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  • 1.
    Al Taie, Salwan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The 2003 war on Iraq: Purposes and Motivations, An Analytical View2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Iraqi war represents a form of coercive diplomacy between words and war in the enforcement of international norms and is considered as a new and old notion at the same time. This holds true ever since the days of the Desert Storm: the war waged to liberate Kuwait. This mechanism was launched in 1990 under the title of the war to liberate Iraq or the punitive war, the core idea of which would correspond to the purposes and motivations of the 2003 war. This study begins with a review of the literature, both for background information and for the identification of variables of the events and factors in this issue. This war is analysed in relation to the US objectives in the region when it comes to maintaining its interests, ensuring security for its allies and dominating the whole region.

    This study investigates the controversy surrounding the case of 2003 war on Iraq, which is embodied in the plural reasons for the war. The situation in Iraq is of course still a subject for debate, as the country has experienced a stalemate for some years now. The study focuses on one chosen central research question; What was the real reason behind that war? The methodological triangulation approach adopted is about using different research methods to complement one another, in order for the findings to have validity and credibility. Relying upon conceptual analysis, critical review of relevant literature and concepts, political discourses analysis and also on primary data in the form of interviews with Iraqi elite experts of intelligence service and weapons experts, including the former top administrators who are linked to this issue, this thesis provides both facts and opinions which could be used as qualitative data. The aim of the variegated sources and material used for this study is to exemplify contending perspectives on the subject under study.

    The findings of this study suggest that since the war lacks a strong moral base, it remains suspicious as a legitimate policy instrument to solve the problematic issue in Iraq. While the war came about during the reign of the Republicans and the foreign policy then adopted, as this study demonstrates, the repercussions are severe to this day. Coercive diplomacy can ultimately lead the region into enormous chaos, which may have dire consequences for the whole region, not only within Iraq.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Åhlander, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Tillbaka till framtiden: Fyra scenarier för EU:s framtid efter eurokrisen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this study is theories of European integration, which are used to formulate different scenarios about the future of the European Union. This is made in regards to the eurocrisis which has intensified the discussion about how to change the construction of the euro to overcome the economic difficulties that has arisen. In this study, four different scenarios are presented: "An updated Europe", "A new Europe", "The death of the euro" and "Goodbye Greece". The first two scenarios takes its starting point in the neofunctionalist theory of European integration and describes how the EU might increase its level of integration in different ways. We can either see a development where the EU tries to improve the implementation of the rules that are meant to coordinate the member states’ economic policy, or we might encounter a more advanced integration where fiscal policy competences are transferred to the EU-level.

    The latter scenarios, however, takes another theory in to account, liberal intergovernmentalism, and describes how the eurozone might be fragmented in different ways due to conflicts of interest between lenders and countries that has to receive loan-packages. In the third scenario the euro stands in front of a collapse. This is connected to a situation where Spain, which is one of the largest economies in the EU, is starting to have similar problems as countries like Grecce, Ireland and Portugal. The fourth scenario describes a more ordered progress where Grecce, as part of a joint decision with the other EU-members, decides to abolish the euro as their currency. This is a way for the EU to reduce its economic burden, in the same time as Greece are given an opportunity to use an independent monetary policy to cope with their problematic situation.

  • 3.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”Det är väldigt mycket datoriserat är det.” – En studie om IT-utveckling i ett landsting: policy, implementering och praktik2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade användningen av informationsteknik (IT) är en av flera förändringsprocesser i den offentliga sektorn idag. Användningen är nära kopplad till positiva föreställningar om de möjligheter IT-användningen ger för att kunna modernisera och effektivisera verksamhet. I de offentliga organisationerna råder ofta en starkt teknikpositiv diskurs. IT-utveckling ses som viktig och nödvändig och sker många gånger relativt politiskt oreflekterat.

    I de processer som äger rum när nya IT-system upphandlas och implementeras i offentliga organisationer samlas flera olika slag av aktörer, såväl offentliga som privata. I denna licentiatuppsats undersöks vilka aktörer som har makt i dessa förändringsprocesser kopplade till IT i den offentliga sektorn.

    Mer precist sker denna undersökning genom en fallstudie i ett svenskt landsting, där processerna kring införandet av ett nytt vårdinformationssystem har studerats. Studierna har skett genom dokumentstudier, observationer av olika slag samt flertalet intervjuer med tjänstemän och vårdpersonal. De empiriska resultaten analyseras i uppsatsen med hjälp av teorier kring policy, implementering samt teknik och organisation.

    Licentiatuppsatsen bidrar till forskningen om e-förvaltning såväl empiriskt som teoretiskt. Dess viktigaste empiriska bidrag är två. För det första har införandet av nya IT-system omfattande betydelse för organisering i offentliga organisationer. För det andra indikerar uppsatsens resultat att införandet av ny teknik i offentliga organisationer kan bidra till att sudda ut gränsen mellan det offentliga och det privata. Uppsatsens teoretiska bidrag sammanfattas i den analysmodell som presenteras, och som ger möjlighet att betrakta och analysera policy-, implementerings- och praktikprocesser rörande IT-utveckling i offentliga organisationer som integrerade sådana.

  • 4.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digitalisering i den offentliga förvaltningen: IT, värden och legitimitet2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a society where the importance of digitalisation grows in every day life as well as in the workplace. In this dissertation the development of the digitalisation of public administration is studied – this development is usually referred to as egovernment. The main focus of the analysis in this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the meanings of values in these digitalisation processes in public organisations. Three qualitative, interpretative case studies make up the foundation for this analysis. The first case is an analysis of Swedish e-government policies. The two other cases focus on organisational practices in public administration; the County Council of Östergötland and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. These case studies have been based on interviews, document studies and observations. Theoretically the analyses of the dissertation build on theories of public values, legitimacy and the interplay between organisation and technology. The analyses show which values are given importance in digitalisation processes and how digitalisation can affect basic democratic values in public organisations. The results of the dissertation can be summarised in three comprehensive conclusions: 1) The digitalisation of the public administration is context dependent and takes place in an interplay between technology, policy and administration and the specific values which constitute these different domains. 2) The development towards e-government comprises a multitude of values, and is inspired and shaped by different sets of values. 3) The digitalisation can influence the role of the democratic values in public organisations, and therefore affect the legitimacy of the public administration. The main contribution of this dissertation is a deeper understanding of what implications e-government reforms can have for the administrations democratic values and its legitimacy. Processes of digitalisation are not value neutral, but are booth shaped by and shape values in the interplay between technology, political goals and the administrations particular organisational forms. Hereby, awareness of the values of digitalisation becomes crucial when e-government reforms are initiated and carried out. Further research on how technology and public organisations shape each other can contribute to uphold the legitimacy of public administration in a digitalised world.

  • 5.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    E-förvaltning i Sverige – frågor om makt och legitimitet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    E-government in Swedish healthcare – policy, implementation and practice2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    E-government is an area under strong development and the Swedish public administration is not an exception in that respect. There is a whole chain of processes connected with introduction of new technologies in public organizations – from policy decisions, to implementation and thereafter every day-practice. Political scientists are often interested in policy and implementation, but more seldom about how technology and organization interacts with each other. In this paper, I will argue for that we – in order to be able to study the introduction of new technology in public organizations – need to use theoretical concepts concerning all three areas of policy, implementation and practice, and also acknowledge the fact that they are linked together. Illustrating this theoretical discussion, results from a case study in a Swedish health care organization are used. The analysis concerns how e-government is constructed through the processes of policy, implementation and practice in the specific case. The overall conclusions are that the construction of e-government, from national policies to the everyday use of ICT systems, takes place in several steps and that the framework presented in this paper can guide us in the understanding of these construction processes.  

  • 7.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förändring, organisering och makt –en studie av teknikens roll i en lokal offentlig organisation2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Papperet utgör ett första utkast till slutsatskapitel i min licentiatavhandling. I papperet ges även en kort presentation av licentiatavhandlingens övriga delar.

     

    Det empiriska material som ligger till grund för licentiatavhandlingens analys utgörs av en fallstudie av införandet av ett integrerat IT-system i ett svenskt landsting. Genom en rik empirisk beskrivning av detta strategiskt utvalda fall och en analys av empirin utifrån teorier kring implementering och strukturering har kunskap och förståelse för samspelet mellan teknik och organisation i en offentlig vårdorganisation utvecklats.

     

    I papperet presenteras avhandlingens slutsatser samlade under tre kritiska teman som har identifierats i den studerade processen. Dessa rör spänningen mellan värderingar i den privata och offentliga sektorn, synen på tekniken som en aktör möjlig att känna tillit till samt interaktionen mellan sociala och tekniska system.

     

    Ett av licentiatavhandlingens bidrag är att den dragit fram en i statsvetenskapliga sammanhang ofta dold aktör –tekniken– och därmed visat på teknikens betydelsefulla roll i offentlig verksamhet. Avhandlingen har också bidragit med ett konkret exempel på hur gränserna mellan privat och offentlig sektor suddas ut i informationssamhället, och vilka konsekvenser detta får för organisering och arbetsvardag i en lokal offentlig organisation.

  • 8.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IT-utveckling i offentlig sektor - privat och offentligt vävs samman2013In: När förvaltning blir business: marknadiseringens utmaningar för demokratin och välfärdsstaten / [ed] Linda Rönnberg, Urban Strandberg, Elin Wihlborg och Ulrika Winblad, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, 97-115 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att företag bedriver vård, omsorg och andra verksamheter på det offentligas uppdrag är idag en del av vår vardag. Den svenska förvaltningen har förändrats och blivit alltmer business. I den här boken väcker forskare från nio svenska lärosäten frågor och uppmuntrar till fortsatt diskussion på detta tema. Antologins kapitel tar upp vad det enskilda vinstintresset, konkurrensutsättning och privatisering betyder för den svenska demokratin och förvaltningsmodellen. Hur står det till med politikens möjligheter till styrning? Vad händer med synen på medborgarskapet? Finns det till exempel vinnare och förlorare? Finns det en framtid för förvaltningen som business?

  • 9.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social entrepreneurship in development of e-government –how new challenges to local government blurs the line between public and private sectors2009In: Uddevalla Symposium 2009 -The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship / [ed] Bernhard, Iréne, Trollhättan: University West , 2009, 43-65 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of areas in our lives are nowadays integrated with ICT solutions of different kinds. Therefore, there is an increased expectation on public authorities to make information and service more available through ICT. The transformation of public administration into e-administration is a major challenge to local government.  

     

    In 2008 the Swedish government launched a comprehensive policy on e-government. The policy aims to develop a modern public e-administration making it “as simple as possible for as many as possible”. In spite of the local and regional autonomy in Sweden, most authorities relate to this policy. Furthermore, e-administration systems are often developed by private firms in close collaboration with the central administration of the public authority. However, private and public organisations operate from different aims and logics, which are not always compatible.

     

    General theories on implementation indicate that implementation processes require that someone actively carries out the idea and acts as a driving force within the public administration. I will argue that those who do so can be seen as social entrepreneurs, since they promote and internalize new policies and their practical implications in the organisation.

     

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the implementation of an innovation in public health care administration, by focusing on the social entrepreneurs who combine the public and private spheres of an organisation.

     

    In the case study the social entrepreneurs appear to be crucial for the implementation process. They believe in the advantages of the innovation, they make the innovation and usability of it meaningful for others in the public administration, and by using different tools they make sure that it becomes properly introduced. In our case, the central administrators are important in bringing together technical and social demands as well as private and public spheres.

  • 10.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvecklingen av e-legitimationer i Sverige: – en studie av det privata och det offentligas roller2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta papper är framförallt ett empiriskt explorativt sådant, som behandlar en pågående utvecklingsprocess i offentlig förvaltning.

    Idag samverkar ofta både privata och offentliga aktörer i formande och verkställande av offentlig policy. Exempel på policyområden där detta är vanligt förekommande är skola, äldreomsorg och primärvård. Jag argumenterar i detta papper för att även IT-utveckling i offentlig sektor – e-förvaltning – är ett sådant område där gränserna mellan privat och offentligt suddas ut allt mer.

    I papperet undersöks ett specifikt empiriskt område inom e-förvaltningen – utvecklingen kring en ny struktur för e-legitimationer i Sverige. Denna analyseras med hjälp av Lennart J. Lundqvists privatiseringsmatris, som här används som ett verktyg för att för att åskådliggöra och diskutera hur olika förslag till organisering av infrastruktur för e-legitimationer i Sverige innebär olika former av samspel mellan privata och offentliga organisationer.

    Papperet avslutas med att fyra olika förslag till framtida forskningsinriktningar kring det aktuella forskningsområdet presenteras.

  • 11.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visionen om säkerhet, tillgänglighet och effektivitet - förhoppningar knutna till implementeringen av journalsystemet Cosmic2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av svensk e-förvaltning befinner sig i en intensiv fas, där regeringens uttalade målsättning är en modern e-förvaltning, som gör det ”så enkelt som möjligt för så många som möjligt”. Regeringen argumenterar för att den offentliga förvaltningen har ett särskilt ansvar för att stödja och/eller leda utvecklingen på IT-området. Arbetssättet inom offentlig sektor ska också förändras för att full nytta ska kunna fås av de nya IT-systemen. Att på detta sätt försöka leva upp till de förväntningar (som förvaltningen upplever att) allmänheten har kan ses som en strategi för att skapa eller bevara tillit till offentlig sektor. Det är centralt när utvecklingen mot e-förvaltning pågår att det finns en tillit för de nya IT-lösningarna, både på olika nivåer inom myndigheterna och hos allmänheten.

     

    Föreliggande paper undersöker IT-utvecklingen inom offentlig sektor genom att studera ett lokalt exempel; införandet av det elektroniska journalsystemet Cosmic i ett svenskt landsting. Landsting är den regionala politiska nivån i Sverige, som bland annat har ansvar för sjukvård. Den övergripande fråga som detta paper vill besvara är:

    • Hur konstrueras och tolkas tillit när ett nytt informationssystem införs i en stor offentlig organisation?

    Analysen fokuserar på de bilder av Cosmic som landstinget respektive bevakningen i media förmedlar för att synliggöra sambanden mellan tillit och visionen om säkerhet, tillgänglighet och effektivitet.

     

    Inledningsvis analyseras den nationella diskursen kring IT i offentlig sektor. Därefter analyseras hur landstinget beskriver och presenterar det nya journalsystemet. Detta görs genom studier av landstingets egna projektdokument, budgetar och hemsidetexter. De nyckelord som landstinget framhäver i samband med införandet av Cosmic är ”säkerhet”, ”tillgänglighet” och ”effektivitet”. Den tredje och sista delanalysen behandlar den relativt omfattande bevakning som Cosmic varit föremål för i lokal media.

     

    Slutligen jämförs de två olika bilder som landstinget respektive media ger av Cosmic. Klyftan mellan dessa bilder beskrivs och analyseras utifrån teoretiska begrepp kring tillit och sociotekniska system. Analysen landar i slutsatsen att tillit konstrueras och tolkas på vitt skilda sätt inom olika delar av landstinget. Fallet Cosmic pekar på att det finns flera olika sätt att förstå utvecklingen mot e-förvaltning på inom en och samma organisation, vilket i sin tur bör beaktas vid införandet av nya informationssystem i offentliga organisationer. 

  • 12.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visionen realiserad? -När nationell politik möter lokal praktik2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av e-förvaltning i Sverige befinner sig i en intensiv fas. I detta papper analyseras implementeringsprocessen från nationell diskurs (kring IKT-utveckling i offentlig sektor) till lokal praktik (i en offentlig vårdorganisation). Fokus ligger på att förstå hur lokal policy kring e-förvaltning uppstår.    

     

    Den nationella diskursen på e-förvaltningsområdet harmoniserar inte nödvändigtvis med den lokala. I lokal implementering av nationell policy tolkas, utvecklas och förändras de centrala visionerna. Detta sker i samverkansprocesser i nätverk av aktörer, som befinner sig såväl i som utanför den offentliga sektorn. Syftet med detta papper är att analysera betydelsen av lokal kunskap när en policy skapas i mötet mellan nationell politik och lokal praktik.

     

    De empiriska resultat som presenteras i papperet härrör från en studie av ett lokalt exempel: införandet av det elektroniska journalsystemet Cosmic i ett svenskt landsting.

     

    De preliminära slutsatserna är att lokal kunskap är betydelsefullt i utvecklingen av lokal policy, och avgörande för hur den nationella diskursen tolkas och iscensätts.

  • 13.
    Andréasson, Ester
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Värderingar, visioner och konflikter i utvecklingen av lokal e-förvaltning2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våra liv och vårt samhälle integreras allt mer med Informations- och Kommunikationsteknologi (IKT), detta gäller även den offentliga sektorn. Förväntningarna på att offentliga organisationer ska tillgängliggöra service, information och demokrati genom IKT ökar. Detta medför att den offentliga sektorn försöker finna vägar och strategier för att anpassa sig till det framväxande informations- och nätverkssamhället. Syftet med detta papper är att analysera utvecklingen av lokal e-förvaltning genom att fokusera på aktörernas värderingar och visioner ur ett diskursivt maktperspektiv. Den empiriska undersökningen utgörs av en fallstudie som studerar utvecklingen av lokal e-förvaltning i ett svenskt landsting. Analysen visar att de olika aktörernas värderingar och visioner kring utvecklingen av lokal e-förvaltning kan vara både samstämmiga och motstridiga. Detta väcker ytterligare frågor kring vilken betydelse värderingar och visioner har för den studerade policyprocessen. Papperet utmynnar således i nya frågeställningar att utgå från i det fortsatta arbetet med forskningsproblemet.

  • 14.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem är vem på nätet?: en studie av elektronisk identifiering2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att identifiera sig är något vi gör i många olika vardagssituationer; exempelvis när vi ska styrka vår ålder i krogkön, uträtta bankärenden eller bli insläppta av vakten på en bevakad arbetsplats. För att identifiera oss i dessa situationer använder vi oftast någon form av fysisk identitetshandling; ett körkort, pass eller ID-kort. Samtidigt har vi idag ett samhälle där allt fler ärenden går att utföra via nätet, där såväl offentliga som kommersiella aktörer erbjuder elektroniska tjänster (e-tjänster) i ökande omfattning. Vi blir därmed alltmer beroende av informationsteknik (IT) i samhället för att samverka och kommunicera effektivt och enkelt. Vår riskexponering och sårbarhet ökar i takt med att vi utför allt fler ärenden via e-tjänster. Känslig information kan utnyttjas av obehöriga eller missbrukas på olika sätt.

    Elektronisk identifiering blir i dessa sammanhang en viktig komponent och förutsättning för att kunna erbjuda och använda effektiva och säkra e-tjänster. När man identifierar sig på nätet och i IT-system kan man göra det på många olika sätt; man kan logga in med användarnamn och lösenord, använda elektroniska ID-lösningar (eID) med dosor och koder, scanna fingeravtryck, använda e-tjänstekort och kortläsare eller RFID-teknik. Man skulle kunna betrakta dessa identifieringslösningar som rent tekniska landvinningar, som bara syftar till att man ska kunna nå den e-tjänst man vill använda. Likt en nyckel som används för att låsa upp dörren så att man kommer in i sitt hus. Vi menar dock att det är en alldeles för snäv syn på elektronisk identifiering – den behöver vara vidare än så för att vara fruktbar och kunna sättas i meningsfulla sammanhang av exempelvis design, utvärdering och vidareutveckling.

    Även om det är en teknisk lösning (en artefakt) med en begränsad uppgift vi avser, så kan dess utformning och sättet den införs och används på få stora konsekvenser för hela användningssituationen. Med artefakt menas här konstruerade föremål i form av olika tekniska lösningar och människors meningar kopplade till dessa. Identifieringslösningen påverkar både säkerheten i sig och den bild vi får av den e-tjänst eller det IT-system där vi identifierar oss. Dessutom påverkar den också bilden vi har av det sammanhang där vi använder identifieringslösningen. Om vi använder en e-tjänst som erbjuds av exempelvis den kommun där vi bor, påverkas också vår tilltro till kommunen och samhället av hur vi uppfattar identifieringslösningen och e-tjänsten. Samma resonemang gäller om vi köper en vara av ett privat företag på nätet. Med andra ord påverkas samhällets såväl som företagens legitimitet av hur vi som medborgare eller kunder uppfattar olika IT-lösningar.

    Den här boken handlar därför om de möjligheter och utmaningar som elektronisk identifiering kan innebära för individer, organisationer och samhället. Vi talar inte om isolerade tekniska problem i första hand, utan anlägger ett vidare perspektiv på de möjligheter och problem som kommer med e-tjänster och elektronisk identifiering.

    Vi har skrivit den här boken för att dela med oss av en del av de tankar och insikter som vi fått under projektet. Syftet med boken är att sätta ljuset på ett antal teman som framstår som centrala för utveckling och användning av elektronisk identifiering. Vi beskriver tre exempel som hämtar inspiration från våra studier inom projektet. Utifrån dessa exempel lyfter vi fram ett antal teman och diskuterar dessa samt sammanfattar utmaningar som vi sett i våra studier. Vår förhoppning är att Du som läser vår bok kan använda våra resonemang för att diskutera frågorna vidare i det praktiska sammanhang som Du befinner Dig i. Oavsett om Du finns på ett kommunkontor, i ett landsting, i en myndighet eller i en privat livssituation. Vi har inte haft ambitionen att skriva en vetenskaplig, teorirelaterad text, men Du som vill läsa forskningsbaserade publikationer från projektet hittar lästips i slutet av boken.

  • 15.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    COSMIC - syndabock eller frälsare?: En fallstudie av införandet av och arbetet med ett IT-system för vård- och patientadministration inom Landstinget i Östergötland2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie belyser införandet av och arbetet med ett elektroniskt vård- och patientadministrat-ionssystem –COSMIC– i Landstinget i Östergötland. Syftet med studien är att analysera och karak-tärisera införandet av och arbetet med COSMIC. Vi belyser särskilt fyra teman i vår analys: (1) Verksamhetsutveckling och IT, (2) Kompetens och arbete, (3) Tillit och säkerhet samt (4) Privat och offentligt. Denna fallstudie är kvalitativ och tolkande och bygger på flera typer av empiriska data. De metoder som använts är intervjuer med vårdpersonal i öppen- och slutenvård, projekt-ledning, projektmedarbetare och patienter, studier av såväl interna som externa dokument samt systemanvändning. Resultatet av vår studie visar att aktörer och aktörsgrupper bär på många olika bilder av införandeprocessen och av det system –COSMIC– som införs. Studien visar också att det finns förväntningar relaterade till COSMIC som berör förändrade och mera effektiva arbetssätt, tillgänglighet till information –exempelvis om patienters vårdhistorik och medicinering– samt en ökad patientsäkerhet. Dessa förväntningar har utmanats av farhågor i vårdverksamheten rö-rande både systeminförandet och systemets funktionalitet. Föreställningarna har sin grund bland annat i den negativa kritik som framfördes mot COSMIC i samband med pilotimplementering och uppgradering av systemet; negativ kritik som även har rapporterats i lokal och regional media. Betydelsen av att systemet utvecklas av en extern leverantör och landstingets relation till denna analyseras också. Den longitudinella studien visar också att COSMIC institutionaliseras i verksam-heten över tid; detta kommer exempelvis till uttryck genom att systemet blir en del av vårdens vardag och stegvis vinner en större acceptans. Beroendet av systemet ökar också över tid. Studien visar även att tillit och säkerhet påverkas av införandet av det nya systemet – samtidigt som nya risker tillkommer reduceras dock tidigare sådana. Vi karaktäriserar den förändring som systemet hittills bidragit till som snarare informationsteknisk, än samlat och samordnat administrativ och organisatorisk. Centralt blir därför att medvetet, utifrån lokala framgångsrika arbetssätt kombi-nerat med samlad erfarenhet på landstingsnivå, arbeta vidare med samordnad verksamhets- och IT-utveckling.

  • 16.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Paradox of Community Informatics in the Health Care Sector2010In: Vision and Reality in Community Informatics.: CIRN -DIAC Conference Proceedings: Prato, Italy 27-29 October 2010 / [ed] Larry Stillman, Ricardo Gomez, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local health care centres (publicly funded primary health care) play an important role for most people. This is where the citizens are most likely to have their first contact with the health care system if they get ill or injured; this is where different groups of chronics go to do their routine check ups and where elderly citizens get qualified medical care. The health care centres also often include a child health centre, where parents regularly bring their small children so that the medical staff can give insurance that the children are growing and developing the way they should. The health care centres are an important part of the infrastructure in communities. In small villages, the staff is also quite familiar with the patients they give service to. Recently most local health care centres have improved their use of informatics for administration and patient contacts.

    Our field studies of community health care centres concern the use of a new electronic system for patient’s medical records in a health care organisation. This ICT solution brings that the medical records are now tied to the patient, rather than to a specific health care unit. This means that the patient’s medical records are always available for the staff at any of the units within the health care organisation. Thereby, the staff at a local health care centre has faster and more complete access to medical information than before, which means that they can be more efficient and professional in care giving and contribute better.

    Our results indicate that the new electronic medical records makes physical place less important in order to give qualitative care, while they at the same time strengthens the health care centres central role in the community. An indication is that there is a potential for even more empowerment of the local community and people’s connectedness to the community.

    The concluding impression is that community informatics in the health care sector is characterized by a paradox. It works in different directions at the same time: It expands the community in the sense that the flow of medical information increase, but at the same time it strengthens the community as a physical place since the health care centres gets an even stronger role. The aim of this paper is to verify this paradox from a Swedish case study and discuss its general and even global implications on community informatics in the health care sector. The preliminary conclusion is that small communities still can become empowered by the use of new health care informatics.  

  • 17.
    Arce, Israel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime: Towards a Cognitivist Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the use of the first nuclear weapons, during World War II, the world changed forever, as the balance of military power would no longer by measured by the amount of conventional weapons each state possesses. Alongside this, the world experienced a crude awakening to the catastrophic costs, for the environment and in terms of human misery, that the use of these armaments involved. In order to tackle the spreading of these weapons, with the aim to prevent further tragedies, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime (NNPR) begun to develop in the mid 1950s. Since then, the regime, together with its cornerstone, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), have produced outstanding achievements in the non-proliferation field, as well as being the source of glaring disappointments and tensions among states to the present day.

    It is in this context that the following document uses regime theory, the framework that focuses on the study of why and how states decide to cooperate with each other, to present an analysis of the NNPR, understood as a series of overlapping, interlocking and mutually reinforcing agreements and mechanisms on the issue-area of nuclear activities among nations.

    The study is driven by two research questions: 1) How can regime theory explain the longevity and broad acceptance of the NNPR/ NPT and what is its current state after the 2015 Review Conference?; 2) From the point of view of regime theory, in which way would an international effort towards demilitarisation be beneficial for the fulfilment of Art VI of the NPT, regarding nuclear disarmament? The research achieves the objective of deepening the comprehension around the success and broad acceptance of the NNPR and the NPT, while presenting a plausible alternative for an agreement on nuclear disarmament that  could involve demilitarisation. This alternative is elaborated through a pathway suggested with the use of regime theory, specifically, with the use of the weak cognitivist approach.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-06-14 10:57
  • 18.
    Asp, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olofsson, Therése
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ideella organisationer - självständiga samhällsaktörer eller kommunens förlängda arm?: En studie om homogeniseringstryck och kontroll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examine if social voluntary organisations are independent or if they are being regulated by the public sector. We ask how free the organisations are since they get so much support and funding from the municipality. This is examined by looking at the homogenisation pressure, which means that organisations are being exposed by a pressure to become more similar. The control that the municipality has over the organisations is another aspect in this paper. The study focuses on the relation between the municipality of Linköping and three social voluntary organisations and their characteristics. The theory about homogenisation pressure, developed by Staffan Johansson, is used to analyse if there is a tendency for the organisations to change their work because of the municipality. Whether the organisations are subject of control is analysed by using Kuhnle and Selle’s concept of nearness and dependence.

     

    The study showed that particularly financial support and contact are of importance when it comes to whether the organisations are being exposed to homogenisation pressure and control or not. An important aspect that affects these channels of integration is the attitude of the municipality. With an attitude of not wanting to affect the organisations the financing and integration tend to lead to understanding of the organisations instead of homogenisation pressure and control. The role of the organisation is also of importance. A role as a complement towards the municipality has less pressure to change while the risk is higher for an organisation that works as a replacement. 

  • 19.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An Alternative View of Integrated Sustainable Development Through a Time-Spatial Lens2012In: OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 1923-6654, E-ISSN 1923-6662, Vol. 3, no 12, 87-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional monetary market oriented economic view of development is the dominant approach of development, despite its shortcomings and inability to include social and environmental aspects into long term processes of change. Essential values are often concealed or even excluded in conventional monetary analyses, which are fundamental for integrated sustainable livelihoods.Using a time-spatial perspective, building on Hägerstrand’s time-geography, this article aims to elaborate upon an alternative conceptual development approach. The time-spatial model open for an alternative constructive approach to analyze and physically anchoring socio-economic and ecological processes extended over time. Such a view thereby contrasts and reaches beyond the conventional monetary market growth strategy.Combining the conceptual discussion with empirical illustrations from rural livelihoods in Sweden, the article highlight new alternative political-economic analytical tools and strategies to achieve sustainable sound integrated socio-, economic-, and ecological development processes.

  • 20.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Institutionen för ekonomi och IT, Avdelningen för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik, Högskolan Väst.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En annan kommunal ekonomi: om andra sätt att värdera lokala resurser och aktiviteter : bilder från Ydre kommun2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna bok vill vi vidga perspektiven och visa på möjligheter att se kommunal ekonomi i ett bredare perspektiv och söka en annan kommunal ekonomi. Vi vill visa att det i en landsbygdskommun och dess bygder finns och används mer resurser för att skapa välfärd och ett gott liv än det som i dag räknas och därmed syns i den kommunala ekonomin där man räknar kronor och ören. Genom att vända och utveckla perspektiven kring ekonomi vill vi peka på behovet av att se och synliggöra fler resurser som gör att resurshushållning utifrån lokala förutsättningar bidrar till en integrerad och hållbar utveckling för landsbygden.

  • 21.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local Alternative Development through a Time-Spatial Lens: A Case Study of Ydre Inspired by Hägerstrand2013In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 378-391 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development.

    The expert contributors to this work highlight the role of governance in regional growth, an area that has so far been relatively under-researched, underpinning their findings with new theoretical and empirical evidence. They conclude that the relationship between entrepreneurship, social capital and governance in factors affecting regional economic development are complex and interdependent, and that to influence these factors and the relationship between them, policymakers must have a long-term perspective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts.

    This enlightening book will be of great interest to academics, students and researchers across a range of fields including regional science, regional economics, economic geography, regional planning, public policy, entrepreneurship, political science and economic sociology. Policymakers involved in regional policymaking from national down to regional and local levels will also find the book to be an illuminating read.

  • 22.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local Policy Entrepreneurs and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas2015In: Regional development in an international context: regional, national, cross border and international factors for growth and development. Revised papers presented at the 18th Uddevalla symposium, 11-13 June, 2015, Sönderborg, Denmark / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2015, 59-74 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A popular trend in today’s development debate is to highlight arguments favouring local production, local entrepreneurship, or the importance of buying local. But what do we actually mean when we talk about the term “local”. Similar to other popular development terms, the concept “local” seems to be used in a wide variety of meanings and interpretations. Furthermore, the term “local” is also often connected as an important component in the perhaps even more vague argumentations for sustainable development.        

    The conventional view of development, based on economic growth, promotes expansion in space and compression in time – a global market economy. This dominant technical-economic approach largely use general technological and institutional policies and solutions more suitable for urban large-scale structures. Such structures and policies thereby tend to hamper what often is seen as local development.

    Initially, the article discusses the term “local” using a geographical time-spatial conceptual approach. With the use of empirical field studies focusing on rural local development in Sweden, the article thereafter apply the approach in an analytical framework to clarify and identify the meaning(s) of the term local, and identify the possibilities and constraints of processes of change in time and space – e.g. local development. In so doing, the time-spatial approach provide a possibility to identify the potential for alternative interwoven applicable local policy instruments and strategies.

  • 23.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Services Choices When There Are No Alternatives?: A Paradox of New Public Management in Rural Areas2012In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 7, no 2, 1-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common decrease in services in rural areas around the world. This is not at least the case regarding public services, since the decreasing population also decreases the resources available for local public services. The aim of this article is to critically analyse challenges of New Public Management in a rural area community in Sweden to discuss the complex double management role (as employer and as service provider) of the rural municipality. The core of NPM is based on a private sector ethos and is thus also heavily influenced by corporate sector techniques and management. In this paradigm cost effectiveness and efficiency become the dominant considerations for how the state is run. It becomes even more problematic in rural areas without a critical mass of customers (former citizens) and additional costs for transportation. This is illustrated by a discussion of local schools. The analysis shows that even non-monetary resources should be taken into account to reach legitimate policy changes in rural communities. This opens for a creative discussion on time-spatial localized policy-making including extending the interpretations of local resources.

     

  • 24.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Turning Time-Spatial Modes - A Conceptual Model to Integrate Environmental-Economic Processes of Change2009In: International Conference on Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability,2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turning Time-Spatial Modes: An Alternative Perspective to Integrate Environmental-economic Processes of Change2008In: Uddevalla Symposium 2008. Spatial dispersed production and network governance: Revised papers presented at the 11th Uddevalla Symposium, 15-17 May, 2008, Kyoto, Japan / [ed] Iréne Bernhard, Trollhättan, Sweden: Department of Economics and IT, University West , 2008, 115-128 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global markel economy is built on a political institutional arrangement promoting free and open trade. The existing natural and human resources make up the basis for all produclive activilies. The dominating economy strive to reach efficient use of human and natural resources, by enhancing processes of spatial expansion and time-compression.

    The conceptual argument in this paper takes its starting point in Hägerstrand's traditional time-space mode!. lt illustrates two conflicting perspectives the global markel economic horizontal norm (expansion in space, compression in time) and the environmental sustainable vertical processes (expansion over lime in limiled spaces). These two norms head in different directions and environmental sustainability is therefore conflicting with the common meaning of economic development.

    In a time-spatial perspective, a sustainable use of resources is spatially limited, and extended over time. A development process, in terms of environmental sustainability, relies on local resource use and extension in time, to limit the use of externa! input of energy. This process is the opposile to what today is seen as economic development (growth) that compresses time and expands in space, to reach the most favourable comparative advantages.

    The monetary market economy is a political construction. What activities and resources that are given a price on the markel depend on the institutional arrangements of property rights, prices and legal structures. Our conceptual conclusion is that the current political construction of the economy is "in-complete"and thus creates and fosters a mis-match with environmental pre-condilions. The political system can have the capacity to use the tools and power to harmonise economic development with environmental sustainability, locally, nationally and globally.

  • 26.
    Assmo, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ydre 2.0: An Alternative Time-Spatial Approach towards Post-Monetarism2010In: ERSA 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kundval – dilemman i gränssnittet mellan privata och offentliga organisationer2010In: Samtal pågår… från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Friberg T, Thelander S, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2010, 9-19 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår

  • 28. Becker, A
    et al.
    Castelletti, G
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Hatterman, F.F
    Kaden, S
    Kundzewicz, Z.W.
    Laurens, Y
    Muhar, S
    Soncini-Sessa, R
    Stålnacke, P
    Willems, P
    Practical Experiences from Existing Case Studies and Pilot River Basins2010In: Water Framework Directive: Model Supported Implementation / [ed] Hatterman, F., Z.W. Kundzewicz (eds), London: IWA Publishing , 2010, 99-202 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water resources planning and management and the development of appropriate policies requires methodologies and tools that are able to support systematic, integrative and multidisciplinary assessments at various scales. It also requires the quantification of various uncertainties in both data and models, and the incorporation of stakeholders participation and institutional mechanisms into the various tools and risk assessment methodologies, to help decision makers understand and evaluate alternative measures and decisions. This requirement has been explicitly recognised in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is one of the concrete outcomes of the Harmoni-CA concerted action (supported by the European Commission). It provides a framework for model-supported participatory planning of measures at various river basin scales and practical guidance to water managers and other interested stakeholders on the model-supported implementation of the WFD. The objective of the book is to offer guidance to water managers on the model-supported implementation of the Water Framework Directive at the level of a river basin district and at other levels (such as sub-basins, national, or international scale in the case of international river basins). It should help water managers to better understand how models may be used for planning purposes, while special attention is given to the problem of predicting an uncertain future, one very likely to differ from the present. Six case studies from different parts of Europe are provided to illustrate the practical applicability of the planning framework in the WFD implementation. They are very important for illustrating how concepts from earlier parts of the document are applied to real-world situations. The case studies cover several aspects of mesoscale river basin management, water quantity and quality issues, and the role of modelling, with two case studies located in pilot river basins. This text is intended for use by water managers and hydrologists engaged in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive.

  • 29.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjölin, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    A Clean House?: studies of corruption in Sweden2016Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Fink, Günther
    Harvard School of Public Health, USA.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    More politicians, more corruption: evidence from Swedish municipalities2017In: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 172, no 3-4, 483-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on political economy and public choice, it is typically assumed that government size correlates positively with public corruption. The empirical literature, however, is inconclusive, owing to both measurement problems and endogeneity. This paper creates a corruption index based on original data from a survey covering top politicians and civil servants in all Swedish municipalities. The effect of more politicians on corruption problems is analyzed using discontinuities in the required minimum size of local councils. Despite the fact that Sweden consistently has been ranked among the least corrupt countries in the world, the survey suggest that non-trivial corruption problems are present in Sweden. Municipalities with more local council seats have more reported corruption problems, and the regression discontinuity design suggests that the effect is causal.

  • 31.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm / Lunds universitet.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN).
    Tål den svenska modellen att jämföras?: om utlandssvenskars attityder till välfärdsstaten2016In: Svenska utlandsröster: SOM-undersökningen till utlandssvenskar 2014, SOM-rapport nr 65 / [ed] Maria Solevid, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2016, 211-232 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om välfärdsmissnöje driver utvandring från Sverige är en av frågorna i Andreas Berghs, Henrik Jordahls och Richard Öhrvalls kapitel Tål den svenska modellen att jämföras? Utlandssvenskars attityder till välfärdsstaten. Mer specifikt undersöks utlandssvenskarnas åsikter om välfärdssystem, skatter, skola och sjukvård i det land de flyttat till och hur synen på den svenska välfärdsstaten skiljer sig åt beroende på till vilken typ av välfärdsystem man flyttat. Resultaten visar att utlandssvenskar generellt sett är mer nöjda med sjukvården och skolan i det nya landet än i Sverige. Sammanfattningsvis tycks utlandssvenskar samtidigt föredra det svenska välfärdssystemet, men (den oftast lägre) skattenivån i andra typer av välfärdsstater vilket inte är en förenlig ståndpunkt. Författarna finner inte stöd för att välfärdsmissnöje driver utvandring, men det förekommer negativa bedömningar av den svenska sjukvården och svenska skatter bland utlandssvenskar i välfärdssystem som skiljer sig från det svenska. Resultaten tyder på att flera åsikter om Sverige omvärderas i ljuset av nya erfarenheter. Ju rikare land man flyttat till, desto mindre nöjd är man med den svenska sjukvården och med välfärdssystemet som helhet. Den som flyttat till ett land med bra skola enligt Pisa-mätningarna har också en mer negativ bild av den svenska skolan. Utlandssvenskar som flyttat till en annan typ av välfärdsstat är mer nöjda med det nya landets skattenivå, men mindre nöjda med välfärdssystemet som helhet. Viktigt att poängtera är att den negativa uppfattningen om den svenska skattenivån uppvisar stora skillnader mellan män och kvinnor; män är negativa till skattenivån i Sverige, vilket kvinnor inte är, medan kvinnor är mer negativa till skattenivån i boendelandet.

  • 32.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Municipal Contact Centres: A Slower Approach Towards Sustainable Local Development by E-government2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 11, 2292-2309 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is Swedish government policy to use information and communication technologies to increase sustainability. This has implications for planning and local organization of communities. In the municipalities where most public services are provided, there are growing numbers of local contact centres (CCs) aiming to meet citizens’ needs for information and coordination of public services. The CCs localize public services and combine different services into a one-stop practice focusing on needs and demands of individual citizens and their unique situations. The municipalities hereby have to plan for service provision in new ways to meet more individualized needs that are also in line with improved sustainability. CCs are both local offices and advanced services on-line, as e-governmental services. E-government could be considered fast government, but this article aims to turn that obvious first impression upside down and discuss how e-government can slow down and make services more local, personalized and sustainable. Theoretically we take off from a time-geographical modelling of slow processes that has implication for slower, more sustainable development. Based on in-depth case studies of municipal CCs we argue that they are tools towards improved sustainability and localism, and that they are “slowing up” administrative processes. In particular, we point out that e-government has a potential to plan for, and promote, sustainability and slow local development.

  • 33.
    Bernhard, Irene
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden .
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy entrepreneurs in networks: implementation of two Swedish municipal contact centres from an actor perspective2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, Vol. 21, no 3, 288-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elaborate on the meanings of policy entrepreneurs and through the conceptualisation analysing implementation of local municipal contact centres – a Swedish local e-governmental initiative. The paper builds on qualitative case studies including interviews, observations and document analysis, all analysed through the perspective of policy entrepreneurs. Local policies are implemented in relation to local cultures, norms and economic structures. The networked governance structure demands entrepreneurial actors to combine resources and interests into a change. Here we identified both theoretically and practical, two types of such entrepreneurial actors. The issue entrepreneur focuses on the issue as such and focuses on the solution to a single problem. The political entrepreneur, on the other hand, focuses on core values and long term structural changes. The emerging networked governance structure asks for improved knowledge on policy entrepreneurship both for analytical and practical improvements. The findings may provide useful information for municipal e-government planning specifically when planning for implementing contact centres. The study enriches the existing literature on policy entrepreneurs in networks expanding the roles to include also local e-government contexts. 

  • 34.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regional e-governance: promoting entrepreneurial behavior in public administration2014In: Agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship: studies in regional economic development / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Roger S. Stough, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, 1, 199-220 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electconic applications for public administration and contacts between citizens and governments are developing worldwide. E-government is a concept tbat includes all forms of electronic applications used by govemmental bodies; e-services are those used for services to citizens, private firms and organizations. European Union ministers unanimously agreed on a declaration for e-government in 2009, aiming to 'use eGovemment to increase tbeir efficiency and effectiveness and to constantly improve public services in a way that caters for users' different needs and maximizes public value' (Ministerial Declaration on e-government, 2009). The policy illustrates great optimism for e-government in terms of efficiency and citizen value. However, wben implemented, there are great demands placed on professionals in public administration to take up and realize tbese expectations. They have the possibility to act as entrepreneurs, be creative and break organizational norms and boundaries, which is the focus ofthis chapter.

    There are increased expectations about the potential of e-govemance to meet tbe still basic demands of sustained efficiency and democracy in public administration. The use of information technology (IT) is developed in close interplay between the organizational and technical components of a socio-technical network (Hughes, 1983). Public policy and administration also develop in relation to late modernization and globalization, and the increased use of IT is integrated in many other processes of change. Thus, few changes cao be related to the use of new technology a lone. E-government applications provided through technical and organizational applications are usually developed and designed to address a specific problem or issue in public administration. The technological innovations are thus not the primary focus; the aim is the problems dealt with by public administration (Wihlborg, 2000).

    E-government development and the implementation of innovations thus take place in the crossing points between technology and professionals in administration. The cases we use to illustrate this here concern regional student counseling and applications to upper secondary schools in Sweden. The Swedish government has worked extensively on e-government, and there are several local and regional initiatives intended to increase the use of IT and the provision of broadband infrastructures (SOU, I 999; 2002; 2008). For 3 years (2003- 2005), the government had a special delegation, The 2417 Agency Delegation, to promote and stimulate the development and use of public e-services (SOU, 2004). Currently a Swedish governmental e-delegation reaching over all public administration has been formed to promote integration and efficiency, similar to the British arrangements (Dunleavy et al., 2007; Government Gateway, 2010). One example of this e-government development toward reforming the public sector is that several Swedish municipalities have implemented customer centers (see for example Bernhard, 2010).

    The aim of this chapter is firstly to conceptualize a framework of innovative e-governance into e-service, e-administration and e-democracy as different contexts for entrepreneurial behavior, and secondly to use the approach to analyse and compare the implementation of the innovations of the common application systems for upper secondary schools in two Swedish regions.

  • 35.
    Bernhard, Iréne
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trust in secure public e-services: translating policies into use2012In: Entrepreneurship, social capital and governance: directions for the sustainable development and competitiveness of regions / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, 1, 241-262 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging information society challenges relations between public agencies and citizens in many ways. Providing e-services on the Internet and using other forms of information and communication technologies are basic components of e-government. E-services as such are innovations – even if the service itself existed before – as they are a new way of producing and organizing the service. For secure use and successful implementation of innovations in public contexts, the innovation must be considered legitimate and related to policies. The European Union and all other levels of government form policies, which are translated among the various levels to manage the useful, secure praxis of e-services. Translation in organisational terms takes place across governmental levels in the multi-level governance chain and secondarily from technical to administrative settings. Since the Swedish public administration relies on a dual steering approach, with strong, constitutionally mandated regional and local autonomy, such policies cannot be forced onto regional and local public agencies. Instead, European and national policy statements become soft policy instruments in the local context, and their implications rely on local uptake in the specific setting and on the competencies of the professionals in local public administration. Since this is a new, emerging field of innovative policy and practice, our analysis will build on an inductive methodological approach. The theoretical framework of policy and technology translation allows inclusion of this broad process of changes. Our focus here on the translation process is to highlight translations both across levels in multi-level settings and as constructions of meanings of security. The conclusion is that the organizational settings of multi-level governance are greater constraints than new technology for implementation of public e-services.

  • 36.
    Berry, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sockentänk: En studie av två deltagardemokratiska experiment i Ydre kommun2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ydre municipality is the smallest in the province of Östergötland, Sweden. It is home to approximately 3700 people and the municipality is struggling with organizational and economical problems due to its diminishing and increasingly elderly population. Because of its organizational and economical problems Ydre municipality is resolutely working to change and improve the terms and conditions of living and working in Ydre. This work has led to more than a decade with participatory democratic experiments meant to enhance citizens participation and interest in local politics.

    In this licentiate thesis two participatory democratic experiments are studied by abductive methods. The experiments are citizen dialogues in 2009 and local planning and development processes in 2010. The aim of the study is to show and analyze if and how the participatory democratic experiments influenced the democratic decision-making within Ydre municipality.

    The citizen dialogues and the local planning and development processes are analyzed by using a structure-agency perspective. By using this perspective the deeper political meaning and consequences of territorial attachment and strong local identities in Ydre are revealed.

    The two participatory democratic experiments were designed differently and hence had different democratic effect. The need for careful planning, thorough, explicit and consequent communication of the democratic purpose of participatory democratic processes is one of the studies most clear-cut results. The study also shows how Ydre municipality, and other Swedish rural municipalities as well, could benefit from incorporating the widespread territorial attachment amongst its citizen in participatory democratic processes.

  • 37.
    Bjurling, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Höjdevall, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Funkis, folkhem och förlorade visioner: en tolkning av det sociala kapitalet i ett miljonprogramsområde i Linköping2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “The million programme”, an ambitious housing programme, took place in Sweden between the years 1965-1974. During this period 1006000 dwellings were built, which represents about a quarter of the contemporary housing stock in Sweden. The programme was due to a strong political will from the Social democratic party to erase the demand surplus on housing that had existed in Sweden until then. The production of the housing took place in the outskirts of the cities and was based on ideas of functionalism and scale economy. Despite extensive social engineering no one had been able to foresee that after a couple of years many of the tenants moved away from the new residential areas, choosing instead to live in single-family, detached houses. Those who were left behind were mostly families of low socioeconomic status. Most Swedish medium sized cities still have a residential area from this period. These areas are nowadays often characterized by a lot of passing tenants, high unemployment and unhealthy rate. Few of the residents visit the polls on election day. Many politicians argue that the socioeconomic problems in these areas can be improved by restorement or deconstruction of housing. Others mean that in order to solve the socioeconomic problems in these areas you have to tackle the macroeconomic problems in modern society. Few of the proposals revolve around social capital and the ideas that well-known political scientists have about the importance for wellbeing in societies. The aim of this essay is therefore to qualitatively describe the social capital in a residential area built as a part of the million programme in the town Linköping and see how it can contribute to the democratic process. Hopefully our conclusions can be generalized to other similar residential areas in Sweden. The description of the social capital consists of the tellings of county officials and representatives of local associations. The information they have provided was analyzed with the help of theorists Robert D. Putnam, Bo Rothstein and James S. Coleman. We conclude that there exist substantial variations in the social capital in the residential area that we have studied. There exists an extensive amount of what Putnam calls bonding social capital in the neighbourhood, but there is also a lack of bridging social capital that could significantly improve the democratic process in the area. This is due to ethnic groupings and great numbers of passing residents which makes investments in social capital irrational for the individual. Specific political support for these residential areas can therefore be motivated.

  • 38. Bots, Pieter
    et al.
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding the role of perception and valuation in the development and use of models for water management2010In: Integrated Assessment for Water Framework Directive Implementation: data, economic and Human Dimension / [ed] Vanrolleghem, P., London: IWA , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated Assessment for Water Framework Directive Implementation: Data, Economic and Human Dimension - Volume 2 is a concrete outcome from the Harmoni-CA concerted action as part of a 4-volume series of Guidance Reports that guide water professionals through the implementation process of the Water Framework Directive, with a focus on the use of ICT-tools (and in particular modelling). They are complementary to the Guidance Documents produced by the EU Directorate General for Environment.  Water resources planning and management and the development of appropriate policies require methodologies and tools that are able to support systematic, integrative and multidisciplinary assessments at various scales. It also requires the quantification of various uncertainties in both data and models, and the incorporation of stakeholders participation and institutional mechanisms into the various tools and risk assessment methodologies, to help decision makers understand and evaluate alternative measures and decisions.

  • 39. Bots, Pieter
    et al.
    Gooch, Geoffrey
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science .
    McIntosh, Brian
    Pahl-Wostl, Claudia
    Integration of the Human Dimension in Model-Supported Water Management2007Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Braun, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing the Euro Crisis: EU Decision-Making in the sovereign Debt Crisis October 2009 – March 20122012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European common currency, the euro, is in crisis. Bad news about indebted governments and economic recession has continuously outperformed itself since 2009/2010 and kept the European Union and its member states in suspense. It is up to them to combat the crisis. This master thesis deals with the European sovereign debt crisis (“euro crisis”) and tries to allow a better understanding of how the crisis has been managed by governments at the European level. A special focus is put on decision-making in the crisis, posing the research question “How can the decision-making of the EU in the euro crisis be understood?”. To solve this research problem, three different approaches are applied: liberal intergovernmentalism, historical institutionalism and cognitive institutionalism. Each of them adds different aspects to the analysis, gives answers from its respective point of view and thereby widens the overall picture that evolves. The design of the thesis is a case study with the euro crisis as a special case of decision-making and crisis management. Official documents and statements, expert interviews, scholastic, expert, and journalistic analyses are employed as basic research material. It has been uncovered that, powerful states, especially Germany and France, have bargaining advantages during crisis decision-making. However, the decision-making is constrained by institutional aspects (rules, norms and values). Stress factors deriving from the crisis situation facilitate group dynamics that appeared at least partially during the ongoing crisis.

  • 41.
    Brommesson, Douglas
    et al.
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson Schaffer, Johan
    Norsk senter for menneskerettigheter, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fogelgren, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att möta den högre utbildningens utmaningar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den övergripande fråga som ställs i rapporten är: hur kan universitet och högskolor upprätthålla kvalitet i utbildningen? Undersökningen bärs upp av tre delar där vi studerar 1) om högskolepedagogiska kurser stärker lärare som pedagoger; 2) huruvida det finns incitament för universitetslärare att satsa på pedagogisk verksamhet; samt 3) vilka förutsättningar lektorer ges att inom ramen för sin tjänst fullgöra det pedagogiska uppdraget. I den första delstudien finner vi att pedagogiska kurser haft positiva effekter på deltagarnas upplevda trygghet i lärarrollen. Samtidigt förändras inte kursdeltagarnas grundläggande förhållningssätt till undervisning. I delstudie två finner vi att incitamenten att satsa på det pedagogiska uppdraget är relativt svaga, eftersom sakkunniga i allmänhet lägger liten vikt vid pedagogiska meriter jämfört med vetenskapliga. I den tredje delstudien undersöks balansen mellan forskning och undervisning för lektorer i statsvetenskap. Resultaten visar att skillnaden i undervisningsplikt, liksom kompensationen för likvärdiga undervisningsuppdrag, varierar mycket mellan lärosäten. Förutsättningarna för det pedagogiska uppdraget ser således väldigt olika ut för lektorer beroende på var de är anställda.

  • 42.
    Bäck, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB).
    Det nya seklets förtroendevalda: om politikerantal och representativitet i kommuner och landsting 20032004Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vesterberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Citizenship: rights, obligations and changing citizenship ideals2015In: International Migration and Ethnic Relations: critical Perspectives / [ed] Magnus Dahsltedt and Anders Neergaard, London: Routledge, 2015, 86-114 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundqvist, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vesterberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Medborgarskap: rättigheter, skyldigheter och medborgarideal i förändring2013In: Migrationens och etnicitetens epok: Kritiska perspektiv i etnicitets- och migrationsstudier / [ed] Dahlstedt, Magnus & Neergaard, Anders, Malmö: Liber, 2013, 1, 110-140 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel ger en översikt över några centrala linjer i det moderna tänkandet om medborgarskap, med utgångspunkt i sociologen Thomas Humphrey Marshall och hans tankar om de civila, politiska och sociala rättigheternas framväxt. I förgrunden står särskilt relationen mellan medborgarskap, migration och etnicitet. De centrala tankegångarna i texten åskådliggörs genom olika exempel från det mångetniska Sverige som påvisar skillnader mellan formella och substantiella aspekter av medborgarnas civila, politiska och sociala rättigheter.

  • 45.
    Dominguez, Edmé
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science .
    Feminismo, Clase y Etnicidad: hegemonía o tolerancia2004In: Women, Citizenship and Political Participation in Mexico, Haina IV, Göteborg: Iberoamerikanska institutet , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Dominguez, Edmé
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Mujeres, ciudadanía y participación política en México = Women, citizenship and political participation in Mexico2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many studies done on the issue of women’s political participation in Mexico, women organized in urban and in other kind of social movements but few of these studies have focused on the individual level trying to find out the perception of these women on issues basic for any democracy like citizenship, rights, participation, political influence and political culture. The study of these perceptions is relevant in order to measure the progress made by women in the realm of the public space. And also to find out which are the mechanisms that make women participate across variables of age, class, ethnicity and class belonging. Finally, this is a way to explore if the pre-conditions for democratization are there and if these have to do with gender variables.

  • 47.
    Dominguez, Edmé
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Transnational Class/Gender networking between the North and the South: Overcoming diversity or reproducing dependencies?2007In: Remapping Gender in the New Global Order / [ed] Janine Brodie och Marjorie Griffin-Cohen, Routledge , 2007, 1, -264 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses changes in gender relations, as a result of globalization, in countries on the semi-periphery of power. Semi-periphery refers to those nations which are not drivers of change globally, but have enough economic and political security to have some power in determining their own responses to global forces. Individual countries obviously face challenges that are to some extent unique, although the prescriptions for economic and social restructuring are based on a common competitive logic.  Remapping Gender in the New Global Order draws on examples from four countries on the semi-periphery of power but still located in the top category of the UNDP s Human Development Index. At one end is Norway, one of the world s richest and most developed welfare-states, and, at the other, is Mexico, a country that is considerably poorer and more susceptible to the power of the United States and international agencies. Australia and Canada, the other two semi-peripheral countries examined, are in the middle. Also included are comparisons with the epicentre of the core base of power the United States.  The individual chapters focus on the effect on specific groups of people, including males and indigenous groups, the mechanisms people use to both cope with dramatic social changes, and the strategies and alliances that are used to affect the course of changes. It covers topics that range from implications of labour migration on care regimes to globalism s effect on masculinity and the male breadwinner model

  • 48.
    Dominguez, Edmé
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Women's participation and citizenship in Mexico: final results from a project2004In: Mujeres, ciudadanía y participación política en México: Women, citizenship and political participation in Mexico / [ed] Domínguez Reyes, Edmé, Göteborg: Iberoamerikanska institutet , 2004, 112-145 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many studies done on the issue of women’s political participation in Mexico, women organized in urban and in other kind of social movements but few of these studies have focused on the individual level trying to find out the perception of these women on issues basic for any democracy like citizenship, rights, participation, political influence and political culture. The study of these perceptions is relevant in order to measure the progress made by women in the realm of the public space. And also to find out which are the mechanisms that make women participate across variables of age, class, ethnicity and class belonging. Finally, this is a way to explore if the pre-conditions for democratization are there and if these have to do with gender variables.

  • 49.
    Drugge, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Svensson, Elizabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Biståndets framgång i Ghana: En jämförande fallstudie av Hungerprojektet och ActionAids biståndsarbete i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world today there are 842 million people hungry, which corresponds to the population of the US, Japan and Europe combined. The reason for their hunger is not lack of food, according to the UN, there are enough resources in the world for everyone to be satisfied. The majority of the hungry live in developing countries; in rural or slum areas and its mainly women and children.1 In order to among other things, to correct this untenable situation the Millennium Development Goals were created. Foreign aid would solve the victim's problems, but few issues are so controversial as foreign aid. Where does the money go? Do they make any difference to the individuals? What distinguishes a functioning foreign aid?

    The aim is to try to locate the factors leading to a successful assistance. This has been developed through a qualitative comparative case study. The selected organizations has been compered to the established theories in the field, these are mostly based on William Easterly and Jeffrey Sachs. The work focuses on ActionAid and The Hunger Project's work in Ghana with emphasis on implementation.

    One of the conclusions we have made in this paper is that there need to be good communication between the organizations and the local population. If those who live in the community do not recognize the problems or if the solution is not designed to fit the local conditions, then it will not be a long-term change. It is also important that all groups in the society are involved in the work process and especially the marginalized groups that usually consist of women and children. This work can be seen as a first step to locating aid organizations' success factors, but also illustrates common problems with foreign aid. 

  • 50.
    Elander, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Fridolfsson, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Swedish Muslims and Secular Society: Faith-Based Engagement and Place2015In: Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, ISSN 0959-6410, E-ISSN 1469-9311, Vol. 26, no 2, 145-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article sets out to explore how Muslims in Sweden identify with and create social life in the place where they live, that is, in their neighbourhood, in their town/city and in Swedish society at large. In a paradoxical religious landscape that includes a strong Lutheran state church heritage and a Christian free-church tradition, in what is, nevertheless, a very secular society, Muslims may choose different strategies to express their faith, here roughly described as "retreatist," "engaged" or "essentialist/antagonistic." Focusing on a non-antagonistic, engaged stance, and drawing upon a combination of authors interviews, and materials published in newspapers and on the Internet, we first bring to the fore arguments by Muslim leaders in favour of creating a Muslim identity with a Swedish brand, and second give some examples of local Muslim individuals, acting as everyday makers in their neighbourhood, town or city. Third, we also give attention to an aggressively negative Islamophobic stance expressed both in words and in physical violence in parts of Swedish society. In conclusion, we reflect upon the challenges and potentialities of an emotionally engaged, dialogue-orientated Muslim position facing antagonistic interpretations of Islam, and an ignorant, sometimes Islamophobic, environment.

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