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  • 1.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 2.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 3.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 233-241 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 474-483 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 5.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 6.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden/Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU, England, UK .
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, 801 76 Ga¨vle, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the caseof Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, 11-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedon vespiformis L. (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discoveredin 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sexpheromone attractant became available recently. This studydetails a national survey conducted using pheromones as asampling method for this species. Through pheromonetrapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reportedrecords for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformisis truly a rare species with a genuinely scattereddistribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyseswere conducted in order to test the relationship betweenhabitat quality and the number of individuals caught. InSweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oakhosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by theabundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. Wetherefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledgeon distribution may have led to the assumption that thisspecies is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part ofits range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar toS. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central andSouthern Europe. We conclude that pheromones canmassively enhance sampling potential for this and otherrare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-basedsurveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absencesacross a considerable part of a species national distributionrange, and thus for the first time provide a viable means ofsystematically assessing changes in distribution over timewith high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 7.
    Buseva, Teiksma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The vulnerability of Latvia’s agriculture: Farm level response to climatic and non-climatic stimuli2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture is a climate sensitive sector whether it changes moderately and slowly or radicallyand rapidly. Many studies that focus on the vulnerability of agriculture, use climate scenariosand crop models to assess the potential impacts. This study seeks to identify (1) farmers‘awareness and perceptions of climate variability and change; (2) the types of adjustments theyhave made in their farming practices in response to these changes (farm responses, adaptivestrategies); and (3) other external factors (government policies, social, technological andeconomic conditions) that have significant impact on the farming activities.The results indicate that climate change and variability already have and will have mostlynegative impacts on agriculture. Prolonged dry spells and heat in the summer, less summerrain combined with higher temperatures, more heavy rainfall, more forest or grass fires andextreme weather: drought, flood, storms have been identified as highest climatic burdens toagriculture. An advanced start of the growing season is the the only truly positive change forthe majority of farmers. Apart from that several non-climatic factors were identified assignificant, among them political: high level of bureaucracy, lack of public trust in socialinstitutions, political instability; economical: incentives, for example tax exemption orreduction, access to subsidies and funds, economic growth and development, long-lastingeconomic recession; technological and infrastructural: access to advanced technologies,infrastructure and settlement development and poor road and railroad system; and social:population migration within Europa, ageing of population and population decrease. Thesesocio-economic factors play significant roles in overcoming the risks and building adaptivecapacity. This study shows that a variety of strategies and methods have been applied toreduce the vulnerability. Most often it is a farm level managerial decision, like, adjustedtiming of farm operations, changed crop variety and types, reduced number of livestock,improved technological base or increased income by off farm jobs.Finally we can conclude that even though individual farms have capacity to reducevulnerability, one must not underestimate the role of government and industry to decrease thedamages, take advantage of opportunities or cope with consequences. Farmer decision tomake changes in farming activities is rarely based on one risk alone.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, 393-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

  • 9.
    Gilljam, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structure and Stability of Ecological Networks: The role of dynamic dimensionality and species variability in resource use2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis is on the response of ecological communities to environmental variability and species loss. My approach is theoretical; I use mathematical models of networks where species population dynamics are described by ordinary differential equations. A common theme of the papers in my thesis is variation – variable link structure (Paper I) and within-species variation in resource use (Paper III and IV). To explore how such variation affect the stability of ecological communities in variable environments, I use numerical methods evaluating for example community persistence (the proportion of species surviving over time; Paper I, II and IV). I also develop a new method for quantifying the dynamical dimensionality of an ecological community and investigate its effect on community persistence in stochastic environments (Paper II). Moreover, if we are to gain trustworthy model output, it is of course of major importance to create study systems that reflect the structures of natural systems. To this end, I also study highly resolved, individual based empirical food web data sets (Paper III, IV).

    In Paper I, the effects of adaptive rewiring induced by resource loss on the persistence of ecological networks is investigated. Loss of one species in an ecosystem can trigger extinctions of other dependent species. For instance, specialist predators will go extinct following the loss of their only prey unless they can change their diet. It has therefore been suggested that an ability of consumers to rewire to novel prey should mitigate the consequences of species loss by reducing the risk of cascading extinction. Using a new modelling approach on natural and computer-generated food webs I find that, on the contrary, rewiring often aggravates the effects of species loss. This is because rewiring can lead to overexploitation of resources, which eventually causes extinction cascades. Such a scenario is particularly likely if prey species cannot escape predation when rare and if predators are efficient in exploiting novel prey. Indeed, rewiring is a two-edged sword; it might be advantageous for individual predators in the short term, yet harmful for long-term system persistence.

    The persistence of an ecological community in a variable world depends on the strength of environmental variation pushing the community away from equilibrium compared to the strength of the deterministic feedbacks, caused by interactions among and within species, pulling the community towards the equilibrium. However, it is not clear which characteristics of a community that promote its persistence in a variable world. In Paper II, using a modelling approach on natural and computer-generated food webs, I show that community persistence is strongly and positively related to its dynamic dimensionality (DD), as measured by the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the real part of the eigenvalues of the community matrix. A high DD means that the real parts of the eigenvalues are of similar magnitude and the system will therefore approach equilibrium from all directions at a similar rate. On the other hand, when DD is low, one of the eigenvalues has a large magnitude of the real part compared to  the others and the deterministic forces pulling the system towards  equilibrium is therefore weak in many directions compared to the stochastic forces pushing the system away from the equilibrium. As a consequence the risk of crossing extinction thresholds and boundaries separating basins of attractions increases, and hence persistence decreases, as DD decreases. Given the forecasted increase in climate variability caused by global warming, Paper II suggests that the dynamic dimensionality of ecological systems is likely to become an increasingly important property for their persistence.

    In Paper III, I investigate patterns in the size structure of one marine and six running freshwater food webs: that is, how the trophic structure of such ecological networks is governed by the body size of its interacting entities. The data for these food webs are interactions between individuals, including the taxonomic identity and body mass of the prey and the predator. Using these detailed data, I describe how patterns in diet variation and predator variation scales with the body mass of predators or prey, using both a species- and a size-class-based approach. I also compare patterns of size structure derived from analysis of individual-based data with those patterns that result when data are aggregated into species (or size class-based) averages. This comparison shows that analysis based on species averaging can obscure interesting patterns in the size structure of ecological communities. For example, I find that the strength of the relationship between prey body mass and predator body mass is consistently underestimated when species averages are used instead of the individual level data. In some cases, no relationship is found when species averages are used, but when individual-level data are used instead, clear and significant patterns are revealed. These results have potentially important implications for parameterisation of models of ecological communities and hence for predictions concerning their dynamics and response to different kinds of disturbances.

    Paper IV continues the analysis of the highly resolved individual-based empirical data set used in Paper III and investigates patterns and effects of within- and between species resource specialisation in ecological communities. Within-species size variation can be considerable. For instance, in fishes and reptiles, where growth is continuous, individuals pass through a wide spectrum of sizes, possibly more than four orders of magnitude, during the independent part of their life cycle. Given that the size of an organism is correlated with many of its fundamental ecological properties, it should come as no surprise that an individual’s size affects the type of prey it can consume and what predators will attack it (Paper III). In Paper IV, I quantify within- and between species differences in predator species’ prey preferences in natural food webs and subsequently explore its consequences for dynamical dimensionality (Paper II) and community stability in stage structured food web models. Among the natural food webs there are webs where species overlap widely in their resource use while the resource use of size-classes within species differs. There are also webs where differences in resource use among species is relatively large and the niches of sizeclasses within species are more similar. Model systems with the former structure are found to have low dynamical dimensionality and to be less stable compared to systems with the latter structure. Thus, although differential resource use among individuals within a species is likely to decrease the intensity of intraspecific competition and favor individuals specializing on less exploited resources it can destabilize the community in which the individuals are embedded.

    List of papers
    1. Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecosystems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecosystems
    2015 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, 8412Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of one species in an ecosystem can trigger extinctions of other dependent species. For instance, specialist predators will go extinct following the loss of their only prey unless they can change their diet. It has therefore been suggested that an ability of consumers to rewire to novel prey should mitigate the consequences of species loss by reducing the risk of cascading extinction. Using a new modelling approach on natural and computer-generated food webs we find that, on the contrary, rewiring often aggravates the effects of species loss. This is because rewiring can lead to overexploitation of resources, which eventually causes extinction cascades. Such a scenario is particularly likely if prey species cannot escape predation when rare and if predators are efficient in exploiting novel prey. Indeed, rewiring is a two-edged sword; it might be advantageous for individual predators in the short term, yet harmful for long-term system persistence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2015
    Keyword
    Resistance, extinction risk, secondary extinction cascades, environmental variation, stochastic, response diversity, functional responses
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108905 (URN)10.1038/ncomms9412 (DOI)000363138400004 ()
    Note

    Funding text: Linkoping University.

    The original titel of this article was Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecological networks.

    Available from: 2014-07-11 Created: 2014-07-11 Last updated: 2016-01-21Bibliographically approved
    2. High dynamic dimensionality promotes the persistence of ecological networks in a variable world
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High dynamic dimensionality promotes the persistence of ecological networks in a variable world
    2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term persistence of ecological communities depends on the strength of destabilizing stochastic forces relative to the strength of stabilizing feedbacks caused by interactions among and within species. What characteristics of a community that tip the balance of these forces in favour of persistence is not clear. Here we show that long-term persistence of a community is positively related to its dynamic dimensionality (DD). A high DD means that the system approaches the equilibrium from all directions at a similar rate. On the other hand, when DD is low the deterministic forces pulling the system towards equilibrium is weak in many directions compared to the stochastic forces pushing the system away from the equilibrium. As a consequence persistence decreases as DD decreases. This result illustrates the potential importance of dynamic dimensionality of ecosystems for their persistence in a variable world and by extension for their vulnerability to changes in the strength and patterns of climate variability caused by global warming.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123967 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2016-01-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Seeing Double: Size-Based and Taxonomic Views of Food Web Structure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seeing Double: Size-Based and Taxonomic Views of Food Web Structure
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Advances in Ecological Research, ISSN 0065-2504, Vol. 45, 67-133 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd., 2011 Edition: 45
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71348 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-386475-8.00003-4 (DOI)978-0-12-386475-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2016-01-15
    4. Patterns of resource utilisation within and between species affect the dynamic dimensionality and stability of ecological communities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of resource utilisation within and between species affect the dynamic dimensionality and stability of ecological communities
    2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many ecological communities, individuals within species pass through a wide spectrum of sizes, spanning several orders of magnitude, during the independent part of their life cycle. Such a large size-variation within a species will affect the structure of its niche, since the size of an individual affects the type of prey it can consume as well as what predators will attack it. Here we use highly resolved individual-based empirical data to investigate patterns in the niche structure of several aquatic food webs. We quantify within and between species components of resource use in these webs and explore its consequences for dynamical dimensionality and community stability using simple food web models with stage-structured consumer species. Among the natural food webs there are webs where species overlap widely in their resource use while the resource use of size-classes within species differs. There are also webs where differences in resource use among species is relatively large and the niches of sizeclasses within species are more similar. Model systems with the former structure are found to have low dynamical dimensionality and to be less stable compared to systems with the latter structure. Thus, although differential resource use among individuals within a species is likely to decrease the intensity of intraspecific competition and favor individuals specializing on less exploited resources it can destabilize the community in which the individuals are embedded.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123968 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2016-01-15Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Grimvall, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Maj-Britt
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wahlström, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phytotoxic Substances in Runoff from Forested Catchment Areas1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 397-406 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff from different catchment areas in southem Sweden was tested in a root bioassay based on solution cultures of cucumber seedlings. Water samples from agricultural catchment areas produced no signs at all or only weak signs of inhibited root growth, whereas several water samples from catchmcnt areas dominated by mires or coniferous forests produced visible root injuries. The most severe root injuries (very short roots, discolouration, swelling of root tips and lack of root hairs) were caused by samples from a catchment area without local emissions and dominated by old stands of spruce. Fractionation by ultrafiltration showed that the phytotoxic effect of these samples could be attributed to organic matter with a nominal molecular-weight  exceeding 1000 or to substances associated with organic macromolecules. Experiments aimed at concentrating phytotoxic compounds from surface water indicated that the observed growth  inhibition was caused by strongly hydrophilic substances. Previous reports on phytotoxic, organic substances of natura! origin have emphasized interaction between plants growing close together. The presence of phytotoxic substances in runoff indicates that there is also a large-scale dispersion of such compounds.

  • 11.
    Hana, Kuci
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Enzymatic hydrolysis of brown macroalgae for biogas fuel production2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroalgae, so-called seaweeds, represent an innovative and sustainable substrate for biogas fuels production (third generation’s biofuels). However, large scale implementation are not yet commercialized due to high biomass production costs and in addition, low biomethane yields observed within some algae species preventing high energy conversion efficiency. The aim with this study was to investigate the impact of the enzymatic hydrolysis pre-treatment on the AD of macroalgae. Five brown macroalgae, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus grown nearshore and A. esculenta, L. digitata and S. latissima grow offshore, were pre-treated with four different enzymes at 37 oC for 24 h. The biomethane yield was determined by anaerobic batch digestion test. The enzymatic pre-treatment improved the hydrolysis, where the biomethane yield of near- and offshore macroalgae was enhanced between 70 to 82 % and 12 to 48 %, respectively, compared with un-treated biomass. In addition the work present an economic analysis on the pre-treatment applied to a hypothetical full scale AD for biogas fuel production testing L. digitata and A. nodosum. Two cases presented, case 0 is based from the cultivation, harvesting and enzyme cost from literature and in case 1 the cultivation and enzyme cost reduced by 75 and 90 %, respectively. Reducing the cultivation and enzyme cost by 75 and 90 %, respectively, had a positive influence on the economy of the hypothetical large scale biogas plant. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2027-09-30 11:13
  • 12.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Landfill Mining: Institutional challenges for the implementation of resource extraction from waste deposits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis is to examine the institutional conditions for the implementation and emergence of landfill mining. The result shows that  current policy makes it difficult for landfill mining operators to find a market outlet for the exhumed material, which means that landfill mining may result in a waste disposal problem. Regulations also restrict accessibility to the material in landfills. Therefore, it has generally been municipal landfill owners that perform landfill mining operations, which directs learning processes towards solving landfill problems rather than resource recovery. Landfill mining is not, however, necessarily to be perceived as a recycling activity. It could also be understood as a remediation or mining activity. This would result in more favorable institutional conditions for landfill mining in terms of better access to the market and the material in the landfill.

    The regulatory framework surrounding landfills is based on a perception of landfills as a source of pollution, a problem that should be avoided, capped and closed. Extracting resources from landfills, challenges this perception and therefore results in a mismatch with the regulatory framework. On the other hand, the material in mines is typically regarded in the formal institutions as a positive occurrence. Mining activities are regarded as the backbone of the Swedish economy and therefore receive various forms of political support. This favorable regulatory framework is not available for secondary resource production. Based on the identified institutional conditions, institutional challenges are identified. The core of these challenges is a conflict between the policy goal of increased recycling and a non-toxic environment. Secondary resources are typically punished through strict requirements for marketability, while primary resources are supported through subsidies such as tax exemptions. The authorities lack capacity to manage the emergence of unconventional and complex activities such as landfill mining. The institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock.

    The major contribution of the thesis is to go beyond the potential-oriented studies of landfill mining to instead focus on how institutions relate to landfill mining. In order to move towards a resource transition with dominant use of secondary resources a new institutional order is proposed.

    List of papers
    1. An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 55, 35-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keyword
    Resource management, Metal stocks, Secondary resources, Recycling, Urban mining.
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77301 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.04.007 (DOI)000322802300004 ()
    Projects
    Urban mining: laying the foundation for a new line of business
    Funder
    FormasVinnova
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies
    2012 (English)In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, 33-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keyword
    Alchemy, Escaping lock-in, Landfill mining, Resource policy, Waste regimes.
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85347 (URN)10.1016/j.eist.2012.10.004 (DOI)
    Projects
    Landfill mining for integrated remediation and resource recovery: economic and environmental potentials in Sweden
    Funder
    Formas
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-19 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling
    2014 (English)In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, Vol. 41, 72-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Subsidy, Recycling, Mining, Metal, Policy
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97469 (URN)10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.04.001 (DOI)000341338400009 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    JEL Classification: H23; L72; Q38; Q53

    Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved
    4. A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new dawn for buried garbage?: An investigation of the marketability of previously disposed shredder waste
    2017 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 60, 417-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the market potential of disposed shredder waste, a resource that is increasingly emphasized as a future mine. A framework with gate requirements of various outlets was developed and contrasted with a pilot project focusing on excavated waste from a shredder landfill, sorted in an advanced recycling facility. Only the smallest fraction by percentage had an outlet, the metals (8%), which were sold according to a lower quality class. The other fractions (92%) were not accepted for incineration, as construction materials or even for re-deposition. Previous studies have shown similar lack of marketability. This means that even if one fraction can be recovered, the outlet of the other material is often unpredictable, resulting in a waste disposal problem, which easily prevents a landfill mining project altogether. This calls for marketability and usability of deposited waste to become a central issue for landfill mining research. The paper concludes by discussing how concerned actors can enhance the marketability, for example by pre-treating the disposed waste to acclimatize it to existing sorting methods. However, for concerned actors to become interested in approaching unconventional resources such as deposited waste, greater regulatory flexibility is needed in which, for example, re-deposition could be allowed as long as the environmental benefits of the projects outweigh the disadvantages.

    Keyword
    Landfill mining; Disposed waste; Marketability; Policy; Technology
    National Category
    Mineral and Mine Engineering Public Administration Studies Environmental Sciences Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129541 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2016.05.015 (DOI)000397357100043 ()27216727 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
    5. The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining
    2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, 46-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keyword
    Landfill mining, resource policy, frame analysis, Institutional capacity, transition
    National Category
    Public Administration Studies Environmental Sciences Mineral and Mine Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134563 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2017.01.005 (DOI)000396957400006 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Innovation Agency; VINNOVA

    Available from: 2017-02-16 Created: 2017-02-16 Last updated: 2017-04-28
  • 13.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Klein, Natacha
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kayhko, Janina
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Transformations in Nordic Agriculture?2017In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, ISSN 0743-0167, Vol. 51, 28-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have negative impacts but also to bring potential opportunities for agriculture and crop productivity in the Nordic countries. Little research has been conducted at the farmer level to identify what adaptation measures are being considered or already taken and transformative these are. Based on semi-structured interviews with farmers and extension officers from two of the most fertile agricultural areas of Finland and Sweden, this study examines to what extent Nordic farmers are engaged in transforming their farming systems. The results show that some transformational changes are taking place already but most changes are incremental. Currently, agricultural policies and regulations are perceived as a greater adaptation challenge than climate change.

  • 14.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Remote Sensing of Woodland Structure and Composition in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: Application of WorldView-2 and Landsat 82015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Woodlands constitute the subsistence base of the majority of people in the Sudano-Sahelian zone (SSZ), but low availability of in situ data on vegetation structure and composition hampers research and monitoring. This thesis explores the utility of remote sensing for mapping and analysing vegetation, primarily trees, in the SSZ. A comprehensive literature review was first conducted to describe how the application of remote sensing has developed in the SSZ between 1975 and 2014, and to identify important research gaps. Based on the gaps identified in the literature review, the capabilities of two new satellite systems (WorldView-2 and Landsat 8) for mapping woodland structure and composition were tested in an area in central Burkina Faso.

    The results shows that WorldView-2 represents a useful data source for mapping individual trees: 85.4% of the reference trees were detected in the WorldView-2 data and tree crown area was estimate with an average error of 45.6%. In addition, WorldView-2 data produced high classification accuracies for five locally important tree species. The highest overall classification accuracy (82.4%) was produced using multi-temporal WorldView-2 data. Landsat 8 data proved more suitable for mapping tree canopy cover as compared to aboveground biomass in the woodland landscape. Tree canopy cover and aboveground biomass was predicted with 41% and 66% root mean square error, respectively, at pixel level.

    This thesis demonstrates the potential of easily accessible data from two satellite systems for mapping important tree attributes in woodland areas, and discusses how the usefulness of remote sensing for analyzing vegetation can be further enhanced in the SSZ.

    List of papers
    1. Remote sensing of vegetation in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: A literature review from 1975 to 2014
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote sensing of vegetation in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: A literature review from 1975 to 2014
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 124, 257-269 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Scarcity of in situ vegetation data inhibits research and natural resource management in the Sudano- Sahelian zone (SSZ). Satellite and aerial remote sensing (RS) constitute key technologies for improving the availability of vegetation data, and consequently the preconditions for scientific analysis and monitoring. The aim of this paper was to investigate how the hands-on application of RS for vegetation analysis has developed in the SSZ by reviewing the scientific literature published between 1975 and 2014. The paper assesses the usages and the users of RS by focusing on four aspects of the material (268 peer-reviewed articles), including publication details (time of publication, scientific discipline of journals and author nationality), geographic information (location of study areas and spatial scale of research), data usage (application of RS systems and procedures for accuracy assessments), and research topic (scientific objective of the research). Three key results were obtained: i) the application of RS to analyze vegetation in the SSZ has increased consistently since 1977 and it seems to become adopted by a growing number of scientific disciplines; ii) the contribution of African authors is low, potentially signalling a need for an increased transfer of knowledge and technology from developed countries; iii) RS has pri- marily been used to analyze changes in vegetation productivity and broad vegetation types, whereas its use for studying interactions between vegetation and environmental factors has been relatively low. This calls for stronger collaborative RS research that enables the mapping of additional vegetation variables of high relevance for the environmental problems facing the SSZ. Remotely sensed vegetation data are needed at spatial scales that suits the requirements of both research and natural resource management in order to further enhance the usefulness of this technology. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, UK: Academic Press, 2016
    Keyword
    Remote sensing, Vegetation, Drylands, Sudano-Sahel, Monitoring, Natural resource management
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121292 (URN)10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.08.022 (DOI)000364245200030 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 348-2013-6547Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2009-176Swedish Energy Agency, 35586-1
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) [SWE-2009-176]; Swedish Energy Agency [35586-1]; Swedish Research Council (VR/Sida) [348-2013-6547]

    Available from: 2015-09-13 Created: 2015-09-13 Last updated: 2016-12-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis
    2014 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, no 12, 22643-22669 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (>100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel: M D P I AG, 2014
    Keyword
    remote sensing; high spatial resolution; WorldView-2; tree crown mapping; tree crown delineation; geographic object based image analysis; woodland; agroforestry; parkland; Burkina Faso
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113526 (URN)10.3390/s141222643 (DOI)000346794300026 ()25460815 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Available from: 2015-01-20 Created: 2015-01-20 Last updated: 2016-06-15Bibliographically approved
    3. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 1569-8432, E-ISSN 1872-826X, Vol. 50, 80-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA=78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA=68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore conchided that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Tree species mapping; WorldView-2; Agroforestry; Parkland; Sudano-Sahel
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128916 (URN)10.1016/j.jag.2016.03.004 (DOI)000375819200008 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Swedish Energy Agency.

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Assessing the potential of multi-temporal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species.

    Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Mapping Tree Canopy Cover and Aboveground Biomass in Sudano-Sahelian Woodlands Using Landsat 8 and Random Forest
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping Tree Canopy Cover and Aboveground Biomass in Sudano-Sahelian Woodlands Using Landsat 8 and Random Forest
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 7, 10017-10041 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and timely maps of tree cover attributes are important tools for environmental research and natural resource management. We evaluate the utility of Landsat 8 for mapping tree canopy cover (TCC) and aboveground biomass (AGB) in a woodland landscape in Burkina Faso. Field data and WorldView-2 imagery were used to assemble the reference dataset. Spectral, texture, and phenology predictor variables were extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and used as input to Random Forest (RF) models. RF models based on multi-temporal and single date imagery were compared to determine the influence of phenology predictor variables. The effect of reducing the number of predictor variables on the RF predictions was also investigated. The model error was assessed using 10-fold cross 

    validation. The most accurate models were created using multi-temporal imagery and variable selection, for both TCC (five predictor variables) and AGB (four predictor variables). The coefficient of determination of predicted versus observed values was 0.77 for TCC (RMSE = 8.9%) and 0.57 for AGB (RMSE = 17.6 tons∙ha−1). This mapping approach is based on freely available Landsat 8 data and relatively simple analytical methods, and is therefore applicable in woodland areas where sufficient reference data are available. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI AG, 2015
    Keyword
    Landsat 8; woodland; Sudano-Sahel; tree canopy cover; aboveground biomass; multi-temporal imagery; Random Forest; variable selection; phenology
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120409 (URN)10.3390/rs70810017 (DOI)000360818800025 ()
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding text: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Research Council (VR/Sida)

    Available from: 2015-08-06 Created: 2015-08-06 Last updated: 2016-06-14Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reese, Heather
    Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sanou, Josias
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), Département Productions Forestières, Burkina Faso.
    Tankoano, Boalidioa
    Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso, Development Rural Institute/Department of Forestery, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso .
    Mattsson, Eskil
    Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mapping Tree Canopy Cover and Aboveground Biomass in Sudano-Sahelian Woodlands Using Landsat 8 and Random Forest2015In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 7, 10017-10041 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and timely maps of tree cover attributes are important tools for environmental research and natural resource management. We evaluate the utility of Landsat 8 for mapping tree canopy cover (TCC) and aboveground biomass (AGB) in a woodland landscape in Burkina Faso. Field data and WorldView-2 imagery were used to assemble the reference dataset. Spectral, texture, and phenology predictor variables were extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and used as input to Random Forest (RF) models. RF models based on multi-temporal and single date imagery were compared to determine the influence of phenology predictor variables. The effect of reducing the number of predictor variables on the RF predictions was also investigated. The model error was assessed using 10-fold cross 

    validation. The most accurate models were created using multi-temporal imagery and variable selection, for both TCC (five predictor variables) and AGB (four predictor variables). The coefficient of determination of predicted versus observed values was 0.77 for TCC (RMSE = 8.9%) and 0.57 for AGB (RMSE = 17.6 tons∙ha−1). This mapping approach is based on freely available Landsat 8 data and relatively simple analytical methods, and is therefore applicable in woodland areas where sufficient reference data are available. 

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Improvement of the Biogas Production Process: Explorative project (EP1)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established.

    Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to: 

    • Increase of organic loading rates and/or reduced hydraulic retention time
    • Optimizing the anaerobic microbial degradation by identifying rate-limitations, its causes and possible remedies such as:
    • Nutrient and trace element balances
    • Needs and availability of trace element
    • Process design aiming at an increase of the active biomass (e.g. recirculation of reactor material, two stage processes)
    • Process inhibition (enzymatically regulated product inhibition and toxicity)
    • Improved pre-treatment to increase degradation rates and VS-reduction
    • Mixing and rheology
    • Better monitoring and control
    • Co-digestion with more high-potential substrates

    The present report reviews a number of fields that are linked to improvements in the biogas production process as based on the bullets above.

    A well-working, active biomass is a prerequisite for efficient biogas production processes, why factors affecting microbial growth are crucial to obtain stable processes at the highest possible organic load/lowest possible hydraulic retention time.

    The microorganisms need nutrients, i.e. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron as well as trace elements such as cobalt, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and tungsten for growth. The need of nutrients and trace elements varies with the substrate digested, the organic loading rate, the process design (e.g. the reactor configuration, the degree of recirculation etc). In addition, the complexity of the chemical reactions controlling the bioavailability of the trace metals is wide, why optimal addition strategies for trace elements needs to be developed.

    Substrates as food wastes, sewage sludge, cattle manure, certain energy crops and algae are good bases to obtain processes with good nutrient- and trace element balances. These kinds of substrates can often be implemented for “mono-substrate” digestion, while substrates dominated by carbohydrates or fats needs to be co-digested or digested in processes modified by  e.g. nutrient- and trace element additions, sludge recirculation, etc. Protein-rich substrates often include enough nutrients, but can give other process problems (see below).

    Iron, cobalt and nickel are the nutrients/trace elements given most attention so far. However, molybdenum, selenium and tungsten have also, among others, been shown effective in different AD applications. The effects have, however, mainly been shown on turnover of VFAs and hydrogen (resulting in increased methane formation), while just a few studies have addressed their direct effect on rates of hydrolysis, protein-, fat- and carbohydrate degradation. Selenium- and cobalt-containing enzymes are known to be involved in amino acid degradation, while selenium and tungsten are needed in fat- and long chain fatty acid degradation. Enzymes active in hydrolysis of cellulose have been shown to be positively affected by cobalt, cupper, manganese, magnesium and calcium. This implies that trace element levels and availability will directly affect the hydrolysis rates as well as rates and degradation pathways for digestion of amino acids, long chain fatty acids and carbohydrates. However, their effect on hydrolysis seems neglected, why studies are needed to map the metals present in active sites and co-factors of enzymes mediating these primary reactions in AD. Further investigations are then needed to elucidate the importance of the identified metals on the different degradation steps of AD aiming at increased degradation rates of polymeric and complex substrates. It should also be noted that the degradation routes for amino acid degradation in AD-processes, factors governing their metabolic pathways, and how ATP is gained in the different pathways seem unknown. The different routes may result in different degradation efficiencies, why a deeper knowledge within this field is called for.

    Trace metals added to biogas reactors have positive effects on the process only if they are present in chemical species suitable for microbial uptake. Interaction of biogenic sulfide with trace metals has been identified as the main regulator of trace metal speciation during AD. Fe, Co and Ni instantaneously form strong sulfide precipitates in biogas reactors but at the same time show very different chemical speciation features. The soluble fraction of Co widely exceeded the levels theoretically possible in equilibrium with inorganic sulfide. The high level of soluble Co is likely due to association with dissolved organic compounds of microbial origin. Fe and Ni speciation demonstrated a different pattern dominated by low solubility products of inorganic metal sulfide minerals, where their solubility was controlled mainly by the interactions with different dissolved sulfide and organic ligands. To our knowledge, the information about chemical speciation of other trace metals (Se, Mo, and W among others) and its effects on the bioavailability in anaerobic digestion environments is rare. Providing information on the metal requirements by processes linked to their bioavailability in biogas reactors is identified as a key knowledge needed for maximizing the effect of metals added to biogas reactors. Further research is also needed for development and design of proper metal additive solutions for application in full scale biogas plants. A practical approach is to supplement trace metals in specific chemical forms, which are either suitable for direct bio-uptake or will hamper undesirable and bio-uptake-limiting reactions (e.g. mineral precipitation).

    Recirculation of reactor material as a way to enrich and maintain an active microbial biomass (and, thus, an increase in the substrate turnover rate) in tank reactors has been tested for digestion of fat within BRCs project DP6. The methane yield increased from 70 to 90% of the theoretical potential at a fat-loading rate of 1.5 g VS/L and day. The same strategy has been successful during digestion of fiber sludge from the pulp and paper industry, i.e. the recirculation has been crucial in establishment of low hydraulic retention times. Also degradation of sewage sludge (SS) would likely be improved by recirculation as the retention time of the solid SS is prolonged in such a system. However, this remains to be tested. The recirculation concept also needs to be evaluated in larger scale reactors to form a base to include extra costs and energy consumption vs. the benefits from increased yields.

    To divide the anaerobic digestion process into two phases, where the hydrolytic/acidogenic and the syntrophic/methanogenic stages of anaerobic digestion are separated, might be a way to enhance degradation of lignocellulosic materials as the hydrolysis of these compounds may be inhibited by the release of soluble sugars. It should be noted that the natural AD of ruminates is phase-separated and improvements in AD can likely be achieved using these natural systems as a starting point. Also the degradation of aromatic and chlorinated species is likely enhanced by phase separation. One way to obtain such systems is to combine a leached bed for hydrolysis of insoluble material with a methanogenic reactor treating the leachate. Plug flow reactors might be another possibility as well as membrane reactors, which physically separates the hydrolyzing and methanogenic phases.

    Inhibition caused by toxic levels of ammonia (protein- and ammonia rich substrates), fat-rich substrates and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), aromatic compounds, salts etc. have been reported in many cases and some remedies are suggested. Ammonia can be stripped off as a measure to overcome too high levels. Another option is to adjust pH of the reactor liquid by addition of acid shifting the ammonia-ammonium balance in the system towards less free ammonia. A decrease in alkalinity by acid addition might also affect the availability of trace elements as solubility of trace metal mineral phases is generally higher at lower pH. LCFA degradation has been shown to benefit from periodic additions of fat and is, thus, an effective strategy to minimize inhibition by the release of the LCFA. Adsorption to zeolites has also been shown to abate the inhibition by LCFA. The best way to avoid inhibition is, however, to keep the processes nutritionally well balanced and using concepts suitable for the actual substrate mix digested (i.e. sludge recirculation, phase separation etc.) in order to obtain the highest possible degradation rate for problematic compounds, thus, avoiding accumulation of inhibitory components such as LCFA and aromatics. High ammonia and salt levels can often be regulated by the substrate mix.

    The hydrolysis is often reported as rate limiting in digestion of complex polymers in balanced anaerobic digestion systems, while the methanogensis is regarded as rate-limiting for more easily degraded substrates. As mentioned above the effect on methane formation rates by the addition of trace elements have been shown in numerous studies, while their effect on the hydrolysis and acidogenic AD steps are much less studied. Thus, the effects of the trace elements on the early steps in the AD-chain need to be investigated further.

    To obtain high-rate hydrolysis, effective and energy efficient pre-treatment methods are crucial for a large number of substrates. The rate of hydrolysis is to a large extent dependent on the properties of the organic compounds in the substrate e.g. carbohydrates, proteins, fat or lignocellulosic material as well as particle size and pre-treatment methods applied. The establishment and colonization by sessile microorganisms and biofilms is highly important for efficient and high rate hydrolysis. Microbial formation of organic compounds and the availability of surfaces are factors influencing these key processes, which in turn are tightly coupled to the growth conditions for the hydrolyzing microorganisms. This is an area recently brought up as an issue for detailed research.

    Mixing is mostly needed for effective high-rate biogas production, but too extensive mixing can destroy the syntrohpic interactions necessarily taking place during AD. However, the efficiency of the mixing system design in relation to colonization, presences of dead zones, changes in viscosity/rheology, etc. seem unclear and this area thus calls for further attention. 

    In high-loaded efficient processes a monitoring program following parameters e.g. organic loading rate, gas-production, VS-reduction, pH and VFA-levels is needed. This can be achieved through sampling and analysis off line, but there are of course benefits with on-line monitoring. A number of different methods have been suggested and tested, and some titration- and spectroscopic methods are applied, but none seems commonly in use. The reasons for the low interest to apply these methods may be the need for expertise on calibration, validation and multivariate analysis of most on-line methods, high maintenance demands (cost and time), and l functional problems related to fouling, gas bubbles, sensor location, disturbing particles etc.

    New substrates with the highest potential for use in existing or new biogas plants seem to be forestry-based biomass, certain energy crops and macro-algae. Both the energy crops and the macro-algae can be chosen to give nutritionally well balanced AD-processes, while AD on forestry biomass demands nutrient supplements. For both the energy crops and the macro-algae sustainable cultivation systems need to be developed. Crop rotation systems should be employed to minimize tillage as well as fertilization- and pesticide utilization at highest possible TS-yields. System analyses aiming at sustainability and economy of TS and methane yields per ha including needs of nutrient supplements should therefore be performed.

    In all three cases (forestry biomass, energy crops and algae) pre-treatment methods to create high internal surface areas are needed. However, the pre-treatment methods chosen need to be highly energy- and resource efficient to obtain sustainable systems (a positive energy balance). New plants will for profitability likely need to be large with highly developed infrastructure for substrates supply and distribution of the produced biogas/electricity nearby. Process concepts aiming at highest possible loading rates at shortest possible retention time will be needed, which likely are met by including both phase-separated process systems and systems for sludge recirculation.

    It should also be noted that the lignin in substrates from forestry biomass needs to be used for production of e.g. polymeric materials or as a fuel to obtain reasonable energy balances for AD of lignocellulose. Pre-treatment methods obtaining separation of lignin is therefore needed. A substantial research and development is in progress within this field.

    The possibilities for AD within the pulp and paper industry are interesting, especially if specific effluents within the pulp- and paper production units are selected and the raw material for the pulp and paper production is chosen considering the biogas yields of the residues.

  • 17.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Stakeholding as sorting of actors into categories: implications for civil society participation in the CDM2017In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 17, no 2, 191-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a deliberative shift towards public–private partnership networks in global environmental governance, the multi-stakeholder framework is increasingly advocated for engaging multiple actors in collective decision-making. As this arrangement relies on proper participatory conditions in order to include all relevant stakeholders, input legitimacy is crucial to achieving legitimate outcomes. However, ‘stakeholding’ implies that actors—recast into a specific institutional context—are sorted into new formal or informal categories. This paper scrutinizes the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to interrogate the problematic issue of ‘stakeholding’—i.e. the ‘sorting’ of actors—in enacting the multi-stakeholder framework. Based on an analysis of 25 CDM projects that provides insight into the widest range of participation opportunities for civil society regarding specific projects, this paper considers how certain institutional context of the Mechanism’s stakeholder framework affects the involvement of civil society actors and the implications of this for balanced and fair input legitimacy. The findings suggest that, in practice, the informal corporate-induced sorting of actors into internal and external stakeholders keeps civil society actors outside the CDM’s inner circle, forcing them to voice their concerns regarding specific projects via CDM insiders or through irregular channels. Furthermore, the absence of a clear definition of stakeholder in local consultations results in the inclusion of unsorted actors, destabilizing the distribution of participation opportunities. The paper concludes that recasting the deliberative principles of openness and plurality into the CDM’s corporate-inspired stakeholding creates a specific institutional context that imposes more than one set of perhaps incompatible stakeholder categories while impairing input legitimacy.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewaters from Pulp and Paper Mills: A Substantial Source for Biomethane Production in Sweden2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry is the third largest exporter of pulp and paper products worldwide. It is a highly energy-demanding and water-utilising industry, which generates large volumes of wastewater rich in organic material. These organic materials are to different extents suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD) and production of energy-rich biomethane. The implementation of an AD process within the wastewater treatment plant of a mill would increase the treatment capacity and decrease the overall energy consumption due to less aeration and lower sludge production and in addition produce biomethane. Despite the many benefits of AD it is only applied at two mills in Sweden today. The reason for the low implementation over the years may be due to problems encountered linked to the complexity and varying composition of the wastewaters. Due to changes in market demands many mills have broadened their product portfolios and turned towards more refined products. This has increased both the complexity and the variations of the wastewaters´ composition even further, as the above changes can imply an increased pulp bleaching and utilisation of more diverse raw materials within the mills.

    The main aim of this thesis was therefore to generate knowledge needed for an expansion of the biomethane production within the pulp and paper industry. As a first step to achieve this an evaluation of the biomethane potential and the suitability for AD of wastewaters within a range of Swedish pulp and paper mills was performed. Thus, around 70 wastewater streams from 11 different processes at eight mills were screened for their biomethane potential. In a second step, the impact of shifts in wood raw material and bleaching on the AD process and the biomethane production was investigated and further evaluated in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors.

    The screening showed that the biomethane potential within the Swedish pulp and paper industry could be estimated to 700 GWh, which corresponds to 40% of the Swedish biomethane production during 2014. However, depending on the conditions at each specific mill the strategy for the establishment of AD needs to differ. For mills producing kraft pulp the potential is mainly found in wastewaters rich in fibres, alkaline kraft bleaching wastewaters and methanol-rich condensates. The biomethane potential within thermo-mechanical pulp- (TMP) and chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) mills is mainly present in the total effluents after pre-sedimentation and in the bleaching effluents as these holds high concentrations of dissolved organic material. The screening further showed that the raw material used for pulp production is an important factor for the biomethane potential of a specific wastewater stream, i.e. hardwood (HW) wastewaters have higher potentials than those from softwood (SW) pulp production. This was confirmed in the lab-scale UASB reactor experiments, in which an alkaline kraft bleaching wastewater and a composite pulping and bleaching CTMP wastewater were used as substrates. AD processes were developed and maintained stable throughout shifts in wastewater composition related to changes in the wood raw materials between SW and HW for the kraft wastewater and spruce, aspen and birch for the CTMP wastewater. The lower biomethane production from SW- compared to HW wastewaters was due to a lower degradability together with a higher ratio of sulphuric compounds per TOC for the SW case. The impact of shifts between bleached and unbleached CTMP production could not be fully  evaluated in the continuous process mainly due to technical problems. However, due to the large increase in dissolved organic material when bleaching is applied, the potential biomethane production will increase during the production of bleached pulp compared to unbleached pulp. Based on the biomethane potentials obtained for one of the included CTMP mills, their yearly production of biomethane was estimated to 5-27 GWh with the lowest and the highest value corresponding to the production of unbleached spruce pulp vs. bleached birch pulp.

    Thus, the results of the investigations presented in this thesis show that the UASBreactor is suitable for AD of wastewaters within the pulp and paper industry. The results also show that challenges related to variations in the organic material composition of the wastewaters due to variations in wood raw materials could be managed. The outcome of the thesis work also imply that the production of more refined products, which may include the introduction of an increased number of raw materials and extended bleaching protocols, could increase the potential biomethane production, especially if the pulp production will make use of more HW.

    List of papers
    1. Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents
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    2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, 507-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With the final aim of reducing the energy consumption and increase the methane production at Swedish pulp and paper mills, the methane potential of 62 wastewater effluents from 10 processes at seven pulp and/or paper mills (A-G) was determined in anaerobic batch digestion assays. This mapping is a first step towards an energy efficient and more sustainable utilization of the effluents by anaerobic digestion, and will be followed up by tests in lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. Five of the mills produce kraft pulp (KP), one thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), two chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and two neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp. Both elementary and total chlorine free (ECF and TCF, respectively) bleaching processes were included. The effluents included material from wood rooms, cooking and oxygen delignification, bleaching (often both acid- and alkali effluents), drying and paper/board machinery as well as total effluents before and after sedimentation. The results from the screening showed a large variation in methane yields (percent of theoretical methane potential assuming 940 NmL CH4 per g TOC) among the effluents. For the KP-mills, methane yields above 50% were obtained for the cooking effluents from mills D and F, paper machine wastewater from mill D, condensate streams from mills B, E and F and the composite pre-sedimentation effluent from mill D. The acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora and also seemed to have a negative effect on the yields of composite effluents downstream while three of the alkaline ECF-bleaching effluents gave positive methane yields. ECF bleaching streams gave higher methane yields when hardwood was processed. All TCF-bleaching effluents at the KP mills gave similar degradation patterns with final yields of 10-15% of the theoretical methane potential for four of the five effluents. The composite effluents from the two NSSC-processes gave methane yields of 60% of the theoretical potential. The TMP mill (A) gave the best average yield with all six effluents ranging 40-65% of the theoretical potential. The three samples from the CTMP process at mill B showed potentials around 40% while three of the six effluents at mill G (CTMP) yielded 45-50%.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keyword
    Biogas; Anaerobic digestion; Kraft pulp; Chemical thermo-mechanical pulp; Neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulp; Bleaching
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104129 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.12.072 (DOI)000329377800053 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-07 Created: 2014-02-07 Last updated: 2015-10-29
    2. Anaerobic digestion of alkaline bleaching wastewater from a Kraft pulp and paper mill using UASB technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic digestion of alkaline bleaching wastewater from a Kraft pulp and paper mill using UASB technique
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    2015 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, no 12, 1489-1498 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of alkaline kraft elemental chlorine-free bleaching wastewater in two mesophilic, lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors resulted in significantly higher biogas production (250 ± 50 vs. 120 ± 30 NmL g [Formula: see text]) and reduction of filtered total organic carbon (fTOC) (60 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 6%) for wastewater from processing of hardwood (HW) compared with softwood (SW). In all cases, the gas production was likely underestimated due to poor gas separation in the reactors. Despite changes in wastewater characteristics, a stable anaerobic process was maintained with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) between 7 and 14 h. Lowering the HRT (from 13.5 to 8.5 h) did not significantly affect the process, and the stable performance at 8.5 h leaves room for further decreases in HRT. The results show that this type of wastewater is suitable for a full-scale implementation, but the difference in methane potential between SW and HW is important to consider both regarding process dimensioning and biogas yield optimization.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis: STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles, 2015
    Keyword
    UASB; alkaline kraft ECF bleaching wastewater; anaerobic digestion; hardwood; softwood
    National Category
    Water Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114883 (URN)10.1080/09593330.2014.994042 (DOI)000350448200002 ()25441833 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2016-08-31
    3. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the production of bleached chemical thermo-mechanical pulp: higher methane production for hardwood than softwood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the production of bleached chemical thermo-mechanical pulp: higher methane production for hardwood than softwood
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 2, no 1, 140-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) mills holds a large biomethane potential in their wastewater. Their broadened market has involved increased bleaching and utilisation of different raw materials. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to obtain and maintain a stable anaerobic digestion (AD) process, with a high methane yield and total organic carbon (TOC) reduction, when digesting CTMP wastewater, from different production protocols including shifts in raw material and bleaching. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was used for the tests.

    RESULTS: The variations in raw material (aspen, birch and spruce) and consequently in TOC-loading (3.6-6.6 kg TOC m-3 and day-1) did not affect the UASB process negatively. Methane production values from 360 to 500 NmL g TOC-1 were obtained, with the highest yield for wastewater from the production of birch- followed by aspenand spruce pulp. The acetic acid and fTOC reduction ranged 90 to 95% and 61 to 73%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The stable process performance maintained during shifts in raw material for pulp production show that AD is feasible for CTMP mills with a diversified product portfolio. Furthermore, the increased use of hardwood and bleaching will most likely increase their potential as a biomethane producer.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Keyword
    biogas, wastewater treatment, UASB, CTMP, softwood, hardwood
    National Category
    Water Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122338 (URN)10.1002/jctb.4980 (DOI)000389443600017 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 32802–1
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    At the time for thesis presentation manuscript was named: Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the production of bleached chemical thermo-mechanical pulp: The effect of changes in raw material composition

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency [32802-1]; Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB; Poyry Sweden AB; BillerudKorsnas AB; Purac AB; SCA

    Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. The biomethane potential of chemical thermo-mechanical pulp wastewaters in relation to their chemical composition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The biomethane potential of chemical thermo-mechanical pulp wastewaters in relation to their chemical composition
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    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the biomethane potential of composite pulping and bleaching chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) wastewaters in relation to their composition of organic compounds, as well as to their sulphur contents. The biomethane potential was determined in batch experiments and the CTMP wastewaters from production of bleached spruce-, birch- and aspen pulp and unbleached spruce pulp were analysed for dissolved lignin, carbohydrates, wood extractives, acetic acid and total sulphur content. The biomethane potential obtained for the wastewaters ranged from 350 to 670 NmL g TOC-1 with the highest yield for wastewater from the production of bleached birch CTMP followed by bleached aspen-, bleached spruce- and unbleached spruce CTMP. The main differences in wastewater composition were related to the raw material used for the pulp production, i.e. softwood vs. hardwood. The compounds mainly promoting the biomethane production were acetic acid, xylose, wood extractives, triglycerides and steryl esters, whereas dissolved lignin, sulphur, arabinose, mannose, lignans and free fatty-/resin acids lowered the potential. However, the individual contribution of each variable was not possible to evaluate due to covariations among them.

    Keyword
    CTMP; bleaching; softwood; hardwood; biomethane potential; dissolved lignin; carbohydrates; wood extractives
    National Category
    Water Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122339 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
  • 19.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att ta ansvar för gamla synder: en studie av medborgarattityder till Miljöprojekt Valdemarsviken2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan åren 2012 och 2015 genomfördes ett stort saneringsprojekt i Valdemarsviks kommun, en mindre kommun vid Östergötlands kust. Sediment förorenat med krom och kvicksilver muddrades från botten av den 9 km långa Valdemarsviken vilken löper från Östersjön in till centralorten. Föroreningarna härstammar från ett garveri som mellan 1873 och 1960 fanns i orten och som släppte ut orenat processvatten, innehållandes en rad tungmetaller, i viken. Mängderna av krom var betydande och har vid senare mätningar uppskattats till 550-600 ton, av vilka ca 250 kg årligen bedömdes spridas ut i Östersjön. Syftet med saneringen var främst att minska spridningen av krom.

    Valdemarsviken bedömdes i flera omgångar vara en av de mest förorenade platserna i länet och efter många år av utredningar fick kommunen tillstånd att genomföra saneringen 2010. Den totala budgeten har varit 308 miljoner kronor (MSEK) där Naturvårdsverket stått för 293 MSEK och kommunen själva har medfinansierat med 15 MSEK. Metoden som använts har varit grävmuddring med upplägg av muddermassor i deponi på land några km ut längs viken.

    Projektet har mötts av motstånd från lokala organisationer och delar av allmänheten, främst baserat på kritik mot valet av metod. Med den bakgrunden föddes idén till detta forskningsprojekt, som fokuserat på medborgarnas attityder till kommunen och saneringsprojektet. Projektet gav en unik chans att undersöka om och hur attityder före och efter ett stort projekt av detta slag kan förändras.

    Två enkätstudier genomfördes: den ena skickades ut till alla hushåll i kommunen våren 2013 före muddringen startade. Den andra enkäten skickades ut under hösten 2015, cirka åtta månader efter att övertäckningen av deponin avslutades och även den till hushållen i kommunen.

    Vi fick i första enkätomgången 954 svar, vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på ca 27 procent och i andra enkätomgången fick vi 967 svar, vilket ger samma svarsfrekvens. Den något låga svarsfrekvensen kan bero på flera saker, men vår bedömning baserat på bortfallsanalyser är att resultatet är tillförlitligt nog för att slutsatser ska kunna dras utifrån materialet.

    Resultaten visar på en tydlig förändring mellan de två enkäterna. I första enkätomgången var inställningen till information kring projektet och kommunens arbete relativt jämnt fördelat mellan positiva och negativa respondenter, men inställningen till projektet som sådant var tydligt polariserat. Respondenterna tog i stor utsträckning ställning starkt för eller emot projektet, med viss övervikt åt en positiv inställning till projektets nytta och med viss övervikt åt negativ inställning till projektet ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv.

    I den andra enkätomgången syntes en signifikant förändring i svaren på alla frågor. Respondenterna var mer positiva till kommunens arbete, till informationsinsatserna och till projektet specifikt. Majoriteten var nu positiva till kommun och projekt, även om viss osäkerhet fortfarande gick att se spår av. Det kan alltså konstateras att attityder till projektet och kommunen förändrades mellan före och efter genomfört projekt.

    Enkäterna visade tydligt på två ytterligare fenomen. För det första var kopplingen mellan förtroende till kommunen och inställning till projektet påtagligt. De som hade stort förtroende för kommunens arbete hade även en positiv inställning till projektet, medan lågt förtroende för kommunens arbete korrelerade med negativ inställning till projektet. För det andra lyste frågan kring metoden för muddringen tydligt igenom i båda enkäterna. I enkät 1 visade resultaten att kritik riktades mot att ta upp krom på land, att övertäckning ansågs vara ett bättre alternativ och att oro fanns kring framtida effekter. I enkät 2 kvarstod viss kritik kring metoden, men förskjutning hade skett till att respondenterna uttryckte en vilja att se provresultat efter muddringen för att genom detta kunna bedöma resultatet från saneringen. Det kan konstateras att få personer var emot att genomföra projektet som sådant, men att de som var kritiska, som dock blev färre i enkät 2, hellre sett en annan metod. En allmänt positiv attityd till att kommunen tog tag i frågan var genomgående tydlig.

    Resultatet visar att ett projekt av detta slag kan påverka medborgares attityder till kommunen och det faktum att projektet i Valdemarsvik genomförts utan större missöden har stillat en del av den oro som fanns före projektet. Kommunens informationsinsatser bedöms haft betydelse för attitydförändringen, där det för projektet uppförda infocentrumet i Sjöhuset var en lyckad satsning.

  • 20.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elektrifierade tunga fordon i stadstrafik.: Kapitel i ”Teknologiska innovationssystem inom energiområdet”, Energimyndighetens rapportserie 2014:232015In: Teknologiska innovationssystem inom energiområdet: en praktisk vägledning till identifiering av systemsvagheter som motiverar särskilda politiska åtaganden / [ed] Sverige. Statens energimyndighet, Stockholm: Energimyndigheten , 2015, 156-192 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Elektromobilitet är ett vittfamnande begrepp. Det kan täcka in ett stort antal fordonstyper och tillverkare, en diversifierad tjänstesektor, liksom nya principer för stads- och trafikplanering. Denna rapport är avgränsad till elektrifiering av tunga fordon: bussar och lastbilar. Den inkluderar därmed inte elektrifiering av personbilar (eller elcyklar/elskotrar). Elektrifierade personbilar betra ktas istället som ett angränsande och ibland delvis överlappande system, som framför allt kan användas för jämförelser. Elbilar är förvisso ett dynamiskt område men drivs nästan helt av ett antal stora batteri- och biltillverkare utanför Sverige: både nyaföretag som Tesla Motors och  volymtillverkare som GM, Nissan-Renault och BMW. Svenskbaserade biltillverkare deltar med viss framgång – försäljningen av Volvo Cars laddbara premiumhybrid som utvecklades tillsammans med Vattenfallhar överträffat förväntningarna – men svenska företag har små möjligheter att påverka den övergripande teknik- och marknadsutvecklingen. Genom den internationella teknikutvecklingen har kostnaderna för elektrifierade personbilar kraftigt sänkts under senare år, och det finns nu ett stort antal serietillverkade modeller på marknaden. Räckvidd och laddtider är nackdelar för de flesta elbilar, men förbättras kontinuerligt. Standarder har etablerats för  infrastruktur, t.ex. snabbladdare, och även här sänks kostnaden fortlöpande.

  • 21.
    Manton, Michael
    et al.
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden; per.angelstam@slu.se (P.A.); Institute of Forest Biology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forest Science and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Akademija LT 53361, Lithuania.
    Angelstam, Per
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden; per.angelstam@slu.se (P.A.);.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden; per.angelstam@slu.se (P.A.);.
    Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 4, 340- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This studyfocuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii) on wet grasslands in the KristianstadVattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young hasbeen proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesisby comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR) and one with stable (Östergötland)wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested threepredictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1) the relative abundanceof avian predators and waders; (2) the avian predator abundance; and (3) the predation rate onartificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictionswere clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing waderpopulation declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased foodresources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiplewet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such aspredation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learningfor wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and managementapproaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological andsocial systems.

  • 22.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, ColombiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the central role that a utility company can play in the sustainable development of a city by studying the case of EPM of Medellín, Colombia. After presenting a brief history of the development of public services in Colombia, the article discusses the company’s management model, the local laws and regulations affecting it, the direct and indirect benefits for the city and the risks that come along with the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy have allowed it to remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the utilities market in the 1990s. This in turn has allowed the city to dramatically increase its municipal revenue and thus its spending on social projects. This case promises to contribute to the discussion on entrepreneurial cities looking to increase their citizens’ well-being through municipally-owned corporations that are commercial and social at the same time. It also contributes to the debate about operational efficiency between the private and the public sectors, and the central role that utility providers play in the construction of more sustainable cities. Ultimately, this case study can contribute with good practices from countries of which Academia knows so little.

  • 23.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Technology and its Role in the Search for Urban Environmental Sustainability: The Dynamics of Adaptation2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the role that environmental technology plays in the solution of environmental problems in cities, and discuss models and conditions that can facilitate the processes of selection, implementation and use of environmental technologies in and by cities.

    The technological component is perhaps one of the most important characteristics of modern cities. The dependence of humans on technology is in most cases a given, something that is not ignored in the sustainability debate. The development and implementation of new, “better” technologies is however hindered by the inertia that modern societies have and the influence of the dominant systems (e.g. economic systems based on growth, extraction of natural resources and environmental disturbance). So-called environmental technologies are not always able to efficiently compete against other technologies that are embedded in societies by lock-in mechanisms, e.g. learning by doing and using, scale economies, subsidies, and network externalities.

    Even with the “right” technologies, an exclusively techno-centered approach to sustainability can result in other problems, and it might reduce the sustainability debate and the cities’ role in it to discussions of an administrative nature. The actual role of local actors and their agency must be also considered in the models and frameworks directed at understanding sustainability transition processes. It is thus important to analyze the dynamics of technology selection, implementation, use and diffusion in cities from a stakeholders’ perspective as well.

    Not only is the availability of technology of interest for understanding the impact it has on the environment, but also the intensity of its use. This has resulted in increased attention from politicians and scholars on the so-called global cities (e.g. London, New York, Tokyo), which are characterized by their intense use of e.g. transport, security and surveillance, and information and communication. Paradigmatic models of sustainability can however be contested when the role of local actors, power and agency are considered in detail and not isolated from the context. Some authors recognize the need to address what they call “ordinary cities”, since focusing on the cities’ comparative level of development (be it political, economic or technological) hinders the possibility of bidirectional learning. In the end, sustainability is a “collective good,” which means that it is in everyone’s interest to coordinate efforts and learn from the best practices, regardless of where they come from.

    This thesis focuses on “ordinary cities,” and promises to offer conclusions that can contribute to a better understanding of how societies can learn from each other and how environmental technologies can have deeper and better results when implemented in different contexts than the ones where they were developed. Two questions related to the process of environmental-technology adaptation are addressed in this thesis: How do technology adaptation processes for the solution of urban environmental problems take place in cities? And how do cities benefit from environmental technologies?

    It is found that environmental technology is not only seen as a solution to environmental problems in cities, but every day more as a component of strategies to attract attention and compete for resources in national and international markets. Cities have different adaptation and learning strategies. This means that technological solutions have to be flexible and adaptive to local conditions, and allow for vernacular knowledge and past experiences to enrich their performance by facilitating their connection to existing systems. Learning between cities is important and necessary for global sustainability transitions. When it comes to environmental technology, this process is facilitated by strong proof-of-concept projects. Such projects are not only expected to be able to show their technical ability to solve a problem, but must also offer contextual connections to the problems faced by interested cities or potential implementers.

    List of papers
    1. Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governmental export promotion initiatives: awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness among Swedish environmental technology firms
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 98, 222-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some countries rely heavily on exports as an essential component of their economic competitiveness. With the current trends in economic globalization, promoting exports has become a common strategy to boost economic growth. Exports of environmental technologies represent a new window of opportunity for economic growth and a contribution to global sustainability. With this in mind, national governments have designed initiatives that aim to promote exports within this sector. To address their objectives, governments provide initiatives to promote foreign commerce with their environmental technology sector. This article assesses the awareness, participation, and perceived effectiveness of such governmental initiatives to promote exports among Swedish environmental technology firms. An Internet survey was sent to 693 Swedish environmental technology companies, previously identified and classified, with a 25% response rate. The responses show a relatively high export orientation although a majority of the respondents claimed they were unaware of governmental initiatives that fit their particular export needs. The companies that did find appropriate governmental initiatives showed a high level of participation in such initiatives, but only a few of these participants could relate their participation to actual exports. The findings suggest there is a need to design support instruments based on the particular characteristics of the environmental technology sector rather than to offer generic solutions for such export promotion.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Environmental technology, Technology diffusion, Market failures, Perceived effectiveness, Firm-level analysis
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102196 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.013 (DOI)000356194300023 ()
    Projects
    Megatech
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2017-08-23
    2. Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lessons from the spread of Bus Rapid Transit in Latin America
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 50, 82-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Technological transitions and governance theories are employed for the analysis of the dissemination behavior of Bus Rapid Transit systems in Latin America. This process presents interesting characteristics and traits that seem to facilitate the overcoming of barriers and act as catalysts for the adoption of innovation. The present study uses a systems perspective to explore the dynamics of Bus Rapid Transit's adoption by different cities in the region and to follow its geographical dissemination, relying on historical data collected on numerous implemented projects.

    The resulting analysis provides an insight on the determinants and key points for the concept's expansion, which may be useful for the study of the dissemination of environmental technologies in cities. Contextualized, solid demonstration projects and incremental innovations, it is here argued, facilitated the adoption of new ways and promoted the dissemination of this urban mobility solution within a homogenous group of cities. A description of the Bus Rapid Transit system's approach to barriers that are also found to hinder the dissemination of environmental technologies provides a learning basis for future dissemination strategies.

    Keyword
    Transitions; Innovative urban solutions; Technology spreading; Urban transformation; BRT Systems
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85513 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.028 (DOI)000320490600008 ()
    Funder
    Vinnova
    Available from: 2012-11-23 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2015-05-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the importance of central actors that coordinate activities at the meso level and protect the stability of socio-technical regimes in search of collective goals for sustainability. An analysis of how technology, in the form of large technical systems, has helped the city of Medellín (Colombia) to achieve substantial improvements in its social, economic and environmental conditions is presented, with a particular emphasis on its municipal utility company. The article describes and discusses how the city has managed to protect stability, maintain the direction traced in the past, and rely on the use of technology to promote further advancement in other aspects of city life. The definition of collective goals from an early stage in the city and the emergence of mechanisms that would ensure good coverage, the further development of its utilities, and access to resources for the improvement of its social and environmental conditions, have guaranteed regime stability. In turn, such stability has made it possible for the city to promote the emergence of urban innovations and face economic, social and environmental challenges. We claim that the notion of external pressure on the sociotechnical regimes as an unmissable opportunity to exert change contradicts the public nature of sustainability goals and obviates the role of actors that struggle to protect the socio-technical regimes from external disruptions.

    Keyword
    Socio-Technical Configurations; Urban Governance; Environmental Technology, Windows of Opportunity; Intermediaries
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117943 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2015-05-18Bibliographically approved
    4. A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, Colombia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A city’s utility company as an axis for its sustainable development: A case study of EPM of Medellín, Colombia
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the central role that a utility company can play in the sustainable development of a city by studying the case of EPM of Medellín, Colombia. After presenting a brief history of the development of public services in Colombia, the article discusses the company’s management model, the local laws and regulations affecting it, the direct and indirect benefits for the city and the risks that come along with the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy have allowed it to remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the utilities market in the 1990s. This in turn has allowed the city to dramatically increase its municipal revenue and thus its spending on social projects. This case promises to contribute to the discussion on entrepreneurial cities looking to increase their citizens’ well-being through municipally-owned corporations that are commercial and social at the same time. It also contributes to the debate about operational efficiency between the private and the public sectors, and the central role that utility providers play in the construction of more sustainable cities. Ultimately, this case study can contribute with good practices from countries of which Academia knows so little.

    Keyword
    Sustainable Urban Development; Key Assets; Administrative Autonomy; Popular Control; Entrepreneurial City; Public Ownership, Operational Efficiency
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117944 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2015-05-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014, and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city’s administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of citiescustomers. It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sens  that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

    National Category
    Environmental Engineering Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117945 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2015-05-18Bibliographically approved
  • 24.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exporting the Swedish Model for Sustainable Urban Development: What has Changed?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some of the obstacles for translating urban imaginaries and urban sustainability concepts based on technological interventions are analyzed. This analysis is built on experiences from the World Urban Forum 7 in Medellín, Colombia held in April 2014, and uses previous attempts to explore the production of imaginaries at play in the performance of SymbioCity, an urban development concept with a symbiosis tint created by the Swedish Trade Council. Through documenting the role of physical and non-physical messages from the Swedish delegation and its exhibition, along with numerous interviews with key actors at the conference and from the city’s administration, an analysis of the current strategies used to promote the tool is provided. The claim that induced idealized urban futures sap energy and result in poor achievement of the goals is used to suggest that context and current conditions influence the ability to understand and adopt technological solutions. The conclusions are centered on the fact that SymbioCity, for the most part, is trying to sell products or services that are difficult to see and understand from the perspective of citiescustomers. It is argued that there are contextual and historical conditions that are crucial for the decision to implement them that are, at least implicitly, expressed by the targeted cities-customers, and that the SymbioCity concept, or at least the way it is communicated in these fora, has undergone a change, in the sens  that it has become more flexible and allowed for bottom-up considerations to enter the discourse.

  • 25.
    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Protecting socio-technical regimes for advancing urban sustainability transitionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the importance of central actors that coordinate activities at the meso level and protect the stability of socio-technical regimes in search of collective goals for sustainability. An analysis of how technology, in the form of large technical systems, has helped the city of Medellín (Colombia) to achieve substantial improvements in its social, economic and environmental conditions is presented, with a particular emphasis on its municipal utility company. The article describes and discusses how the city has managed to protect stability, maintain the direction traced in the past, and rely on the use of technology to promote further advancement in other aspects of city life. The definition of collective goals from an early stage in the city and the emergence of mechanisms that would ensure good coverage, the further development of its utilities, and access to resources for the improvement of its social and environmental conditions, have guaranteed regime stability. In turn, such stability has made it possible for the city to promote the emergence of urban innovations and face economic, social and environmental challenges. We claim that the notion of external pressure on the sociotechnical regimes as an unmissable opportunity to exert change contradicts the public nature of sustainability goals and obviates the role of actors that struggle to protect the socio-technical regimes from external disruptions.

  • 26.
    Moestedt, J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordell, E.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB, Department RandD Biogas, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Lundgren, J.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Tekniska Verken and Linkoping AB, Department RandD Biogas, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Marti, M.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Effects of trace element addition on process stability during anaerobic co-digestion of OFMSW and slaughterhouse waste2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 47, no Pt A, 11-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used semi-continuous laboratory scale biogas reactors to simulate the effects of trace-element addition in different combinations, while degrading the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and slaughterhouse waste. The results show that the combined addition of Fe, Co and Ni was superior to the addition of only Fe, Fe and Co or Fe and Ni. However, the addition of only Fe resulted in a more stable process than the combined addition of Fe and Co, perhaps indicating a too efficient acidogenesis and/or homoacetogenesis in relation to a Ni-deprived methanogenic population. The results were observed in terms of higher biogas production (+9%), biogas production rates (+35%) and reduced VFA concentration for combined addition compared to only Fe and Ni. The higher stability was supported by observations of differences in viscosity, intraday WA-and biogas kinetics as well as by the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA of the methanogens.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

    List of papers
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 3, 1504-1510 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Available from: 2012-03-02 Created: 2012-03-02 Last updated: 2016-03-08
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, 4921-4928 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2016-04-01
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, 203-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keyword
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    National Category
    Soil Science Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Agricultural Sciences Ecology Forest Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2016-05-02Bibliographically approved
  • 28.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, 203-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 29.
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    First-in-human trials on genome editing: Strategies for handling uncertainty about benefit and uncertainty about harm2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human genome editing can be carried out on somatic cells as well as on the germline. In this paper I discuss first-in-human trials on both types of editing. At first sight, risk and risk/benefit assessment might seem to be key issues in such trials. However, according to decision theory, risk presupposes numerical values. In ‘decision-making under risk’, decisionmakers have sufficient information to assign probabilities to alternative outcomes. This is not the case in first-in-human trials. These trials are rather characterized by ‘decision-making under uncertainty’. My overall objective is to clarify the implications of uncertainty about benefit and uncertainty about harm in first-in-human trials on genome editing. A special aim is to analyse strategies for handling uncertainty.

  • 30.
    Nordén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ephraim, James
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interaction of Strontium and Europium with an Aquatic Fulvic Acid Studied by Ultrafiltration and lon Exchange Techniques1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 297-303 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexation of an aquatic fulvic acid, FA, with Sr2+ and Eu3+ was studied using an ultrafiltration technique and an ion exchange distribution method. The total amount of bound metal (Sr2+ and Eu3+) was measured as a function of pH at low meta! concentrations (trace levels) and constant FA concentration. In the Sr-FA system the bound meta! fraction increased slightly with pH, and the values obtained from the two experimental techniques were comparable. For Eu-FA, according to the ultrafiltration data, the fraction of bound meta! ion was relatively insensitive to pH changes, whereas values from the ion exchange measurements showed a strong and positive dependence on pH. The results are discussed in the light of possible intrinsic problems of the two methods.

  • 31.
    Odén, Svante
    Institutionen för marklära, Lantbrukshögskolan, Uppsala.
    Nederbördens och luftens försurning: dess orsaker, förlopp och verkan i olika miljöer1968Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At a Seminar arranged by the Ecological Research Committee on October 30 , 1967, Dr. Svante Odén discussed the acidity and sulphur conditions over Europe and the consequensos to soils, surfaco waters and biological systems.

    In 1952 a European network of stations for atmospheric chemistry was organized by the International Meteorological Institute , Stockholm (Fig. 1). Odén and Dr. Torsten Ahl, Uppsala, later complemented the network in Scandinavia with stations for surface water chemistry (Fig. 3).

    At the atmospheric chemical network measurements of different element s havc been made for about 15 years. Changes of the atmospheric chemical climate can now be evaluated from the dat a, showing either positive or negative trends (Fig. 2 , 20 and 21). The sulphur content of air (Fig. 18) and of precipitation (Fig. 17 ) shows a characteristic pattern for Europe, indicating a close rolationship to air pollution from citiesand industrios. The rising sulphur content in the atmosphere are undoubtedly connected with the incrcasing use of sulphurous f'uels as a suostitute for coke and coal.

    The increasing addition of sulphur compounds t o the atmosphere (mainly as SO2 and H2S ) leads to an incrcase of the acidity o f the precipitation. Monthly data from threc stations conccrning pH are given (Fig. 4 , 5 and 6) . With a few exceptions the pH valuos at the network stations are dccrcasing with time (Fig. 9, 10 and 11) . The ratc of decrcasc of the

    1) Department of Pedology, Agricultural College of Sweden, Uppsala

    2) Swedish Natural Science Research Council , Sveavägen 166, Stockholm 23

    pH values shows a geographical distribution pattern (Fig. 12), which can be expected from the intensity of industrial activities.

    The acidity of the yearly precipitation in Europe is mapped for 1958 (Fig. 13) , 1962 (Fig. 14) and 1965 (Fig. 15). In 1958 values below pH 5 were to be found only in a limited area over The Netherlands. As is shown on the succceding maps, this area has since spread over Central Europe. The other acid zones are also procecding and in 1965 the isoline for pH 4.5 had reached the Southern part of Sweden.

    In 1967 the pH values for Central Sweden had decreased to approx. 4.3. A study of the wind trajectories (Fig. 8) shows, that this low pH value is partly a result of a transport of air pollutants from source to sink areas. "The Scandinavian Sulphur Depression" (Fig. 2 2) indicates that a complicated hydrometeorological mechanism is involved in the distributional pattern.

    In 1965 almost a thousand Scandinavian lake and river waters were chemically investigatcd by Ahl and Odén. For considerable areas the pH-values were found to be so low as to affect fish life. The mapping of pH (Fig. 2 5 ) corresponds with that for Magnesium (Fig. 26) indicating a depletion of eations of the soil complex .. This is also reflected by thc long term changes of the concentration af anions ( so4) and cations (Ca) in river systems (Fig. 27 a and b).

    Last summer a special study o f the acidity of 600 lakes in Western Scandinavia was made by Dr. E . Eriksson. The results showed that since 1959 the pH-values have boen reduced on an average by 0.4 units.

    The acid precipitation will sooner or later acidify the river systers. The change in pH will depend, among others, on the buffer capacity of the catchment area. However, negative trends have already appeared in both large river systems (Fig. 23) and small ones (Fig. 24).

    The acidification of natural waters can be a threat to aquatic life. Organisms cannot normally exist in water with pH-values below 4.0. Certain valuable fish, such as salmon, are threatened at pH 5.5 and the catch of salrnon in Mörrumsån is continuously decreasing (Fig. 28 ).

    Soils may also be affected if the supply of nautralizing alkalis are depleted or poor. An impoverished forest arowth rate could be the result (Fig. 30). The important point is, according to Odén, that the balance of nature is considerably disturbed by the present atmospheric pollution of sulphuric acid and other acidifying compounds such as nitric and hydrochloric acid.

    An atmospheric chemical atlas of Europe containing data on air as well as precipitation is being prepared on the basis of existing data.

    * * *

    In the discussion that followed Odéns paper f'urther evidence of extensive fish kill in acid waters was given. Two speakers emphasized the economic aspects of the heavy damage that is caused each year by acid corrosion of metals, now amounting to 2 % of our gross national product, and the economic as well as cultural valuecs that are lost by the deterioration of buildnings and stone ornaments.

  • 32.
    Olausson, Inger
    et al.
    Institutionen för stad och land, MKB-centrum, SLU, Uppsala.
    Oscarsson, Antoienette
    Institutionen för stad och land, MKB-centrum, SLU, Uppsala.
    The quality in EIA concerning Detailed Development Plans (DDP) in Sweden2005In: Proceedings of Ethics and Quality Boston, Massachusetts, USA, International Association for Impact Assessment , 2005, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Oscarsson, Antoienette
    et al.
    MKB-centrum, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Olausson, Inger
    Institutionen för landskapsplanering Ultuna, MKB-centrum SLU, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Ultuna.
    Centrum för bättre MKB:er2003In: Biodiverse, ISSN 1401-5064, Vol. 8, no 2, 10-10 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet ligger MKB-centrum SLU vars huvudsakligt syfte är att öka kvalitén på de MKB (miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar) som tas fram i Sverige. Det inrättades 1999 av dåvarande rektor Tomas Rossvall. Målet med verksamheten är att:

    • höja MKB-kompetensen och förbättra MKB-processen i Sverige
    • fungera som ett nav för fortbildning, erfarenhetsutbyte, diskussioner, information och forskning inom MKB och SMB (strategiska miljöbedömningar)
    • arbeta med aktiva nätverk, där olika MKB-aktörer knyts samman
  • 34.
    Palm, Ingemar
    et al.
    Boverket.
    Olausson, Inger
    Institutionen för landskapsplanering Ultuna, MKB-centrum SLU.
    Långt kvar till god MKB-kultur2003In: Planera Bygga Bo, ISSN 1100-0678, no 6, 26-27 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kunskapsläget hos Sveriges Riksdagsledamöter om kärnavfall och dess slutförvar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kärnavfall är radioaktivt avfall som är en restprodukt från våra kärnkraftverk. Det högaktiva avfallet utgörs av använt kärnbränsle. I Sverige mellanlagras det använda kärnbränslet i centrallagret för använt bränsle i Simpevarp i Oskarshamns kommun (Clab) i väntan på ett slutligt slutförvar. Använt kärnbränsle är problematiskt att hantera eftersom avfallet avger joniserande stålning som utan tillräckligt strålningsskydd kan ge allvarliga skador på människors hälsa och miljön. Det tar hundratusentals år för strålningen att återgå till en nivå som motsvarar berggrundens. Just nu pågår en prövning enligt miljöbalken (1998:808) och lagen (1984:3) om kärnteknisk verksamhet (kärntekniklagen) som rör hur kärnavfallet ska slutförvaras.

    Det är kärnkraftsindustrin som har ansvaret för att hitta en plats och en metod som medför ett säkert slutförvar. För att göra detta har kärnkraftsindustrin bildat bolaget Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB). Under 2011 ansökte SKB om tillstånd enligt miljöbalken och kärntekniklagen om att få uppföra en slutförvarsanläggning i Forsmark i Östhammars kommun. Till ansökan bifogades miljökonsekvensbeskrivning, samrådsredogörelse och säkerhetsanalys. Ansökan skickades till Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) som granskar om kärnsäkerheten och strålskyddet i beskrivna anläggningar uppfyller kraven enligt kärntekniklagen. Därefter prövar regeringen frågan om tillstånd enligt den lagen.

    Vid samma tillfälle ansökte SKB också om tillstånd för mellanlagret, inkapslings-anläggningen och slutförvaret i enlighet med miljöbalken. Ansökan skickades till Mark- och miljödomstolen vid Nacka tingsrätt som prövar ansökningen enligt miljöbalken. Det krävs alltså två skilda tillstånd för att få uppföra slutförvaret för använt kärnbränsle.

    SSM och domstolen skickar ut respektive ansökningar på remiss till olika instanser däribland Östhammars och Oskarshamns kommuner, myndigheter, universitet och miljöorganisationer. Expertyttranden ges och både SSM och domstolen kan begära komplettering av SKB. SSM och domstolen lämnar sedan ett yttrande till regeringen som slutligt avgör om SKB uppfyller kraven för ett slutförvar.

    Med tanke på den pågående prövningen önskade Kärnavfallsrådet veta mer om vilken information Riksdagens ledamöter har i frågan och på vilka områden det finns kunskapsluckor som behöver mötas genom ökade informationsinsatser. Kärnavfallsrådet initierade därför en enkätundersökning riktad till Riksdagens ledamöter som redovisas nedan efter en historisk genomgång av kärnavfallet som riksdagspolitisk fråga.

  • 36.
    Peixoto, R. B.
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Marotta, H.
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Floating Aquatic Macrophytes Can Substantially Offset Open Water CO2 Emissions from Tropical Floodplain Lake Ecosystems2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 4, 724-736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical floodplain lake ecosystems are recognized as important sources of carbon (C) from the water to the atmosphere. They receive large amounts of organic matter and nutrients from the watershed, leading to intense net heterotrophy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from open waters. However, the role of extensive stands of floating macrophytes colonizing floodplains areas is still neglected in assessments of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE). We assessed rates of air-lake CO2 flux using static chambers in both open waters and waters covered by the widespread floating aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth; Eichornia sp.) in two tropical floodplain lakes in Pantanal, Brazil during different hydrological seasons. In both lakes, areas colonized by floating macrophytes were a net CO2 sink during all seasons. In contrast, open waters emitted CO2, with higher emissions during the rising and high water periods. Our results indicate that the lake NEE can be substantially overestimated (fivefold or more in the studied lakes) if the carbon fixation by macrophytes is not considered. The contribution of these plants can lead to neutral or negative NEE (that is, net uptake of CO2) on a yearly basis. This highlights the importance of floating aquatic macrophytes for the C balance in shallow lakes and extensive floodplain areas.

  • 37.
    Pettersson, Catharina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dating of groundwaters by ¹⁴C-analysis of dissolved humic substances1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidleberg New York: Springer, 1991, 135-141 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fulvic acids of the DOC of five deep (139-409 m) groundwaters were recovered (adsorption on DEAE-cellulose) and used for age determination (14C determined by accelerator mass spectrometry), and compared with fulvic acids recovered from a shallow groundwater and a surface water. The composition of the seven different fulvic acids was similar, despite variations in hydrochemical conditions and residence times, indicating a high stability of this molecular weight fraction. The ages calculated from the 14C-content of the fulvic acid fraction (600 to 10000 y) are less than the ages indicated from analyses of the dissolved carbonate (data available for three sites). Using a fraction of the DOC with high stability (like the fulvic acid fraction) as a 14C-source when assessing the ages of subsurface waters, appears to be superior to using dissolved carbonate.

  • 38.
    Scharis, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Rasmussen, Gregory S. A.
    Painted Dog Conservation, Hwange National Park, PO Box 72, Dete, Zimbabwe.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Using morphometrics to quantitatively differentiateAfrican wild dog footprints from domestic dogfootprints – a pilot study2016In: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, E-ISSN 1365-2028, Vol. 54, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable population estimation and species inventories areimportant for wildlife conservation, but such estimationsare often difficult due to unreliable identification of thespecies in question. Furthermore, for predator conflictresolution, it is essential to be able to reliably identify thepredator. This study presents a new method to quantitativelydistinguish African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) footprintsfrom feral domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)footprints. Footprint photographs were digitally processedusing Photoshop and the NIH image processing softwareImageJ, and total pad area and angles between thecentroids of the backpad and the digits of the paw weremeasured. Pad angles showed statistically significantdifferences between the two species and, with the exceptionthat there was no significant difference in pad areabetween African wild dog females and domestic dog males,total pad areas were also diagnostic. Consequently, thecombination of total pad area and the angle betweenbackpad and digits are useful discriminators to reliablyidentify the species from an unknown footprint.

  • 39.
    Shrivastava, Anamika
    et al.
    Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
    Ghosh, Devanita
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
    Dash, Ayusman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
    Bose, Suatapa
    Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
    Arsenic Contamination in Soil and Sediment in India: Sources, Effects, and Remediation2015In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 1, no 1, 35-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contamination is turning out to be a major problem these days with its area coverage and the number of people affected directly or indirectly. Now, the level of the contaminant has spread over the soil and sediments from groundwater and other natural sources. Arsenic poisoning in groundwater events is familiar to the world, but the consequences of soil contamination are still unrevealed to the community, specially the people of contaminated counties. Arsenic is a serious instantaneous concern for the people and other life forms regarding the poisoning through crops and vegetables. Many remediation technologies that mainly include physical, chemical, and a few biological methods have been evolved with time to check its effects. The physical and chemical methods for this purpose are often inefficient and/or very expensive, mainly limited to application in aqueous systems, and produce toxic sludge, which again becomes a matter of concern. But bioremediation relies on the fact that biological organisms have the ability to degrade, detoxify, and even accumulate harmful chemicals and offers attractive perspectives for biomonitoring (via biosensors), treatment of wastewater, and the recycling of polluted soils.

  • 40.
    Tomas, Cusicanqui
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Assessing the adaptive capacity of Sweden's environmental governance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different challenges arising from increasingly uncertain and unpredictable environmental and economicconditions have been shifting the focus of public governance and socio-economic development. Morerecently, empirical studies have demonstrated a transitional epoch in which humanity is currently in: TheAnthropocene, as well as its harmful effects that degrade the biosphere, and thus our economic, political,social well-being. The casual dynamics of climate change and its impacts on life-supporting ecosystemshas increasingly been recognized by a resilient approach which incorporates adaptive processes andschemes, allowing public governance to embrace the changes rather than control uncertainty. Thisresearch introduces the interwoven concepts of adaptive capacity, adaptive governance, and resiliencewithin a social and environmental framework. It provides a review of how these concepts support aparadigm shift to mitigating current and future challenges—understood through a multidisciplinaryapproach, and how scholars have sought to develop a blueprint to improve the need to foster and mobilizeadaptive capacity within the governance of the commons. In Sweden, key governmental and businessleaders have shown the ability to foster environmental governance that is capable of developing analternative form of planning, implementing, and managing public policy. Moreover, Sweden’s concertedmultilevel governance and public policy efforts have promoted an all-encompassing generational, mainlythrough: coordinated environmental policies and private, public, and civil society partnerships. Theseinitiatives have led to innovative technologies and projects (e.g. urban vertical farming technology) as wellas cross collaboration and integration of companies and industries in order to achieve economic, social,and environmentally symbiosis.

  • 41.
    Tälle, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Dept of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The conservation benefit of mowing vs grazing for management ofspecies-rich grasslands: a multi-site, multi-year field experiment2015In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 33, no 6, 761-768 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe are becoming more fragmented and many species that depend on thishabitat type are rare and threatened today. Management methods like mowing and grazing are needed to preserve remaininggrasslands. Because management is costly it is important to use the most cost-effective as well as the most beneficialmanagement method, but few studies have compared mowing and grazing. We investigated the effect of mowing andgrazing on grassland vegetation using data from 11 long-term field trials situated in southern Sweden. We calculated thechange in the odds of finding species belonging to three different groups of indicators at the start of the treatment and after8 and 14 years. The used indicator groups were indicators of good management, excess nitrogen and poor management.The results revealed an increase in the odds of finding indicators of good management in mowed plots and an increasein finding indicators of excess nitrogen in grazed plots. The odds of finding indicators of poor management remainedunchanged. Results from sub-analysis of the grazing intensity showed a more negative effect from grazing with low grazingintensity than normal/high grazing intensity. Therefore, mowing is the best long-term management method for seminaturalgrasslands in Sweden and grazing using a low grazing intensity should be avoided.

  • 42.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation2016In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, no 5, 827-848 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

1 - 42 of 42
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