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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Adami, Paolo Emilio
    Health and Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations IAAF, Monaco / Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Italy.
    Fagher, Kristina
    Rehabilitation Medicine Research Group, Lund University, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Bargoria, Victor
    Gauffin, Håkan
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Andersson, Christer
    Bermon, Stéphane
    Health and Science Department, International Association of Athletics Federations IAAF, Monaco / LAMHESS, Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Efficacy of pre-participation cardiac evaluation recommendations among athletes participating in World Athletics Championships2019In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, p. 1-11, article id UNSP 2047487319884385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Athletes competing in athletics (track and field) at international level may be participating with underlying undiagnosed life-threatening cardiovascular conditions. Our objective was to analyse variations in pre-participation cardiac evaluation prevalence among athletes participating in two International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Athletics Championships, with regard to the human developmental level and global region of their home countries, as well as athletes’ age category, gender, event group and medical insurance type.

    Design Cross-sectional web-based survey.MethodsA total of 1785 athletes competing in the IAAF World Under 18 Championships Nairobi 2017 and World Championships London 2017 were invited to complete a pre-participation health questionnaire investigating the experience of a pre-participation cardiac examination.

    Results A total of 704 (39%) of the athletes participated. Among these, 59% (60% of women; 58% of men) reported that they had been provided at least one type of pre-participation cardiac evaluation. Athletes from very high income countries, Europe and Asia, showed a higher prevalence of at least one pre-participation cardiac evaluation.

    Conclusions The prevalence of pre-participation cardiac evaluation in low to middle income countries, and the African continent in particular, needs urgent attention. Furthermore, increases in evaluation prevalence should be accompanied by the development of cost-effective methods that can be adopted in all global regions.

  • 2.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Moi Univ, Kenya.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Injury Pain in Track and Field Athletes: Cross-Sectional Study of Mediating Factors2019In: SPORTS, ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate whether data from track and field athletes support a conceptual model where the perception of pain affects self-evaluated health directly, yet is also indirectly mediated through personal factors and external stressors. A cross-sectional study was performed among athletes (n = 278) competing at the highest national level in the sport. Data for the dependent and independent variables were collected using the EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) standardized measure of health status, and the mediator variables were collected by the Body Consciousness Scale (BCS-HA), Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ), Commitment to Exercise Scale (CtES), and Brief Cope survey instruments. Two hundred and twenty-five (81%) athletes provided complete data sets. A strong direct association (c = -16.49; p amp;lt; 0.001) was found between pain and self-estimated health, and a global mediation was found through the mediators (mediation effect (ME), -1.814, 90% confidence interval (CI), -3.414, -0.351). Specific mediation was observed for body competence (ME, -0.721; 90% CI, -2.028, -0.097) and private body consciousness (ME, -0.514; 90% CI, -1.761, -0.017). In conclusion, we found a negative association between perceived pain and self-evaluated health among competitive track and field athletes, and we found that a portion of the association was mediated through mediating factors. Under the assumption that the analyzed pain data primarily represented noxious pain, the conceptual model of the relationships between pain and self-estimated health among high-level track and field athletes was supported.

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  • 3.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Janson, Staffan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spreco, Armin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Moi Univ, Kenya.
    Mountjoy, Margo
    McMaster Univ, Canada; Int Olymp Comm, Switzerland.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lifetime history of sexual and physical abuse among competitive athletics (track and field) athletes: cross sectional study of associations with sports and non-sports injury2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 53, no 22, p. 1412-1417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine associations between lifetime sexual and physical abuse, and the likelihood of injury within and outside sport in athletes involved in competitive athletics.

    Methods A cross sectional study was performed among the top 10 Swedish athletics athletes using 1 year prevalence of sports and non-sports injuries as the primary outcome measure. Associations with sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime abuse history and training load were investigated. Data were analysed using simple and multiple logistic regression models.

    Results 11% of 197 participating athletes reported lifetime sexual abuse; there was a higher proportion of women (16.2%) than men (4.3%) (P=0.005). 18% reported lifetime physical abuse; there was a higher proportion of men (22.8%) than women (14.3%) (P=0.050). For women, lifetime sexual abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of a non-sports injury (OR 8.78, CI 2.76 to 27.93; P<0.001). Among men, increased likelihood of a non-sports injury was associated with more frequent use of alcoholic beverages (OR 6.47, CI 1.49 to 28.07; P=0.013), while commencing athletics training at >13 years of age was associated with a lower likelihood of non-sports injury (OR 0.09, CI 0.01 to 0.81; P=0.032). Lifetime physical abuse was associated with a higher likelihood of sports injury in women (OR 12.37, CI 1.52 to 100.37; P=0.019). Among men, athletes with each parents with ≤12 years formal education had a lower likelihood of sustaining an injury during their sports practice (OR 0.37, CI 0.14 to 0.96; P=0.040).

    Conclusions Lifetime sexual and physical abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of injury among female athletes. Emotional factors should be included in the comprehension of injuries sustained by athletes.

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