suggest that social presence of an artificial agent is important for interaction with people, and that the extent to which it is perceived as socially present might be unaffected by whether it is physically or virtually present.

  • 7.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide peoples social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie peoples judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior -(2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that peoples intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  • 8.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Workshop on Intention Recognition in HRI2016In: 2016 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION (HRI), IEEE , 2016, p. 585-586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present workshop focuses on the topic of intention recognition in HRI. To be able to recognise intentions of other agents is a fundamental prerequisite to engage in, for instance, instrumental helping or mutual collaboration. It is a necessary aspect of natural interaction. In HRI, the problem is therefore bi-directional: not only does a robot need the ability to infer intentions of humans; humans also need to infer the intentions of the robot. From the human perspective, this inference draws both on the ability to attribute cognitive states to lifeless shapes, and the ability to understand actions of other agents through, for instance, embodied processes or internal simulations (i.e the human ability to form a theory of mind of other agents). How precisely, and to what degree these mechanisms are at work when interacting with social artificial agents remains unknown. From the robotic perspective, this lack of understanding of mechanisms underlying human intention recognition, or the capacity for theory of mind in general, is also challenging: the solution can, for instance, not simply be to make autonomous systems work "just like" humans by copying the biological solution and implementing some technological equivalent. It is therefore important to be clear about the theoretical framework(s) and inherent assumptions underlying technological implementations related to mutual intention. This remains very much an active research area in which further development is necessary. The core purpose of this workshop is thus to contribute to and advance the state of the art in this area.

  • 9.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde.
    An Architecture-oriented Approach to System Integration in Collaborative Robotics Research Projects: An Experience Report2015In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, E-ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective system integration requires strict adherence to strong software engineering standards, a practice not much favoured in many collaborative research projects. We argue that component-based software engineering (CBSE) provides a way to overcome this problem because it provides flexibility for developers while requiring the adoption of only a modest number of software engineering practices. This focus on integration complements software re-use, the more usual motivation for adopting CBSE. We illustrate our argument by showing how a large-scale system architecture for an application in the domain of robot-enhanced therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been implemented. We highlight the manner in which the integration process is facilitated by the architecture implementation of a set of placeholder components that comprise stubs for all functional primitives, as well as the complete implementation of all inter-component communications. We focus on the component-port-connector meta-model and show that the YARP robot platform is a well-matched middleware framework for the implementation of this model. To facilitate the validation of port-connector communication, we configure the initial placeholder implementation of the system architecture as a discrete event simulation and control the invocation of each component’s stub primitives probabilistically. This allows the system integrator to adjust the rate of inter-component communication while respecting its asynchronous and concurrent character. Also, individual ports and connectors can be periodically selected as the simulator cycles through each primitive in each sub-system component. This ability to control the rate of connector communication considerably eases the task of validating component-port-connector behaviour in a large system. Ultimately, over and above its well-accepted benefits for software re-use in robotics, CBSE strikes a good balance between software engineering best practice and the socio-technical problem of managing effective integration in collaborative robotics research projects.

  • 10.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skovde, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skovde, Sweden.
    Embodied cognition and circular causality: on the role of constitutive autonomy in the reciprocal coupling of perception and action2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reciprocal coupling of perception and action in cognitive agents has been firmly established: perceptions guide action but so too do actions influence what is perceived. While much has been said on the implications of this for the agents external behavior, less attention has been paid to what it means for the internal bodily mechanisms which underpin cognitive behavior. In this article, we wish to redress this by reasserting that the relationship between cognition, perception, and action involves a constitutive element as well as a behavioral element, emphasizing that the reciprocal link between perception and action in cognition merits a renewed focus on the system dynamics inherent in constitutive biological autonomy. Our argument centers on the idea that cognition, perception, and action are all dependent on processes focussed primarily on the maintenance of the agents autonomy. These processes have an inherently circular nature self-organizing, self producing, and self-maintaining and our goal is to explore these processes and suggest how they can explain the reciprocity of perception and action. Specifically, we argue that the reciprocal coupling is founded primarily on their endogenous roles in the constitutive autonomy of the agent and an associated circular causality of global and local processes of self regulation, rather than being a mutual sensory-motor contingency that derives from exogenous behavior. Furthermore, the coupling occurs first and foremost via the internal milieu realized by the agents organismic embodiment. Finally, we consider how homeostasis and the related concept of allostasis contribute to this circular self regulation.

  • 11.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde.
    The role of intention in cognitive robotics2016In: Toward Robotic Socially Believable Behaving Systems: Modeling Emotions / [ed] Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C., Springer, 2016, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the development of robots that can interact effectively with people requires a special focus on building systems that can perceive and comprehend intentions in other agents. Such a capability is a prerequisite for all pro-social behaviour and in particular underpins the ability to engage in instrumental helping and mutual collaboration. We explore the prospective and intentional nature ofaction, highlighting the importance of joint action, shared goals, shared intentions,and joint attention in facilitating social interaction between two or more cognitive agents. We discuss the link between reading intentions and theory of mind, notingthe role played by internal simulation, especially when inferring higher-level action focussed intentions. Finally, we highlight that pro-social behaviour in humans is the result of a developmental process and we note the implications of this for the challenge of creating cognitive robots that can read intentions.

  • 12.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde.
    Czym jest to, co zwiemy ucieleśnieniem?: (What's that Thing Called Embodiment?)2015In: AVANT - Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies, ISSN 2082-6710, Vol. VI, no 3, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodiment has become an important concept in many areas of cognitivescience. There are, however, very different notions of exactly what embodiment is andwhat kind of body is required for what type of embodied cognition. Hence, while manynowadays would agree that humans are embodied cognizers, there is much lessagreement on what kind of artifact could be considered embodied. This paper identifiesand contrasts six different notions of embodiment which can roughly be characterizedas (1) structural coupling between agent and environment, (2) historical embodimentas the result of a history of struct ural coupling, (3) physical embodiment,(4) organismoid embodiment, i.e. organism-like bodily form (e.g., humanoid robots),(5) organismic embodiment of autopoietic, living systems, and (6) social embodiment.

  • 13.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Swede.
    The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition2016In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 148, p. 4-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition is a hot topic in both cognitive science and AI, despite the fact that there still is relatively little consensus regarding what exactly constitutes ‘embodiment’. While most embodied AI and cognitive robotics research views the body as the physical/sensorimotor interface that allows to ground computational cognitive processes in sensorimotor interactions with the environment, more biologically-based notions of embodied cognition emphasize the fundamental role that the living body – and more specifically its homeostatic/allostatic self-regulation – plays in grounding both sensorimotor interactions and embodied cognitive processes. Adopting the latter position – a multi-tiered affectively embodied view of cognition in living systems – it is further argued that modeling organisms as layered networks of bodily self-regulation mechanisms can make significant contributions to our scientific understanding of embodied cognition.

  • 14.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Kristin E.
    US Army, MD USA.
    Endsley, Mica
    SA Technologies, CA USA.
    Situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems2017In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 46Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue brings together six papers on situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems, in particular in teams of collaborating humans and artificial agents. The editorial provides a brief introduction and overviews the contributions, addressing issues such as team and shared situation awareness, trust, transparency, timing, engagement, and ethical aspects. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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