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  • 1.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development HB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, nr 33, s. 11943-11948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Adam, Rania Elhadi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik.
    Synthesis of Mg-doped ZnO NPs via a chemical low-temperature method and investigation of the efficient photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dyes under solar light2020Inngår i: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 99, artikkel-id 106053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Doped semiconductors nanostructures (NSs) have shown great interest as a potential for green and efficient photocatalysis activities. Magnesium (Mg)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) has been synthesized by a one-step chemical low temperature (60 °C) co-precipitation method without further calcination and their photocatalytic performance for photodegradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under the illumination of solar light is investigated. The crystal structure of the synthesized NPs is examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD data indicates a slight shift towards higher 2θ angle in Mg-doped samples as compared to the pure ZnO NPs which suggest the incorporation of Mg2+ into ZnO crystal lattice. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–Vis spectrophotometer and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, were used to study electronics, and optical properties, respectively. The XPS analysis confirms the substitution of the Zn2+ by the Mg2+ into the ZnO crystal lattice in agreement with the XRD data. The photocatalytic activities showed a significant enhancement of the Mg-doped ZnO NPs in comparison with pure ZnO NPs. Hole/radical scavengers were used to reveal the mechanism of the photodegradation. It was found that the addition of the Mg to the ZnO lattices increases the absorption of the hydroxyl ions at the surface of the NPs and hence acts as a trap site leading to decrease the electron-hole pair and consequently enhancing the photodegradation.

  • 3.
    Adam, Rania Elhadi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chalangar, Ebrahim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Pirhashemi, Mahsa
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik, elektroteknik och matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Graphene-based plasmonic nanocomposites for highly enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activities2019Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, nr 52, s. 30585-30598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-efficiency photocatalysts are crucial for the removal of organic pollutants and environmental sustainability. In the present work, we report on a new low-temperature hydrothermal chemical method, assisted by ultrasonication, to synthesize disruptive plasmonic ZnO/graphene/Ag/AgI nanocomposites for solar-driven photocatalysis. The plasmonic nanocomposites were investigated by a wide range of characterization techniques, confirming successful formation of photocatalysts with excellent degradation efficiency. Using Congo red as a model dye molecule, our experimental results demonstrated a photocatalytic reactivity exceeding 90% efficiency after one hour simulated solar irradiation. The significantly enhanced degradation efficiency is attributed to improved electronic properties of the nanocomposites by hybridization of the graphene and to the addition of Ag/AgI which generates a strong surface plasmon resonance effect in the metallic silver further improving the photocatalytic activity and stability under solar irradiation. Scavenger experiments suggest that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are responsible for the photodegradation of Congo red. Our findings are important for the fundamental understanding of the photocatalytic mechanism of ZnO/graphene/Ag/AgI nanocomposites and can lead to further development of novel efficient photocatalyst materials.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Ali Abbasi, Mazhar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The determination of valence band offset and the current transport properties of the p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The electron transport in the electronic devices has significant influence on the device performance, thus current transport properties determination is highly demanded for a particular device. Herein, we report the facile hydrothermal growth method based fabrication of p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction. The material characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. These techniques provided the good crystal quality, pure phase of p-NiO and n-ZnO nanostructures respectively. The measured valance band offset of composite nanostructure is 2.25 eV and conduction band offset was found to be 2.58 eV. The current transport properties of the fabricated p-n junction are governed by three different I-V regions. The impedance spectroscopy was used for the determination of the role of grain boundaries at the interface.

  • 5.
    Alkarsifi, Riva
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Avalos-Quiroz, Yatzil Alejandra
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Perkhun, Pavlo
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bharwal, Anil Kumar
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ruiz, Carmen M.
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Duche, David
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Simon, Jean-Jacques
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Joerg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Organic-inorganic doped nickel oxide nanocrystals for hole transport layers in inverted polymer solar cells with color tuning2021Inngår i: Materials Chemistry Frontiers, E-ISSN 2052-1537, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 418-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer solar cells using non-fullerene acceptors are nowadays amongst the most promising approaches for next generation photovoltaic applications. However, there are still remaining challenges related to large-scale fully solution-processing of high efficiency solar cells as high efficiencies are obtained only for very small areas using hole transport layers based on evaporated molybdenum oxide. Solution-processable hole transport materials compatible with non-fullerene acceptor materials are still scarce and thus considered as one of the major challenges nowadays. In this work, we present copper-doped nickel oxide nanocrystals that form highly stable inks in alcohol-based solutions. This allows processing of efficient hole transport layers in both regular and inverted device structures of polymer solar cells. As the initial work function of these ionic doped materials is too low for efficient hole extraction, doping the nanocrystals with an organic electron acceptor, namely 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquino dimethane (F4-TCNQ), was additionally applied to make the work function more suitable for hole extraction. The resulting hybrid hole transport layers were first studied in polymer solar cells based on fullerene acceptors using regular device structures yielding 7.4% efficiency identical to that of reference cells based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). For inverted device structures, the hybrid hole transport layers were processed on top of blends based on the non-fullerene acceptor IT-4F and PBDB-T-2F donor. The corresponding solar cells showed promising efficiencies up to 7.9% while the reference devices using PEDOT:PSS showed inferior performances. We further show that the hybrid hole transport layer can be used to tune the color of the polymer solar cells using optical spacer effects.

  • 6.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods2015Inngår i: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 5, nr 8, artikkel-id 087180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 degrees C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (mu-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 16, s. 165702-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5M exhibit stronger yellow emission (similar to 575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 8.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Savoyant, Adrien
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An effective low-temperature solution synthesis of Co-doped [0001]-oriented ZnO nanorods2017Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, nr 21, artikkel-id 215102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an efficient possibility to synthesize vertically aligned pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and Co-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) using the low-temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (90 degrees C). Two different mixing methods of the synthesis solutions were investigated for the Co-doped samples. The synthesized samples were compared to pure ZnO NRs regarding the Co incorporation and crystal quality. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements confirmed the substitution of Co2+ inside the ZnO NRs, giving a highly anisotropic magnetic Co2+ signal. The substitution of Zn2+ by Co2+ was observed to be combined with a drastic reduction in the core-defect (CD) signal (g similar to 1.956) which is seen in pure ZnO NRs. As revealed by the cathodoluminescence (CL), the incorporation of Co causes a slight red-shift of the UV peak position combined with an enhancement in the intensity of the defect-related yellow-orange emission compared to pure ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the EPR and the CL measurements allow a possible model of the defect configuration in the samples. It is proposed that the as-synthesized pure ZnO NRs likely contain Zn interstitial (Zn-i(+)) as CDs and oxygen vacancy (V-O) or oxygen interstitial (O-i) as surface defects. As a result, Co was found to likely occupy the Zn-i(+), leading to the observed CDs reduction and hence enhancing the crystal quality. These results open the possibility of synthesis of highly crystalline quality ZnO NRs-based diluted magnetic semiconductors using the low-temperature aqueous chemical method. Published by AIP Publishing.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Amin, Sidra
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden; Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Univ, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Solangi, Amber
    Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Morante, J. R.
    Catalonia Inst Energy Res IREC, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden; Univ Sindh, Pakistan.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    A practical non-enzymatic urea sensor based on NiCo2O4 nanoneedles2019Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, nr 25, s. 14443-14451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new facile electrochemical sensing platform for determination of urea, based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanoneedles. These nanoneedles are used for the first time for highly sensitive determination of urea with the lowest detection limit (1 mu M) ever reported for the non-enzymatic approach. The nanoneedles were grown through a simple and low-temperature aqueous chemical method. We characterized the structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4 nanoneedles by TEM, SEM, XPS and XRD. The bimetallic nickel cobalt oxide exhibits nanoneedle morphology, which results from the self-assembly of nanoparticles. The NiCo2O4 nanoneedles are exclusively composed of Ni, Co, and O and exhibit a cubic crystalline phase. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the enhanced electrochemical properties of a NiCo2O4 nanoneedle-modified GCE by overcoming the typical poor conductivity of bare NiO and Co3O4. The GCE-modified electrode is highly sensitive towards urea, with a linear response (R-2 = 0.99) over the concentration range 0.01-5 mM and with a detection limit of 1.0 mu M. The proposed non-enzymatic urea sensor is highly selective even in the presence of common interferents such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. This new urea sensor has good viability for urea analysis in urine samples and can represent a significant advancement in the field, owing to the simple and cost-effective fabrication of electrodes, which can be used as a promising analytical tool for urea estimation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Atxabal, Ainhoa
    et al.
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arnold, Thorsten
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Sun, Xiangnan
    National Centre Nanosci and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Parui, Subir
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gozalvez, Cristian
    University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Llopis, Roger
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain.
    Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio
    University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Casanova, Felix
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Ortmann, Frank
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hueso, Luis E.
    CIC NanoGUNE, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Energy Level Alignment at Metal/Solution-Processed Organic Semiconductor Interfaces2017Inngår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, nr 19, artikkel-id 1606901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy barriers between the metal Fermi energy and the molecular levels of organic semiconductor devoted to charge transport play a fundamental role in the performance of organic electronic devices. Typically, techniques such as electron photoemission spectroscopy, Kelvin probe measurements, and in-device hot-electron spectroscopy have been applied to study these interfacial energy barriers. However, so far there has not been any direct method available for the determination of energy barriers at metal interfaces with n-type polymeric semiconductors. This study measures and compares metal/solution-processed electron-transporting polymer interface energy barriers by in-device hot-electron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. It not only demonstrates in-device hot-electron spectroscopy as a direct and reliable technique for these studies but also brings it closer to technological applications by working ex situ under ambient conditions. Moreover, this study determines that the contamination layer coming from air exposure does not play any significant role on the energy barrier alignment for charge transport. The theoretical model developed for this work confirms all the experimental observations.

  • 11.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Oxford, England.
    Da, Peimei
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Li, Cheng
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany; Xiamen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhiping
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Kawecki, Maciej
    Empa, Switzerland; Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei
    CSIRO Energy, Australia.
    Huettner, Sven
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany.
    Buecheler, Stephan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci and Technol, Switzerland.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Oxford, England.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Planar perovskite solar cells with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives2019Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 571, nr 7764, s. 245-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies(1-4). Over the past few years, the long-term operational stability of such devices has been greatly improved by tuning the composition of the perovskites(5-9), optimizing the interfaces within the device structures(10-13), and using new encapsulation techniques(14,15). However, further improvements are required in order to deliver a longer-lasting technology. Ion migration in the perovskite active layer-especially under illumination and heat-is arguably the most difficult aspect to mitigate(16-18). Here we incorporate ionic liquids into the perovskite film and thence into positive-intrinsic-negative photovoltaic devices, increasing the device efficiency and markedly improving the long-term device stability. Specifically, we observe a degradation in performance of only around five per cent for the most stable encapsulated device under continuous simulated full-spectrum sunlight for more than 1,800 hours at 70 to 75 degrees Celsius, and estimate that the time required for the device to drop to eighty per cent of its peak performance is about 5,200 hours. Our demonstration of long-term operational, stable solar cells under intense conditions is a key step towards a reliable perovskite photovoltaic technology.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Interfaces of (Ultra)thin Polymer Films in Organic Electronics2019Inngår i: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikkel-id 1800897Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this short review the energy level alignment of interfaces involving solution-processed conjugated polymer (and soluble small molecules) films is described. Some general material properties of conjugated polymers and their solution-processed films are introduced, and the basic physics involved in energy level alignment at their interfaces is then discussed. An overview of energy level bending in (ultra)thin conjugated polymer films (often referred to as "band bending") is given and the effects of ion-containing interlayers typically used in organic electronic devices such as polymer light emitting diodes and organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are explored. The review finishes by describing a few of the available computational models useful for predicting and/or modeling energy level alignment at interfaces of solution-processed polymer films and discusses their respective strengths and weaknesses.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition2016Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 1077-1084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto) electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultrathin films on electrodes typically form islands due to dewetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultrathin conjugated polymer layers. Here, LangmuirShafer-manufactured homogenous mono-and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes are reported and the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy is tracked. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. These findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultrathin semiconducting polymers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The energetics of the semiconducting polymer-electrode interface for solution-processed electronicsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto-)electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultra-thin films on electrodes typically form islands due to de-wetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultra-thin conjugated polymer layers. Here, we report Langmuir-Shäfer-manufactured homogenous mono- and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes and track the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. Our findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultra-thin semiconducting polymers.

  • 15.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Oxygen- and Water-Based Degradation in [6,6]-Phenyl-C-61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM) Films2014Inngår i: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 4, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of in situ oxygen/water exposure on the energetics of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) films are presented. For oxygen exposure, the work function is downshifted by ≈0.15 eV compared to the ideal integer charge transfer (ICT) curve for pristine PCBM, which is incompatible with significant introduction of electron trap states or p-doping. Water induces the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) structure to undergo strong, irreversible modifications accompanied by a chemical interaction with PCBM.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energetics at Doped Conjugated Polymer/Electrode Interfaces2015Inngår i: ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 2, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. East China Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Yanqing
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow University, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Level Alignment of N-Doping Fullerenes and Fullerene Derivatives Using Air-Stable Dopant2017Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, nr 40, s. 35476-35482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping has been proved to be one of the powerful technologies to achieve significant improvement in the performance of organic electronic devices. Herein, we systematically map out the interface properties of solution-processed air-stable n-type (4(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) doping fullerenes and fullerene derivatives and establish a universal energy level alignment scheme for this class of n-doped system. At low doping levels at which the charge-transfer doping induces mainly bound charges, the energy level alignment of the n-doping organic semiconductor can be described by combining integer charger transfer-induced shifts with a so-called double-dipole step. At high doping levels, significant densities of free charges are generated and the charge flows between the organic film and the conducting electrodes equilibrating the Fermi level in a classic "depletion layer" scheme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model holds for both n- and p-doping of pi-backbone molecules and polymers. With the results, we provide wide guidance for identifying the application of the current organic n-type doping technology in organic electronics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yang, Jianming
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yanqing
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Effect of Oxygen Uptake on Charge Injection Barriers in Conjugated Polymer Films2018Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 6491-6497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy offset between the electrode Fermi level and organic semiconductor transport levels is a key parameter controlling the charge injection barrier and hence efficiency of organic electronic devices. Here, we systematically explore the effect of in situ oxygen exposure on energetics in n-type conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) films. The analysis reveals that an interfacial potential step is introduced for a series of P(NDI2OD-T2) electrode contacts, causing a nearly constant downshift of the vacuum level, while the ionization energies versus vacuum level remain constant. These findings are attributed to the establishment of a so-called double-dipole step via motion of charged molecules and will modify the charge injection barriers at electrode contact. We further demonstrate that the same behavior occurs when oxygen interacts with p-type polymer TQ1 films, indicating it is possible to be a universal effect for organic semiconductOrs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yanqing, Li
    Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, P.R. China.
    Jianxin, Tang
    Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, P.R. China.
    Chungang, Duan
    Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Intermixing Effect on Electronic Structures of TQ1:PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction in Organic Photovoltaics2017Inngår i: Solar RRL, E-ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 1, nr 10, artikkel-id 1700142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interface energetics and intermixing effects of the donor/acceptor bulk heterojunction (BHJ) blends of poly[2,3‐bis‐(3‐octyloxyphenyl) quinoxaline‐5, 8‐dilyl‐alt‐thiophene‐2, 5‐diyl]: [6,6]‐phenyl C71butyric acid methyl ester (TQ1:PC71BM) have been investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) in combination with the integer charge transfer model. The TQ1:PC71BM represents the useful model system for BHJ organic photovoltaics featuring effective charge generation and transport. It finds out that the positive integer charge state of TQ1 are equal in energy to the negative integer charge state of PC71BM, leading to a negligible potential step at TQ1:PC71BM interface and thus the vacuum level alignment. It is observed that the TQ1 accumulates on the top of TQ1:PC71BM BHJ and UPS spectra as function of various blend ratios suggest that the TQ1 mixes finely with PC71BM with the little work function modification in a wide range. In addition, no significant influence of the long‐range Coulomb interactions or the intermolecular hybridization on the occupied electronic structures is present for the well‐intermixed TQ1:PC71BM BHJs. These findings provide deep insights into the properties of BHJ blends and are beneficial for the performance optimization in organic photovoltaics.

  • 20.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Ergang
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fang, Junfeng
    Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo, PR China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, P. R. China.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Regular Energetics at Conjugated Electrolyte/Electrode Modifier for Organic Electronics and Their Implications of Design Rules2015Inngår i: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 2, nr 12, s. 1-6, artikkel-id 1500204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular energetics at a conjugated electrolyte/electrode modifier are found and controlled by equilibration of the Fermi level and an additional interface double dipole step induced by ionic functionality. Based on the results, design rules for conjugated electrolyte/electrode modifiers to achieve the smallest charge injection/exaction barrier and break through the current thickness limitation are proposed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kauffmann, Louis-Dominique
    GenesInk, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of ultraviolet soaking on surface electronic structures of solution processed ZnO nanoparticle films in polymer solar cells2014Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, nr 41, s. 17676-17682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We systematically show the effect of UV-light soaking on surface electronic structures and chemical states of solution processed ZnO nanoparticle (ZnONP) films in UHV, dry air and UV-ozone. UV exposure in UHV induces a slight decrease in work function and surface-desorption of chemisorbed oxygen, whereas UV exposure in the presence of oxygen causes an increase in work function due to oxygen atom vacancy filling in the ZnO matrix. We demonstrate that UV-light soaking in combination with vacuum or oxygen can tune the work function of the ZnONP films over a range exceeding 1 eV. Based on photovoltaic performance and diode measurements, we conclude that the oxygen atom vacancy filling occurs mainly at the surface of the ZnONP films and that the films consequently retain their n-type behavior despite a significant increase in the measured work function.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandberg, Oskar
    Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sanden, Simon
    Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Aarnio, Harri
    Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osterbacka, Ronald
    Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trap-Assisted Recombination via Integer Charge Transfer States in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics2014Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 24, nr 40, s. 6309-6316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic photovoltaics are under intense development and significant focus has been placed on tuning the donor ionization potential and acceptor electron affinity to optimize open circuit voltage. Here, it is shown that for a series of regioregular-poly(3-hexylthiophene): fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices with pinned electrodes, integer charge transfer states present in the dark and created as a consequence of Fermi level equilibrium at BHJ have a profound effect on open circuit voltage. The integer charge transfer state formation causes vacuum level misalignment that yields a roughly constant effective donor ionization potential to acceptor electron affinity energy difference at the donor-acceptor interface, even though there is a large variation in electron affinity for the fullerene series. The large variation in open circuit voltage for the corresponding device series instead is found to be a consequence of trap-assisted recombination via integer charge transfer states. Based on the results, novel design rules for optimizing open circuit voltage and performance of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are proposed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Karim Diallo, Abdou
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant2017Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, nr 20, s. 17257-17265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly( {4, 8-bis [(2- ethylhexyl) oxy]b enzo [1,2- b :4,5-b dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]- thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediy1}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC70BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  • 24.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Screen-Printed Corrosion-Resistant and Long-Term Stable Stretchable Electronics Based on AgAu Microflake Conductors2023Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, nr 9, s. 12372-12382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput production methods such as screen printing can bring stretchable electronics out of the lab into the market. Most stretchable conductor inks for screen printing are based on silver nanoparticles or flakes due to their favorable performance-to-cost ratio, but silver is prone to tarnishing and corrosion, thereby limiting the stability of such conductors. Here, we report on a cost-efficient and scalable approach to resolve this issue by developing screen printable inks based on silver flakes chemically coated by a thin layer of gold. The printed stretchable AgAu conductors reach a conductivity of 8500 S cm-1, remain conductive up to 250% strain, show excellent corrosion and tarnishing stability, and are used to demonstrate wearable LED and NFC circuits. The reported approach is attractive for smart clothing, as the long-term functionality of such devices is expected in a variety of environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Boerrnert, Felix
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Boerrnert, Carina
    Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden, Germany.
    Gorantla, Sandeep
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bachmatiuk, Alicja
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Joswig, Jan-Ole
    Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Wagner, Frank P
    Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden, Germany.
    Schaeffel, Franziska
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Warner, Jamie H
    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Schoenfelder, Ronny
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Rellinghaus, Bernd
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Gemming, Thomas
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Thomas, Juergen
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Knupfer, Martin
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Buechner, Bernd
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany.
    Ruemmeli, Mark H
    Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden, Germany and Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Single-wall-carbon-nanotube/single-carbon-chain molecular junctions2010Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, nr 8, s. 085439-1-085439-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable junctions between a single carbon chain and two single-wall carbon nanotubes were produced via coalescence of functionalized fullerenes filled into a single-wall carbon nanotube and directly imaged by in situ transmission electron microscopy. First principles quantum chemical calculations support the observed stability of such molecular junctions. They also show that short carbon chains bound to other carbon structures are cumulenes and stable semiconductors due to Peierls-like distortion. Junctions like this can be regarded as archetypical building blocks for all-carbon molecular electronics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Braun, Slawomir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fermi level equilibrium at donor-acceptor interfaces in multi-layered thin film stack of TTF and TCNQ2010Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 212-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic hetero-junctions in multi-layered thin film stacks comprising alternate layers of the molecular donor-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and the acceptor - tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy ( UPS). We show that the energy level alignment at the organic-organic interfaces in the stacks depends only upon the relative energy structure of the donor and acceptor molecules, in particular, the molecular integer charge transfer (ICT) states. The observed interfacial dipoles, across the multi-layered organic stacks, correspond to the difference in energy between the positive and the negative charge transfer states of the molecules constituting the interface. Consequently, Fermi level across the multi-layer system is pinned to those states, since the energetic conditions for the charge transfer across the interface are fulfilled. Hence the energy level alignment at donor - acceptor interfaces studied can be rationalized on the basis of integer charge transfer model (ICT-model). Moreover, we present the photoelectron spectra where 0.85 eV shift of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of TTF during formation of TCNQ over-layer is directly observed. These studies contribute to the understanding of the nature of the offset between the frontier electronic levels of the donor and acceptor components which is of high importance in the engineering of efficient organic solar cells.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Briones-Leon, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Ayala, Paola
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yanagi, Kazuhiro
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Weschke, Eugen
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat and Energie, Germany.
    Eisterer, Michael
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Jiang, Hua
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kataura, Hiromichi
    Nat Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology AIST, Japan.
    Pichler, Thomas
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Orbital and spin magnetic moments of transforming one-dimensional iron inside metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes2013Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 87, nr 19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The orbital and spin magnetic properties of iron inside metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes are studied by means of local x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and bulk superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The iron-nanotube hybrids are initially ferrocene filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) of different metallicities. We show that the ferrocene's molecular orbitals interact differently with the SWCNT of different metallicities with no significant XMCD response. At elevated temperatures the ferrocene molecules react with each other to form cementite nanoclusters. The XMCD at various magnetic fields reveal that the orbital and/or spin magnetic moments of the encapsulated iron are altered drastically as the transformation to the 1D clusters takes place. The orbital and spin magnetic moments are both found to be larger in filled semiconducting nanotubes than in the metallic sample. This could mean that the magnetic polarization of the encapsulated material depends on the metallicity of the tubes. From a comparison between the iron 3d magnetic moments and the bulk magnetism measured by SQUID, we conclude that the delocalized magnetisms dominate the magnetic properties of these 1D hybrid nanostructures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Briones-Leon, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ayala, Paola
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Kataura, Hiromichi
    National Institute Adv Ind Science and Technology, Japan .
    Yanagi, Kazuhiro
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan .
    Weschke, Eugen
    Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Fr Mat and Energie, Germany .
    Pichler, Thomas
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu
    University of Vienna, Austria .
    Orbital and spin magnetic moments of ferrocene encapsulated in metallicity sorted single-walled carbon nanotubes2012Inngår i: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 249, nr 12, s. 2424-2427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the electronic and local magnetic properties of ferrocene (FeCp2) filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Metallic, semiconducting, and unsorted ferrocene-filled tubes have been studied in different conditions of temperature and magnetic field. XMCD signal becomes evident with the application of a magnetic field at low temperature. We find that the molecular states of ferrocene interact with SWCNT of different metallicities. A paramagnetic behavior of encapsulated ferrocene is observed from the magnetic field dependent XMCD measurements which is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  • 29.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wijeratne, Kosala
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Galliani, Daniela
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Italy.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Valiollahi Bisheh, Roudabeh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vapor phase synthesized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene)-trifluoromethanesulfonate as a transparent conductor material2018Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, nr 43, s. 21304-21312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic transparent conductive oxides have dominated the market as transparent electrodes due to their high conductivity and transparency. Here, we report the fabrication and optimization of the synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) trifluoromethanesulfonate via vapor phase polymerization for the potential replacement of such inorganic materials. The parameters and conditions of the polymerization were investigated and an electrical conductivity of 3800 S cm(-1) and 4500 S cm(-1) after acid treatment were obtained while maintaining an absorbance similar to that of commercial indium tin oxide. This increase in electrical conductivity was rationalized experimentally and theoretically to an increase in the oxidation level and a higher order of crystallinity which does not disrupt the pi-pi stacking of PEDOT chains.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 30.
    Carlegrim, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhan, Yiqiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Characterization of the Ni/V(TCNE)x interface for hybrid spintronics applications2010Inngår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 1020-1024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium tetracyanoethylene, V(TCNE)x, is an organic-based magnet with properties suitable for spintronics applications, e.g. spin valves. In this paper we propose a new hybrid organic spin valve design where V(TCNE)x is used as a spin-transporting and spin-filtering layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic (FM) metal contacts, i.e. FM/V(TCNE)x/FM. As the spin injection and detection of such a device occurs at the interfaces the quality of those are of crucial importance. Therefore, the Ni/V(TCNE)x interface has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) as well as compared with XPS results from a model system, Ni/TCNE. Ni chemically interact with both the vinyl and cyano groups but there is no evidence for significant diffusion of Ni into the V(TCNE)x film. As the chemical interaction affects the spin injection and detection negatively by modifying the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and destroying the magnetic ordering network at the surface, these results indicate that there is need for a buffer layer between V(TCNE)x and Ni, and in extension most likely between V(TCNE)x and any FM contact.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Chen, Jing-De
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Ling
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Chao-Chao
    Henan Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Hao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yan-Qing
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ou, Qing-Dong
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Guo, Jia-Jia
    Henan Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Shi-Jie
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Feng-Ming
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tang, Jian-Xin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Macau Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hot-electron emission-driven energy recycling in transparent plasmonic electrode for organic solar cells2022Inngår i: InfoMat, ISSN 2567-3165, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikkel-id e12285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic metal electrodes with subwavelength nanostructures are promising for enhancing light harvesting in photovoltaics. However, the nonradiative damping of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) during coupling with sunlight results in the conversion of the excited hot-electrons to heat, which limits the absorption of light and generation of photocurrent. Herein, an energy recycling strategy driven by hot-electron emission for recycling the SPP energy trapped in the plasmonic electrodes is proposed. A transparent silver-based plasmonic metal electrode (A-PME) with a periodic hexagonal nanopore array is constructed, which is combined with a luminescent organic emitter for radiative recombination of the injected hot-electrons. Owing to the suppressed SPP energy loss via broadband hot-electron emission, the A-PME achieves an optimized optical transmission with an average transmittance of over 80% from 380 to 1200 nm. Moreover, the indium-tin-oxide-free organic solar cells yield an enhanced light harvesting with a power conversion efficiency of 16.1%.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Chen, Mengyun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Tiankai
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Yonghong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Quasi-Square CsPbI<sub>3</sub> Nanoplatelets with Excellent Stability2023Inngår i: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoplatelets (NPLs) share excellent luminescent properties with their symmetric quantum dots counterparts and entail special characters benefiting from the shape, like the thickness-dependent bandgap and anisotropic luminescence. However, perovskite NPLs, especially those based on iodide, suffer from poor spectral and phase stability. Here, stable CsPbI3 NPLs obtained by accelerating the crystallization process in ambient-condition synthesis are reported. By this kinetic control, the rectangular NPLs into quasi-square NPLs are tuned, where enlarged width endows the NPLs with a lower surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V ratio), leading to lower surficial energy and thus improved endurance against NPL fusion (cause for spectral shift or phase transformation). The accelerated crystallization, denoting the fast nucleation and short period of growth in this report, is enabled by preparing a precursor with complete transformation of PbI2 into intermediates (PbI3-), through an additional iodide supplier (e.g., zinc iodide). The excellent color stability of the materials remains in the light-emitting diodes under various bias stresses.

  • 33.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Spampinato, Nicoletta
    Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LCPO, Pessac, France.
    Kuang, Chaoyang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bio- and Organic Electronics, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LCPO, Pessac, France.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Unraveling vertical inhomogeneity in vapour phase polymerized PEDOT:Tos films2020Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 8, s. 18726-18734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) forms a promising alternative to conventional inorganic conductors, where deposition of thin films via vapour phase polymerization (VPP) has gained particular interest owing to high electrical conductivity within the plane of the film. The conductivity perpendicular to the film is typically much lower, which may be related not only to preferential alignment of PEDOT crystallites but also to vertical stratification across the film. In this study, we reveal non-linear vertical microstructural variations across VPP PEDOT:Tos thin films, as well as significant differences in doping level between the top and bottom surfaces. The results are consistent with a VPP mechanism based on diffusion-limited transport of polymerization precursors. Conducting polymer films with vertical inhomogeneity may find applications in gradient-index optics, functionally graded thermoelectrics, and optoelectronic devices requiring gradient doping.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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    Supplementary information
  • 34.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Experimental and Theoretical Investigation into the Polaron Structure of K-Doped Polyfluorene Films2021Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 125, nr 1, s. 937-945Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the electronic structure and optical transition upon n-doping of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) films is elucidated with photoelectron spectroscopy, optical absorption, density functional theory (DFT), and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. Optical absorption measurements extending into near infrared show two low-energy absorption features at low doping ratios and an additional peak at a higher energy of similar to 2.2 eV that disappears with increasing doping ratios. A gap state (i.e., polaronic state) close to the Fermi level and a significantly destabilized highest valence band appear in the experimentally measured ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. These experimental results are interpreted by the TD-DFT calculations, which show that the lower energy peaks originate from the excitation from polaronic states to the conduction band, while the higher energy peak mainly originates from the destabilized valence band to conduction band transitions and only appears at low doping ratios (c(red) &lt;= 50%, 0.5 potassium atom per fluorene monomer). The DFT calculations further indicate that polaron pairs rather than bipolarons are preferentially formed at high doping ratios. Comparing the results of doped glassy and beta-phase films, we find that the ordered segments in the beta-phase film disappear due to the dopant (potassium) insertion, resulting in a similar polaronic structure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Understanding Interface Dipoles at an Electron Transport Material/Electrode Modifier for Organic Electronics2021Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, nr 39, s. 47218-47225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface dipoles formed at an electrolyte/electrode interface have been widely studied and interpreted using the "double dipole step" model, where the dipole vector is determined by the size and/or range of motion of the charged ions. Some electron transport materials (ETMs) with lone pairs of electrons on heteroatoms exhibit a similar interfacial behavior. However, the origin of the dipoles in such materials has not yet been explored in great depth. Herein, we systematically investigate the influence of the lone pair of electrons on the interface dipole through three pyridine derivatives B2-B4PyMPM. Experiments show that different positions of nitrogen atoms in the three materials give rise to different hydrogen bonds and molecular orientations, thereby affecting the areal density and direction of the lone pair of electrons. The interface dipoles of the three materials predicted by the "double dipole step" model are in good agreement with the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results both in spin-coated and vacuum-deposited films. These findings help to better understand the ETMs/electrode interfacial behaviors and provide new guidelines for the molecular design of the interlayer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 36.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Ying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Image-force effects on energy level alignment at electron transport material/cathode interfaces2020Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 173-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron transport materials (ETMs) are widely used as interlayers to lower the cathode electrode work function in organic solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, for example. The usual interpretation for their operating principle is a chemical interaction between the ETM and the electrode, inducing partial or integer charge transfer or collectively an intrinsic dipole moment caused by preferential molecular orientation. Herein, we systematically explore the commonly used ETM bathophenanthroline (BPhen) deposited on a series of conducting substrates. The energetics at the BPhen interface follows the typical integer charge transfer (ICT) model with an extra displacement of the vacuum level by up to -1.4 eV. The extra displacement is ascribed to the "double dipole step" formed by the positive and negative charged species and their induced image charges when they are close to the surface of substrates. After n-type doping the displacement is further increased to -1.8 eV, yielding a larger work function modification than obtained using typical electrolytes and zwitterions as cathode interlayer.

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  • 37.
    Chen, Yongzhen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kolhe, Nagesh B.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Jenekhe, Samson A.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In Situ Spectroscopic and Electrical Investigations of Ladder-type Conjugated Polymers Doped with Alkali Metals2022Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 55, nr 16, s. 7294-7302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ladder-type conjugated polymers exhibit a remarkable performance in (opto)electronic devices. Their double-stranded planar structure promotes an extended pi-conjugation compared to inter-ring-twisted analogues, providing an excellent basis for exploring the effects of charge localization on polaron formation. Here, we investigated alkali-metal n -doping of the ladder-type conjugated polymer (polybenzimidazobenzophe-nanthroline) (BBL) through detailed in situ spectroscopic and electrical characterizations. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy indicate polaron formation upon potassium (K) doping, which agrees well with theoretical predictions. The semiladder BBB displays a similar evolution in the valence band with the appearance of two new features below the Fermi level upon K-doping. Compared to BBL, distinct differences appear in the UV-vis-NIR spectra due to more localized polaronic states in BBB. The high conductivity (2 S cm(-1)) and low activation energy (44 meV) measured for K-doped BBL suggest disorder-free polaron transport. An even higher conductivity (37 S cm(-1)) is obtained by changing the dopant from K to lithium (Li). We attribute the enhanced conductivity to a decreased perturbation of the polymer nanostructure induced by the smaller Li ions. These results highlight the importance of polymer chain planarity and dopant size for the polaronic state in conjugated polymers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 38.
    Chen, Zhan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Heyong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Photoluminescence Enhancement for Efficient Mixed-Halide Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes2023Inngår i: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id 2202528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of highly efficient blue perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) remains a big challenge, requiring more fundamental investigations. In this work, significant photoluminescence enhancement in mixed halide blue perovskite films is demonstrated by using a molecule, benzylphosphonic acid, which eventually doubles the external quantum efficiency to 6.3% in sky-blue PeLEDs. The photoluminescence enhancement is achieved by forming an oxide-bonded perovskite surface at grain boundaries and suppressing electron-phonon interaction, which enhances the radiative recombination rate and reduces the nonradiative recombination rate, respectively. Moreover, severe thermal quenching is observed in the blue perovskite films, which can be explained by a two-step mechanism involving exciton dissociation and electron-phonon interaction. The results suggest that enhancing the radiative recombination rate and reducing the electron-phonon interaction-induced nonradiative recombination rate are crucial for achieving blue perovskite films with strong emission at or above room temperature.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    ZnO nanorods based piezoresistive sensor synthesized by rapid mixing hydrothermal methodManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We have successfully synthesized well-aligned, shape controlled and uniform size distribution of ZnO nanorods by using a rapid mixing hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the ZnO nanorods grow along the c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) investigation revealed that the ZnO nanorods have optical emissions in both the UV and visible ranges and the crystal quality of the ZnO nanorods can be improved by increasing the growth duration. The well-aligned and uniform ZnO nanorods were used to fabricate efficient piezoresistive sensor. The piezoresistive sensor has demonstrated a pressure sensitivity of 0.033 KPa-1 with a fast response and recovery times within 0.088 and 0.29 s, respectively. The piezoresistive sensor has potential applications in industrial, civil and transportation fields. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor can be utilized as a very useful human-friendly interactive electronic device for load sensing.

  • 40.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fast piezoresistive sensor and UV photodetector based on Mn-doped ZnO nanorods2015Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 87-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A low cost hydrothermal synthesis method to synthesize Mn-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) with controllable morphology and structure has been developed. Ammonia is used to tailor the ammonium hydroxide concentration, which provides a source of OH– for hydrolysis and precipitation during the growth instead of HMT. The morphological, chemical composition, structural, and electronic structure studies of the Mn-doped ZnO NRs show that the Mn-doped ZnO NRs have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure along the c-axis and the Mn ions replace the Zn sites in the ZnO NRs matrix without any secondary phase of metallic manganese element and manganese oxides observed. The fabricated PEDOT:PSS/Zn0.85Mn0.15O Schottky diode based piezoresistive sensor and UV photodetector shows that the piezoresistive sensor has pressure sensitivity of 0.00617 kPa–1 for the pressure range from 1 kPa to 20 kP and 0.000180 kPa–1for the pressure range from 20 kPa to 320 kPa with relatively fast response time of 0.03 s and the UV photodetector has both relatively high responsivity and fast response time of 0.065 A/W and 2.75 s, respectively. The fabricated Schottky diode can be utilized as a very useful human-friendly interactive electronic device for mass/force sensor or UV photodetector in everyday living life. This developed device is very promising for small-size, low-cost and easy-to-customize application-specific requirements. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • 41.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Masood, Ansar
    Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Riazanova, A.
    Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rao, K. V.
    Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Synthesis of Fe-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Rapid Mixing Hydrothermal Method and Its Application for High Performance UV Photodetector2014Inngår i: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, Vol. 2014, nr 524530, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have successfully synthesized Fe-doped ZnO nanorods by a new and simple method in which the adopted approach is by using ammonia as a continuous source of OH for hydrolysis instead of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed that the Fe peaks were presented in the grown Fe-doped ZnO nanorods samples and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results suggested that Fe3+ is incorporated into the ZnO lattice. Structural characterization indicated that the Fe-doped ZnO nanorods grow along the c-axis with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have single crystalline nature without any secondary phases or clusters of FeO or Fe3O4 observed in the samples. The Fe-doped ZnO nanorods showed room temperature (300 K) ferromagnetic magnetization versus field (M-H) hysteresis and the magnetization increases from 2.5 μemu to 9.1 μemu for Zn0.99Fe0.01O and Zn0.95Fe0.05O, respectively. Moreover, the fabricated Au/Fe-doped ZnO Schottky diode based UV photodetector achieved 2.33 A/W of responsivity and 5 s of time response. Compared to other Au/ZnO nanorods Schottky devices, the presented responsivity is an improvement by a factor of 3.9.

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Dai, Junxi
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhongyi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Huihui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Tangfu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Promoted Sb removal with hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell by ZIF-67-derived modified sulfate-reducing bacteria bio-cathode2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 856, artikkel-id 158839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-cathode Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been widely discovered for heavy metals removal and hydrogen production. However, low electron transfer efficiency and heavy metal toxicity limit MEC treatment efficiency. In this study, ZIF-67 was introduced to modify Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bio-cathode to enhance the bioreduction of sulfate and Antimony (Sb) with hydrogen production in the MEC. ZIF-67 modified bio-cathode was developed from a bio-anode microbial fuel cell (MFC) by operating with an applied voltage of 0.8 V to reverse the polarity. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were done to confirm the performance of the ZIF67 modified SRB bio-cathode. The synergy reduction of sulfate and Sb was accomplished by sulfide metal precipitation reaction from SRB itself. Maximum sulfate reduction rate approached 93.37 % and Sb removal efficiency could reach 92 %, which relies on the amount of sulfide concentration generated by sulfate reduction reaction, with 0.923 +/- 0.04 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen before adding Sb and 0.857 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen after adding Sb. The hydrogen was mainly produced in this system and the result of gas chromatography (GC) indicated that 73.27 % of hydrogen was produced. Meanwhile the precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm Sb2S3 was generated from Sb (V).

  • 43.
    Dai, Yi
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Han
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yan
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Kengqiang
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianxin
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhongyi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Yi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Tao
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Su, Minhua
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zn-doped CaFeO3 perovskite-derived high performed catalyst on oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cells2021Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 489, artikkel-id 229498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable perovskite oxide is considered as a potential cathode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, Zn is used as an effective element to modify the micro-structure and oxygen vacancy of perovskite to be a novel cathode catalyst. Physical characterizations show that due to partial volatilization at high temperature of Zn, perovskite forms hierarchically porous structures. Moreover, Zn is precipitated in electrochemical reaction to generate Zn vacancy in situ; thus, the active center of Fe has a superior interaction with oxygen-containing species, promoting the production of oxygen vacancy and forms a mixed valence state of Fe2+/Fe3+. The Zn-doped perovskite material CaFe0.7Zn0.3O3 exhibits remarkable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performances with outstanding onset potential (0.194 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and half-wave potential (-0.219 V vs. Ag/AgCl) under alkaline condition, which is better than Pt/C catalyst. Besides, CaFe0.7Zn0.3O3 shows an excellent four-electron pathway of ORR mechanism with remarkable corrosion resistance and stability, which enables a more reliable cathode electrocatalyst. The maximum power density of CaFe0.7Zn0.3O3 (892.10 +/- 90.79 mW m(-3)) testing on microbial fuel cell is comparable to the maximum power density (1012.86 +/- 84.03 mW m(-3)) of Pt/C. The findings of this work provide the feasibility of exploring inexpensive and high-performance cathode catalyst.

  • 44.
    del Pozo, Freddy G.
    et al.
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pfattner, Raphael
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Georgakopoulos, Stamatis
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Galindo, Sergi
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Veciana, Jaume
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Rovira, Concepcio
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mas-Torrent, Marta
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Single Crystal-Like Performance in Solution-Coated Thin-Film Organic Field-Effect Transistors2016Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, nr 14, s. 2379-2386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In electronics, the field-effect transistor (FET) is a crucial cornerstone and successful integration of this semiconductor device into circuit applications requires stable and ideal electrical characteristics over a wide range of temperatures and environments. Solution processing, using printing or coating techniques, has been explored to manufacture organic field-effect transistors (OFET) on flexible carriers, enabling radically novel electronics applications. Ideal electrical characteristics, in organic materials, are typically only found in single crystals. Tiresome growth and manipulation of these hamper practical production of flexible OFETs circuits. To date, neither devices nor any circuits, based on solution-processed OFETs, has exhibited an ideal set of characteristics similar or better than todays FET technology based on amorphous silicon. Here, bar-assisted meniscus shearing of dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene to coat-process self-organized crystalline organic semiconducting domains with high reproducibility is reported. Including these coatings as the channel in OFETs, electric field and temperature-independent charge carrier mobility and no bias stress effects are observed. Furthermore, record-high gain in OFET inverters and exceptional operational stability in both air and water are measured.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Delavari, Najmeh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Modarresi, Mohsen
    Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Iran.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Bioinformatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Water Intake and Ion Exchange in PEDOT:Tos Films upon Cyclic Voltammetry: Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Investigation2021Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 54, nr 13, s. 6552-6562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive polymer PEDOT:Tos (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene doped with molecular tosylate) gained considerable attention in various devices for bioelectronic applications, such as organic transistors and sensors. Many of these devices function upon oxidation/reduction processes in contact with aqueous electrolytes. So far, theoretical insight into morphological changes, ion injection, and water intake during these processes was rather limited. In the present work, we combined experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to study the water intake, swelling, and exchange of ions in the PEDOT:Tos film during cyclic voltammetry. We showed that the film underwent significant changes in morphology and mass during the redox processes. We observed both experimentally and in simulations that the film lost its mass during reduction, as tosylate and Na were expelled and gained mass during oxidation mainly due to the uptake of anions, i.e., tosylate and Cl. The results were in line with the UV-VIS-NIR absorption measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, which revealed that during the redox process a portion of Tos was replaced by Cl- as the counterion for PEDOT. Also, the relative mass change between the most oxidized and reduced states was similar to 10 to 14% according to both experiments and simulations. We detected an overall material loss of the film during voltammetry cycles indicating that a portion of the material leaving the film during reduction did not return to the film during the consecutive oxidation. Our combined experimental/simulation study unraveled the underlying molecular processes in the PEDOT:Tos film upon the redox process, providing the essential understanding needed to improve and assess the performance of bioelectronic devices.

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  • 46.
    Dávid, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Morat, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Mengyun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Elektroniska och fotoniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mapping Uncharted Lead-Free Halide Perovskites and Related Low-Dimensional Structures2024Inngår i: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 17, nr 2, artikkel-id 491Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on perovskites has grown exponentially in the past decade due to the potential of methyl ammonium lead iodide in photovoltaics. Although these devices have achieved remarkable and competitive power conversion efficiency, concerns have been raised regarding the toxicity of lead and its impact on scaling up the technology. Eliminating lead while conserving the performance of photovoltaic devices is a great challenge. To achieve this goal, the research has been expanded to thousands of compounds with similar or loosely related crystal structures and compositions. Some materials are "re-discovered", and some are yet unexplored, but predictions suggest that their potential applications may go beyond photovoltaics, for example, spintronics, photodetection, photocatalysis, and many other areas. This short review aims to present the classification, some current mapping strategies, and advances of lead-free halide double perovskites, their derivatives, lead-free perovskitoid, and low-dimensional related crystals.

  • 47.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evans, Drew
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure2016Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, nr 38, s. 6950-6960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tang, Zheng
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    DNA Based Hybrid Material for Interface Engineering in Polymer Solar Cells2018Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 11, s. 9579-9586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new solution processable electron transport material (ETM) is introduced for use in photovoltaic devices, which consists of a metallic conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S), and surfactant-functionalized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (named DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S). This ETM is demonstrated to effectively work for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) based on different electron acceptor materials. The fill factor, the open circuit voltage, and the overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with a DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S modified cathode are comparable to those of devices with a traditional lithium fluoride/aluminum cathode. The new electron transport layer has high optical transmittance, desired work function and selective electron transport. A dipole effect induced by the use of the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA) is responsible for lowering the electrode work function. The DNA:CTMA complex works as an optical absorption dilutor, while PEDOT-S provides the conducting pathway for electron transport, and allows thicker layer to be used, enabling printing. This materials design opens a new pathway to harness and optimize the electronic and optical properties of printable interface materials.

  • 49.
    Elhadi Adam, Rania
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pirhashemi, Mahsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz
    University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    ZnO/Ag/Ag2WO4 photo-electrodes with plasmonic behavior for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation2019Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, nr 15, s. 8271-8279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ag-based compounds are excellent co-catalyst that can enhance harvesting visible light and increase photo-generated charge carrier separation owing to its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. However, the PEC performance of a ZnO/Ag/Ag2WO4 heterostructure with SPR behavior has not been fully studied so far. Here we report the preparation of a ZnO/Ag/Ag2WO4 photo-electrode with SPR behavior by a low temperature hydrothermal chemical growth method followed by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The properties of the prepared samples were investigated by different characterization techniques, which confirm that Ag/Ag2WO4 was deposited on the ZnO NRs. The Ag2WO4/Ag/ZnO photo-electrode showed an enhancement in PEC performance compared to bare ZnO NRs. The observed enhancement is attributed to the red shift of the optical absorption spectrum of the Ag2WO4/Ag/ZnO to the visible region (>400 nm) and to the SPR effect of surface metallic silver (Ag0) particles from the Ag/Ag2WO4 that could generate electron–hole pairs under illumination of low energy visible sun light. Finally, we proposed the PEC mechanism of the Ag2WO4/Ag/ZnO photo-electrode with an energy band structure and possible electron–hole separation and transportation in the ZnO/Ag/Ag2WO4 heterostructure with SPR effect for water oxidation. ER

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  • 50.
    Elhag, Sami
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dopamine wide range detection sensor based on modified Co3O4 nanowires electrode2014Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 203, s. 543-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-thin cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal chemical deposition and have been used as a wide range dopamine potentiometric sensor. An anionic surfactant ( sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) was used to achieve assisted growth procedure. Moreover, a polymeric membrane containing polyvinyl chloride as plasticized polymer, p-cyclodextrin as ionophore, and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate as ionic additive were immobilized on the Co3O4 nanostructures through electrostatic adsorption method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the electrodes while ultraviolet-visible absorption was used to investigate the band gap of the Co3O4 nanostructures. The structural characterization showed a cubic crystalline, pure phase, and nanowires morphology of the Co3O4. However, the morphology is altered when the surfactant concentration has been changed. The Co3O4 chemical modified electrodes were used in potentiometric measurements for dopamine in a 10(-2) M acetic acid/sodium acetate solution having a pH of 5.45. For dopamine range from 10(-9) M to 10(-2) M, the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 52 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified Co3O4 nanowires based sensor for dopamine is attributed to the defects on the metal oxide that is dictated by the used surfactant along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio.

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