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  • 1.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    FOI.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University.
    Tremblay, Sebastien
    Laval University.
    Assessing development of team training in emergency management2014In: Proceedings of the 11th ISCRAM, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assessing Shared Strategic Understanding2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development of an instrument for assessing shared understanding in teams. The purpose was to develop an instrument that would be usable, understandable, objective, flexible and self-explanatory. Teams working in naturalistic settings are expected to have a shared understanding concerning common goals and how to achieve these. The problem investigated in this thesis is that current techniques and instruments for assessing shared understanding in teams generally suffer from one or more of the following drawbacks, namely that they are expensive, difficult to use, time-consuming, requiring expertise, and are often based on subjective perceptions. Departing from existing theory in team cognition techniques and theories, the research questions posed in this thesis are: 1) How can shared understanding be measured without the disadvantages of existing methods? 2) How can shared understanding be assessed without the bias of self-ratings and/or assessments by experts/observers? 3) Can team performance be better understood by the outcomes of an instrument that measures shared understanding?

    These research questions are answered through six studies that are presented in this thesis. Over the six studies an instrument was iterated and subsequently developed, called the “shared priorities instrument”. When using this instrument, team members are instructed to generate items and rank these in order of importance. By comparing these rank orders from different participants, a team measure of shared understanding can be calculated. The advantages of this instrument compared to earlier measures are that it is less expensive, easier to use, less time-consuming, does not require subject matter expertise, and that the instrument is distanced from subjective perceptions. Furthermore, the final study provides results where outcomes from the shared priorities instrument correlate with performance, supporting earlier research connecting shared understanding in teams with team performance. A structural equation model, a result of the final study, shows that the instrument is both valid and reliable.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The advance of a valid and reliable tool for assessing shared understanding2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder, Erland Svensson, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, 127-139 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Developing an instrument for measuring shared understanding2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International ISCRAM Conference: Defining Crisis Management 3.0 / [ed] Simon French Brian Tomaszewski Christopher Zobel, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the need for an easy-to-use, easy-to-administer measure that can capture shared understanding in a team of professionals working together towards a successful performance. In the paper the development of such a measure is described using two empirical studies. Command-and-Control tasks are complex and often dynamic, and a way of capturing the degree of which a team of individuals have a common understanding of priorities in such a task is imperative.

    Two studies are presented. In the first study students participated in a microworld experiment where they tried to rank order pre-determined factors in order to measure shared understanding. In the second study officers from the Swedish Armed Forces participated in an exercise where they rank ordered self-generated factors. 

  • 5.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2016In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, 128-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 6.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The shared priorities measure as a way of assessing team strategic awareness – a bridge between self-assessment and the deep blue sea of field recordings2014In: ECCE '14 Proceedings of the 2014 European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] Stary, Christian, ACM Press, 2014, no 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, easy to comprehend, high face- validity assessment methods for measuring shared awareness in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a new measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is tested. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task in terms of performance and shared awareness. The shared priorities measure was used alongside other, well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. The results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlate with performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures, suggesting that it captures a different quality of team work than the self-rating measures. Further, the shared priorities measure was found to be easily administered and gained a high user acceptance.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Svensson, Erland
    Retired.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish National Defence College (FHS), Sweden.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Statistical modelling of team training in a microworld study2014In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2014, Vol. 58, 894-898 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A command and control environment is a dynamic and complex setting with complicated technical systems where teams of operators interact to reach shared goals. This study presents an experiment in which we, by means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), explain the relations between basic concepts of command and control environments: mental workload, frustration, situational awareness, and performance. This paper reports a LISREL analysis of the Baroutsi, Berggren, Nählinder, & Johansson (2013) data. From that data, a new latent variable “Frustration” emerges, which now can be included in the model.

  • 8.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Alfredson, Jens
    SAAB.
    Svensson, Erland
    The quasi-dynamic approach to measuring complex systems2009In: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nählinder, StaffanFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.Svensson, ErlandFOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a Changing World offers a description of the current state of Command and Control (C2) research in imperfect settings, showing how a research process should assess, analyse and communicate results to the development cycle of methods, work, manning and C2-technology. Special attention is given to the development of C2 research methods to meet the current and coming needs. The authors also look forward towards a future where effective assessment of C2 abilities are even more crucial, for instance in agile organisations.

    The purpose of the C2 research is to improve the process and make it more effective while still saving time and money. Research methods have to be chosen carefully to be effective and simple, yet provide results of high quality. The methodological concerns are a major consideration when working under such circumstances. Furthermore, there is often a need for a swift iterative development cycle, and thus a demand to quickly deliver results from the research process. This book explains how field research experimentation can be quick, simple and effective, being able to draw valid conclusions even when sample sizes are small and resources are limited, collecting empirical data using measures and procedures that are minimally intrusive.

  • 10.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Jonathan
    FOI.
    Hörberg, Ulf
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Höglund, Fredrik
    Shared priorities as a measure of shared understanding2009In: Proceedings of the Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Höglund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Shared Priorities to Measure Shared Situation Awareness2010In: Proceedings of ISCRAM 2010, 2010, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared situation awareness is hard to measure, especially in operative environments such as crisis management. In this paper the purpose is to develop a novel method to measure to what extent the team has shared situation awareness that can be used in operations. 20 two person teams participated in a study where a dynamic and evolving tactical decision-making task was solved. Shared situation awareness, shared priorities, and team performance were assessed. The results show that the shared priorities measure in this study did not relate to shared situation awareness. Several methodological concerns was identified which could have affected the results. The measure did relate to subjective ratings of cooperation which is very interesting and it is suggested that the measure captured aspects of teamwork. The shared priorities measure was easy to employ, required little preparation, and is a promising addition to team research

  • 12.
    Lampi, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Junker, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Vikström, Thore
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology, Centre for Teaching and Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 25, 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. Methods: A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. Results: One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean +/- standard deviation 2.4 +/- 0.68, post-test mean +/- standard deviation 2.60 +/- 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Conclusions: Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be modified in order to assure proper training in triage skills.

  • 13.
    Lampi, Maria
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Junker, Johan
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Vikström, Tore
    Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 25, no 53, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    FOI.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transfer of training from simulator to aircraft - the usefulness of embedded training tools2009In: The Europe Chapter Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) conference 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svensson, Erland
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rencrantz, Carin
    MSB.
    Marklund, Jenny
    FOI.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Empirical studies of command and control centres at the Swedish Air Force2014In: Assessing command and control effectiveness: dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder, Erland Svensson, Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, 103-126 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Thunholm, Peter
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Krigsvetenskapliga avdelningen (KVA).
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikberg, Per
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Armoured Brigade Staff2014In: Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world / [ed] Peter Berggren, Staffan Nählinder, Erland Svensson, London: Ashgate, 2014, 141-160 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this chapter is to present a study of the effectiveness of an Armoured Brigade Headquarters (HQ) in some specific respects. Important issues were (1) how is the HQ Staff dimensioned in relation to its tasks, (2) how does the three staff processes work (Planning, Execution and Coordination / Decision) and (3) how well does the HQ’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and Battle Rhythm  function in the light of the HQ’s organization and work processes? The study was designed as a survey study and was based on the following four instruments: (1) Military Command Team Effectiveness Instrument (CTEF 2.0; Essence, Vogelaar, Baranski, Berggren, Van Buskirk, Goodwin & Myller, 2008); (2) Measurement of workload according to the Borg scale (Borg, 1998); (3) Subjective assessments of quality of the Brigade HQ’s orders and reports, and (4) verification that the Brigade HQ followed it’s Standard Operating Procedure. Fifty-four staff members of an Armoured Brigade HQ volunteered as participants. In the study, the HQ was challenged with a peace support / peace keeping operation exercise.

    The overall result regarding the CTEF and quality measurements on orders and reports indicate that the HQ worked well during the entire exercise and that the SOP and Battle Rhythm worked rather well. However, through the CTEF, four problem areas were identified. These areas regarded (1) the level of uncertainty in the mission, (2) the high complexity of the task, (3) the perceived instability of the objectives that were supposed to be attained in the mission environment, and (4) a high level of workload in some staff sections. Three of these areas are not under the control of the Brigade HQ (high level of uncertainty, high task complexity and unstable objectives of the operation). However, the fourth area, workload, could be influenced. Some staff sections seem to be undermanned in the current organization and that problem needs to be handled, by increasing some staff sections or by moving some duties to other sections.

  • 17.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Skövde Universitet.
    Berggren, Berggren
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Gustavsson, Pär
    Combitech.
    Analyzing the implications of design choices in existing simulation-games for critical infrastructure resilience2017In: International Simulation and Gaming Association’s conference (ISAGA) 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Pär
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lindqvister, Towe
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Olson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure reslience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017In: Proceedings May 21-24, 2017 ISCRAM 2017: Agility is comming Mines Albi. / [ed] Tina Comes, Frederick Benaben, Chihab Hamachi, Matthieu Lauras and Auriel Montarna, Albi: ISCRAM SOCIETY , 2017, Vol. 14, 281-292 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. A deeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quickly understand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigating actions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascading effects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, government institutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts reveal seven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1) Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are more vulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5) Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for critical infrastructures across many actors. 

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