The population size has far-reaching effects on the fitness of the population, that, in its turn influences the population extinction or persistence. Understanding the density- and age-dependent factors will facilitate more accurate predictions about the population dynamics and its asymptotic behaviour. In this paper, we develop a rigourous mathematical analysis to study positive and negative effects of increased population density in the classical nonlinear age-structured population model introduced by Gurtin \& MacCamy in the late 1970s. One of our main results expresses the global stability of the system in terms of the newborn function only. We also derive the existence of a threshold population size implying the population extinction, which is well-known in population dynamics as an Allee effect.
We address a Cauchy problem for a nonlinear elliptic PDE arising in glaciology. After recasting the Cauchy problem as an ill-posed operator equation, we prove (for values of a certain parameter allowing Hilbert space techniques) differentiability properties of the associated operator. We also suggest iterative methods which can be applied to solve the operator problem.
We consider the problem of reconstruction of the basal velocity of a glacier by measurements of the velocity on glacier’s surface. The main result is a stability estimate in a near-surface region, which represents a multiplicative inequality and shows that small errors in measurements produce small errors in the velocity in this region.
We present a one-dimensional model describing the blood flow through a moderately curved and elastic blood vessel. We use an existing two dimensional model of the vessel wall along with Navier-Stokes equations to model the flow through the channel while taking factors, namely, surrounding muscle tissue and presence of external forces other than gravity into account. Our model is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure based on the assumption of thinness of the vessel relative to its length. Results of numerical simulations are presented to highlight the influence of different factors on the blood flow. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
One dimensional models for fluid flow in tubes are frequently used tomodel complex systems, such as the arterial tree where a large numberof vessels are linked together at bifurcations. At the junctions transmission conditions are needed. One popular option is the classic Kirchhoffconditions which means conservation of mass at the bifurcation andprescribes a continuous pressure at the joint.
In reality the boundary layer phenomena predicts fast local changesto both velocity and pressure inside the bifurcation. Thus it is not appropriate for a one dimensional model to assume a continuous pressure. In this work we present a modification to the classic Kirchhoff condi-tions, with a symmetric pressure drop matrix, that is more suitable forone dimensional flow models. An asymptotic analysis, that has beencarried out previously shows that the new transmission conditions hasen exponentially small error.
The modified transmission conditions take the geometry of the bifurcation into account and can treat two outlets differently. The conditions can also be written in a form that is suitable for implementationin a finite difference solver. Also, by appropriate choice of the pressuredrop matrix we show that the new transmission conditions can producehead loss coefficients similar to experimentally obtained ones.
A false aneurysm is a hematoma, i.e. collection ofblood outside of a blood vessel, that forms due to a hole in the wall of an artery . This represents a serious medical condition that needs to be monitored and, under certain conditions, treatedurgently. In this work a one-dimensional model of a false aneurysm isproposed. The new model is based on a one-dimensional model of anartery previously presented by the authors and it takes into accountthe interaction between the hematoma and the surrounding musclematerial. The model equations are derived using rigorous asymptoticanalysis for the case of a simplified geometry. Even though the model is simple it still supports a realisticbehavior for the system consisting of the vessel and the hematoma. Using numerical simulations we illustrate the behavior ofthe model. We also investigate the effect of changing the size of the hematoma. The simulations show that ourmodel can reproduce realistic solutions. For instance we show thetypical strong pulsation of an aneurysm by blood entering the hematoma during the work phase of the cardiac cycle, and the blood returning tothe vessel during the resting phase. Also we show that the aneurysmgrows if the pulse rate is increased due to, e.g., a higher work load.
In this paper we present a one-dimensional model of blood flow in a vessel segment with an elastic wall consisting of several anisotropic layers. The model involves two variables: the radial displacement of the vessels wall and the pressure, and consists of two coupled equations of parabolic and hyperbolic type. Numerical simulations on a straight segment of a blood vessel demonstrate that the model can produce realistic flow fields that may appear under normal conditions in healthy blood vessels; as well as flow that could appear during abnormal conditions. In particular we show that weakening of the elastic properties of the wall may provoke a reverse blood flow in the vessel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation appears in applications related to acoustic or electromagnetic wave phenomena. The problem is ill–posed in the sense that the solution does not depend on the data in a stable way. In this paper we give a detailed study of the problem. Specifically we investigate how the ill–posedness depends on the shape of the computational domain and also on the wave number. Furthermore, we give an overview over standard techniques for dealing with ill–posed problems and apply them to the problem.
The Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation appears in various applications. The problem is severely ill-posed and regularization is needed to obtain accurate solutions. We start from a formulation of this problem as an operator equation on the boundary of the domain and consider the equation in (H-1/2)* spaces. By introducing an artificial boundary in the interior of the domain we obtain an inner product for this Hilbert space in terms of a quadratic form associated with the Helmholtz equation; perturbed by an integral over the artificial boundary. The perturbation guarantees positivity property of the quadratic form. This inner product allows an efficient evaluation of the adjoint operator in terms of solution of a well-posed boundary value problem for the Helmholtz equation with transmission boundary conditions on the artificial boundary. In an earlier paper we showed how to take advantage of this framework to implement the conjugate gradient method for solving the Cauchy problem. In this work we instead use the Conjugate gradient method for minimizing a Tikhonov functional. The added penalty term regularizes the problem and gives us a regularization parameter that can be used to easily control the stability of the numerical solution with respect to measurement errors in the data. Numerical tests show that the proposed algorithm works well. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper we study the Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation. This problem appears in various applications and is severely ill–posed. The modified alternating procedure has been proposed by the authors for solving this problem but the convergence has been rather slow. We demonstrate how to instead use conjugate gradient methods for accelerating the convergence. The main idea is to introduce an artificial boundary in the interior of the domain. This addition of the interior boundary allows us to derive an inner product that is natural for the application and that gives us a proper framework for implementing the steps of the conjugate gradient methods. The numerical results performed using the finite difference method show that the conjugate gradient based methods converge considerably faster than the modified alternating iterative procedure studied previously.
We present a modification of the alternating iterative method, which was introduced by V.A. Kozlov and V. Maz’ya in for solving the Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation in a Lipschitz domain. The method is implemented numerically using the finite difference method.
The Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation is considered. It was demonstrated in a previous paper by the authors that the alternating algorithm suggested by V.A. Kozlov and V.G. Maz’ya does not converge for large wavenumbers in the Helmholtz equation. We prove here that if we alternate Robin and Dirichlet boundary conditions instead of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, then the algorithm will converge. We present also another algorithm based on the same idea, which converges for large wavenumbers. Numerical implementations obtained using the finite difference method are presented. Numerical results illustrate that the algorithms suggested in this paper, produce a convergent iterative sequences.
The Cauchy problem for the Helmholtz equation is considered. It was demonstrated in a previous paper by the authors that the alternating algorithm suggested by V.A. Kozlov and V.G. Mazya does not converge for large wavenumbers k in the Helmholtz equation. Here, we present some simple modifications of the algorithm which may restore the convergence. They consist of the replacement of the Neumann-Dirichlet iterations by the Robin-Dirichlet ones which repairs the convergence for less than the first Dirichlet-Laplacian eigenvalue. In order to treat large wavenumbers, we present an algorithm based on iterative solution of Robin-Dirichlet boundary value problems in a sufficiently narrow border strip. Numerical implementations obtained using the finite difference method are presented. The numerical results illustrate that the algorithms suggested in this paper, produce convergent iterative sequences.
We study a non-linear operator equation originating from a Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation. The problem appears in applications where surface measurements are used to calculate the temperature below the earth surface. The Cauchy problem is ill-posed and small perturbations to the used data can result in large changes in the solution. Since the problem is non-linear certain assumptions on the coefficients are needed. We reformulate the problem as an non-linear operator equation and show that under suitable assumptions the operator is well-defined. The proof is based on making a change of variables and removing the non-linearity from the leading term of the equation. As a part of the proof we obtain an iterative procedure that is convergent and can be used for evaluating the operator. Numerical results show that the proposed procedure converges faster than a simple fixed point iteration for the equation in the the original variables.
Multiple viruses are widely studied because of their negative effect on the health of host as well as on whole population. The dynamics of coinfection are important in this case. We formulated an susceptible infected recovered (SIR) model that describes the coinfection of the two viral strains in a single host population with an addition of limited growth of susceptible in terms of carrying capacity. The model describes five classes of a population: susceptible, infected by first virus, infected by second virus, infected by both viruses, and completely immune class. We proved that for any set of parameter values, there exists a globally stable equilibrium point. This guarantees that the disease always persists in the population with a deeper connection between the intensity of infection and carrying capacity of population. Increase in resources in terms of carrying capacity promotes the risk of infection, which may lead to destabilization of the population.
An SIR model with the coinfection of the two infectious agents in a single host population is considered. The model includes the environmental carry capacity in each class of population. A special case of this model is analyzed, and several threshold conditions are obtained, which describes the establishment of diseases in the population. We prove that, for small carrying capacity K, there exists a globally stable disease-free equilibrium point. Furthermore, we establish the continuity of the transition dynamics of the stable equilibrium point, that is, we prove that, (1) for small values of K, there exists a unique globally stable equilibrium point, and (b) it moves continuously as K is growing (while its face type may change). This indicates that the carrying capacity is the crucial parameter and an increase in resources in terms of carrying capacity promotes the risk of infection.
We present a two dimensional model describing the elastic behaviour of the wall of a curved pipe to model blood vessels in particular. The wall has a laminate structure consisting of several anisotropic layers of varying thickness and is assumed to be much smaller in thickness than the radius of the vessel which itself is allowed to vary. Our two-dimensional model takes the interaction of the wall with the surrounding material and the fluid flowing inside into account and is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure. The curvature and twist of the vessel axis as well as the anisotropy of the laminate wallpresent the main challenges in applying the dimension reduction procedure so plenty of examples of canonical shapes of vessels and their walls are supplied with explicit systems of dierential equations at the end.
We present a two-dimensional model describing the elastic behaviour of the wall of a curved flexible pipe. The wall has a laminate structure consisting of several anisotropic layers of varying thickness and is assumed to be much smaller in thickness than the radius of the channel which itself is allowed to vary. Our two-dimensional model takes the interaction of the wall with any surrounding or supporting material and the fluid flow into account and is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure. The curvature and twist of the pipes axis as well as the anisotropy of the laminate wall present the main challenges in applying the dimension reduction procedure so plenty of examples of canonical shapes of pipes and their walls are supplied with explicit systems of differential equations at the end.
Kozlov & Mazya (1989, Algebra Anal., 1, 144-170) proposed an alternating iterative method for solving Cauchy problems for general strongly elliptic and formally self-adjoint systems. However, in many applied problems, operators appear that do not satisfy these requirements, e.g. Helmholtz-type operators. Therefore, in this study, an alternating procedure for solving Cauchy problems for self-adjoint non-coercive elliptic operators of second order is presented. A convergence proof of this procedure is given.
This paper brings together a novel information representation model for use in signal processing and computer vision problems, with a particular algorithmic development of the Landweber iterative algorithm. The information representation model allows a representation of multiple values for a variable as well as an expression for confidence. Both properties are important for effective computation using multi-level models, where a choice between models will be implementable as part of the optimization process. It is shown that in this way the algorithm can deal with a class of high-dimensional, sparse, and constrained least-squares problems, which arise in various computer vision learning tasks, such as object recognition and object pose estimation. While the algorithm has been applied to the solution of such problems, it has so far been used heuristically. In this paper we describe the properties and some of the peculiarities of the channel representation and optimization, and put them on firm mathematical ground. We consider the optimization a convexly constrained weighted least-squares problem and propose for its solution a projected Landweber method which employs oblique projections onto the closed convex constraint set. We formulate the problem, present the algorithm and work out its convergence properties, including a rate-of-convergence result. The results are put in perspective with currently available projected Landweber methods. An application to supervised learning is described, and the method is evaluated in an experiment involving function approximation, as well as application to transient signals. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This report brings together a novel approach to some computer vision problems and a particular algorithmic development of the Landweber iterative algorithm. The algorithm solves a class of high-dimensional, sparse, and constrained least-squares problems, which arise in various computer vision learning tasks, such as object recognition and object pose estimation. The algorithm has recently been applied to these problems, but it has been used rather heuristically. In this report we describe the method and put it on firm mathematical ground. We consider a convexly constrained weighted least-squares problem and propose for its solution a projected Landweber method which employs oblique projections onto the closed convex constraint set. We formulate the problem, present the algorithm and work out its convergence properties, including a rate-of-convergence result. The results are put in perspective of currently available projected Landweber methods. The application to supervised learning is described, and the method is evaluated in a function approximation experiment.
We consider the Dirichlet problem for strongly elliptic systems of order 2m in convex domains. Under a positivity assumption on the Poisson kernel it is proved that the weak solution has bounded derivatives up to order m provided the outward unit normal has no big jumps on the boundary. In the case of second order symmetric systems in plane convex domains the boundedness of the first derivatives is proved without the assumption on the normal.
We consider variational solutions to the Dirichlet problem for elliptic systems of arbitrary order. It is assumed that the coefficients of the principal part of the system have small, in an integral sense, local oscillations near a boundary point and other coefficients may have singularities at this point. We obtain an asymptotic representation for these solutions and derive sharp estimates for them which explicitly contain information on the coefficients. ©2006 Texas State University - San Marcos.
The dependence on the domain for the Dirichlet eigenvalues of elliptic operators considered in bounded domains is studied. The proximity of domains is measured by a norm of the difference of two orthogonal projectors corresponding to the reference domain and the perturbed one; this allows to compare eigenvalues corresponding to domains that have non-smooth boundaries and different topology. The main result is an asymptotic formula in which the remainder is evaluated in terms of this quantity. Applications of this result are given. The results are new for the Laplace operator.
We consider eigenvalues of elliptic boundary value problems, written in variational form, when the leading coefficients are perturbed by terms which are small in some integral sense. We obtain asymptotic formulae. The main specific of these formulae is that the leading term is different from that in the corresponding formulae when the perturbation is small in L8 -norm. Copyright © 2006 Vladimir Kozlov.
Bounded solutions of the Emden-Fowler equation in a semi-cylinder are considered. For small solutions the asymptotic representations at infinity are derived. It is shown that there are large solutions whose behavior at infinity is different. These solutions are constructed when some inequalities between the dimension of the cylinder and the homogeneity of the nonlinear term are fulfilled. If these inequalities are not satisfied then it is proved, for the Dirichlet problem, that all bounded solutions tend to zero and have the same asymptotics as small solutions. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
We consider the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet-Laplacian in three cases: C1, 1-domains, Lipschitz domains, and bounded domains without any smoothness assumptions. Asymptotic formula for this eigenvalue is derived when domain subject arbitrary perturbations. For Lipschitz and arbitrary nonsmooth domains, the leading term in the asymptotic representation distinguishes from that in the Hardamard formula valid for smooth perturbations of smooth domains. For asymptotic analysis we propose and prove an abstract theorem demonstrating how eigenvalues vary under perturbations of both operator in Hilbert space and Hilbert space itself. This abstract theorem is of independent interest and has substantially broader field of applications. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The traction boundary value problem for anisotropic elasticity is considered. For polyhedral domains in R-3, it is proved that the displacements are Holder continuous. In the n-dimensional case, n > 3, the Holder continuity is proved for domains with conic points on the boundary. The proof is based on the study of spectrum of operator pencils associated with singularities of the boundary, which is of independent interest.
Using the dimension reduction procedure, a one-dimensional model of a periodic blood flow in the artery through a small hole in a thin elastic wall to a spindle-shaped hematoma, is constructed. This model is described by a system of two parabolic and one hyperbolic equations provided with mixed boundary and periodicity conditions. The blood exchange between the artery and the hematoma is expressed by the Kirchhoff transmission conditions. Despite the simplicity, the constructed model allows us to describe the damping of a pulsating blood flow by the hematoma and to determine the condition of its growth. In medicine, the biological object considered is called a false aneurysm.
Asymptotic analysis is applied for obtaining one-dimensional models of the blood flow in narrow, thin-walled, elastic vessels. The models for arteries and veins essentially distinguish from each other, and the reason for this is the structure of their walls, as well as the operationing conditions. Although the obtained asymptotic models are simple, they explain various effects known in medical practice, in particular, describe the mechanism of vein-muscle pumping of blood.
An alternating procedure for solving a Cauchy problem for the stationary Stokes system is presented. A convergence proof of this procedure and numerical results are included. © 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
We investigate a mixed problem with variable lateral conditions for the heat equation that arises in modelling exocytosis, i.e. the opening of a cell boundary in specific biological species for the release of certain molecules to the exterior of the cell. The Dirichlet condition is imposed on a surface patch of the boundary and this patch is occupying a larger part of the boundary as time increases modelling where the cell is opening (the fusion pore), and on the remaining part, a zero Neumann condition is imposed (no molecules can cross this boundary). Uniform concentration is assumed at the initial time. We introduce a weak formulation of this problem and show that there is a unique weak solution. Moreover, we give an asymptotic expansion for the behaviour of the solution near the opening point and for small values in time. We also give an integral equation for the numerical construction of the leading term in this expansion.
The Poisson equation in two-dimensional case for a nonsmooth domain is considered. The geometrical domain has a cut (crack) where inequality type boundary conditions are imposed. A behavior of the solution near the crack tips is analyzed. In particular, estimates for the second derivatives in a weighted Sobolev space are obtained and asymptotics of the solution near crack tips is established. © 2007 Birkhaeuser.
The asymptotic behavior of the solution to the Poisson equations near the crack tip with nonlinear boundary conditions and second derivatives of the in weighted Sobolev spaces were determined. The internal regularity results for the equation showed that the second derivative of u belonged to L2 in the neighborhood of interior points of the crack. The results demonstrated analogy between the properties of the solution to the linear problem and the nonlinear problem. It was also found that an asymptotic representation to the problem can be constructed near the crack tip.
A comparison theorem is proved for a pair of solutions that satisfy opposite nonlinear differential inequalities in a weak sense. The nonlinearity is of the form f (u) with f belonging to the class L-loc(p) and the solutions are assumed to have nonvanishing gradients in the domain, where the inequalities are considered. The comparison theorem is applied to the problem describing steady, periodic water waves with vorticity in the case of arbitrary free-surface profiles including overhanging ones. Bounds for these profiles as well as streamfunctions and admissible values of the total head are obtained.
This Note deals with an eigenvalue problem that contains a spectral parameter in a boundary condition. The problem for the two-dimensional Laplace equation describes free, time-harmonic water waves in a canal having uniform cross-section and bounded from above by a horizontal free surface. It is shown that there exists a domain for which at least one of eigenfunctions has a nodal line with both ends on the free surface. Since Kuttler essentially used the non-existence of such nodal lines in his proof of simplicity of the fundamental sloshing eigenvalue in the two-dimensional case, we propose a new variational principle for demonstrating this latter fact. ⌐ 2003 AcadΘmie des sciences.
Steady, free-surface, vortical flows of an inviscid, incompressible, heavy fluid over a horizontal, rigid bottom are considered. All flows of constant depth are described for any Lipschitz vorticity distribution. It is shown that the values of Bernoullis constant, for which such flows exist, are greater than or equal to some critical value depending on the vorticity. For the critical value, only one flow exists and it is unidirectional. Supercritical flows exist for all values of Bernoullis constant greater than the critical one; every such flow is also unidirectional and its depth is smaller than that of the critical flow. Furthermore, at least one flow other than supercritical does exist for every value of Bernoullis constant greater than the critical one. It is found that for some vorticity distributions, the number of constant depth flows increases unrestrictedly as Bernoullis constant tends to infinity. However, all these flows, except for one or two, have counter-currents; their number depends on Bernoullis constant and increases by at least two every time when this constant becomes greater than a critical value (the above mentioned is the smallest of them), belonging to a sequence defined by the vorticity. A classification of vorticity distributions is presented; it divides all of them into three classes in accordance with the behaviour of some integral of the distribution on the interval [0, 1]. For distributions in the first class, a unidirectional subcritical flow exists for all admissible values of Bernoullis constant. For vorticity distributions belonging to the other two classes such a flow exists only when Bernoullis constant is less than a certain value. If Bernoullis constant is greater than this value, then at least one flow with counter-currents does exist along with the unidirectional supercritical flow. The second and third classes of vorticity distributions are distinguished from one another by the character of the counter-currents. If a distribution is in the second class, then a near-bottom counter-current is always present for sufficiently large values of Bernoullis constant. For distributions in the third class, a near-surface counter-current is always present for such values of the constant. Several examples illustrating the results are considered.
For the problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on a two-dimensional unidirectional flow of finite depth the following results are obtained. (i) Bounds are found for the free-surface profile and for Bernoullis constant. (ii) If only one parallel shear flow exists for a given value of Bernoullis constant, then there are no wave solutions provided the vorticity distribution is subject to a certain condition.
We consider the nonlinear problem of steady gravity-driven waves on the free surface of a two-dimensional flow of an inviscid, incompressible fluid (say, water). The water motion is supposed to be rotational with a Lipschitz continuous vorticity distribution, whereas the flow of finite depth is assumed to be unidirectional. We verify the Benjamin-Lighthill conjecture for flows with values of Bernoullis constant close to the critical one. For this purpose it is shown that a set of near-critical waves consists only of Stokes and solitary waves provided their slopes are bounded by a constant. Moreover, the subset of waves with crests located on a fixed vertical is uniquely parametrised by the flow force, which varies between its values for the supercritical and subcritical shear flows of constant depth. There exists another parametrisation for this set; it involves wave heights varying between the constant depth of the subcritical shear flow and the height of a solitary wave.
Two-dimensional steady gravity waves with vorticity are considered on water of finite depth. The dispersion equation is analysed for general vorticity distributions, but under assumptions valid only for unidirectional shear flows. It is shown that for these flows (i) the general dispersion equation is equivalent to the Sturm-Liouville problem considered by Constantin and Strauss (Commun. Pure Appl. Math., vol. 57, 2004, pp. 481-527; Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., vol. 202, 2011, pp. 133-175), (ii) the condition guaranteeing bifurcation of Stokes waves with constant wavelength is fulfilled. Moreover, a necessary and sufficient condition that the Sturm-Liouville problem mentioned in (i) has an eigenvalue is obtained.
We study an eigenvalue problem with a spectral parameter in a boundary condition. This problem for the two-dimensional Laplace equation is relevant to sloshing frequencies that describe free oscillations of an inviscid, incompressible, heavy fluid in a canal having uniform cross-section and bounded from above by a horizontal free surface. It is demonstrated that there exist domains such that at least one of the eigenfunctions has a nodal line or lines with both ends on the free surface (earlier, Kuttler tried to prove that there are no such nodal lines for all domains but his proof is erroneous). It is also shown that the fundamental eigenvalue is simple, and for the corresponding eigenfunction the behaviour of the nodal line is characterized. For this purpose, a new variational principle is proposed for an equivalent statement of the sloshing problem in terms of the conjugate stream function. © 2004 The Royal Society.
Necessary conditions for the existence of arbitrary bounded steady waves are proved (earlier, these conditions, that have the form of bounds on the Bernoulli constant and other wave characteristics, were established only for Stokes waves). It is also shown that there exists an exact upper bound such that if the free-surface profile is less than this bound at infinity (positive, negative, or both), then the profile asymptotes the constant level corresponding to a unform stream (supercritical or subcritical). Finally, an integral property of arbitrary steady waves is obtained. A new technique is proposed for proving these results; it is based on modified Bernoulli’s equation that along with the free surface profile involves the difference between the potential and its vertical average.
The two-dimensional free-boundary problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on water of finite depth is considered. Bounds for stream functions as well as free-surface profiles and the total head are obtained under the assumption that the vorticity distribution is a locally Lipschitz function. It is also shown that wave flows have countercurrents in the case when the infimum of the free surface profile exceeds a certain critical value.
The two-dimensional free-boundary problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on water of finite depth is considered. Bounds on the free-surface profiles and on the total head are obtained under minimal assumptions about properties of solutions to the problem and the vorticity distribution.
The two-dimensional free-boundary problem of steady periodic waves with vorticity is considered for water of finite depth. We investigate how flows with small-amplitude Stokes waves on the free surface bifurcate from a horizontal parallel shear flow in which counter-currents may be present. Two bifurcation mechanisms are described: one for waves with fixed Bernoullis constant, and the other for waves with fixed wavelength. In both cases the corresponding dispersion equations serve for defining wavelengths from which Stokes waves bifurcate. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of roots of these equations are obtained. Two particular vorticity distributions are considered in order to illustrate the general results.