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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christopher, Martin
    Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.
    Stensson, Bo-Inge
    SKF, Sverige.
    Mastering Supply Chain Management in an era of uncertainty at SKF2015In: Global Business and Organizational Excellence: a review of research & best practices, ISSN 1932-2054, Vol. 34, no 6, 6-17 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To stay ahead in an increasingly competitive business environment, organizations need agile supply chain systems that are holistically designed and managed. The experiences of SKF, a Swedish multinational firm, point to the benefits of reengineering upstream capabilities to create value downstream. To foster the flexibility, responsiveness, and other dynamic capabilities needed to manage increased supply chain complexity, the company established programs to involve its suppliers in the value creation process, making them an extension of the organization’s resource base. The overall objective has been to migrate from a business model based on economies of scale in operations to one that exploits both economies of scope and economies of integration. As a result of its efforts to create a more agile and cost-efficient supply chain, the company has been able to decrease supply risks while improving its value creation process and responsiveness to new customer demands and advancing its sustainability and social responsibility initiatives. 

  • 2.
    Ahlepil, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Björck, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Evaluating Distribution Structures for Overseas Export of Frozen Food.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The meat producers of the western world needs to develop their export organizations and to streamline their physical distribution in order to take new market shares on the fast growing overseas markets. HKScan is one of those meat producing companies, the group has businesses in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and the Baltic countries. A part of their sales goes frozen on overseas export by container sea freight. Lately the logistics management of HKScan has been interested in investigating the effects of centralizing the physical distribution for the overseas export from Sweden and Denmark. This leads to the purpose of this study, which is:

     “For HKScan, develop and apply a model that evaluates distribution structures for overseas export of frozen food regarding total cost, delivery service, environmental impact and regulations.”

    The case study included comparison between the current distribution structure for HKScan and three pre-determined scenarios. The current setup consists of multiple warehouses in both countries. In the first scenario the distribution structure is centralized to include one warehouse per country. In the second scenario, the total export flow of products from both Sweden and Denmark is redirected and centralized to one warehouse in Denmark. In the third scenario, the total export flow of products from both Sweden and Denmark is instead redirected and centralized to one warehouse in Sweden.

    To evaluate and compare the different distribution structures a general model was first created by combining different theoretical models and adapting them to the context of overseas distribution for frozen food. The study then included the three phases of developing the model to fit the case company, applying the model on the case company and then to finally evaluating the model.

    The resulting model, which was the outcome of the development process, can be seen below. The model illustrates the different included elements.

    By then applying the model onto the case company, HKScan, it was found that a centralization to a joint warehouse in Denmark would make total cost savings of several percents. In addition, this scenario would increase the total service level. However, the environmental impact would be increased due to long cross-border road transport distances and longer land and sea transports from the warehouse. In addition, it was not possible to fully investigate whether such a distribution would be possible from a regulatory point of view.  A centralization in each country would have minor regulatory issues, it would lead to the smallest environmental impact and have a slight increase in service levels as well as a reduction for the total cost of one percent.

    The evaluation of the model showed that it produces reasonable results with the regulatory elements being the hardest to evaluate for the different scenarios. Regarding the detail level, the veterinary element could be accounted for by the warehousing element and the sea freight element split into transport from warehouse to domestic port and sea freight from domestic port to the destination port. The box-model, containing twelve elements, can be seen as generalizable for evaluating distribution structures in similar contexts, Overseas export of frozen food. However, the calculation performed within the model do probably only apply to the specific scenarios in the study.

  • 3.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015, 965-968 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 4.
    Akre, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Wiksten, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Change of organizational structure and replenishment processes for increased customer service and profitability2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on Company XY's Paper division and aims to present a new organizational structure and best practices for the processes involved in replenishing. Furthermore, proposals for future actions to be executed by Company XY to increase the customer service and profitability will be proposed. The results of the study will be based on a thorough analysis done on the three mills' and eight sales offices' organizational structures and processes. The analysis has a supply chain management perspective with the aim of increasing the customer service and profitability of Company XY.

    Company XY is a world leader paper and board producing company with the Paper division having customers located worldwide and paper producing mills as well as board producing plants located in Europe. Company X and Company Y were two different companies that merged in 2005 which has led to there being three different virgin mills in the Company XY group. At the moment the three mills and eight sales offices all work in different ways and different systems which has led to sub-optimization of the resources available. To increase the customer service and profitability of the Paper division, which the mills and sales offices belong to, a project has started to increase agility, transparency and establish standardized processes.

    The study is of both a qualitative and quantitative character and is based on a literature study, observations, data and interviews conducted at Company XY. Processes regarding replenishing, information and forecasting at Company XY have been identified as areas where there is room for improvement. Problem areas of the organizational structure that Company XY have today have been identified.

    Company XY is recommended to adopt a hybrid virtual organizational structure to enable them to reach their goals of being agile, transparent and standardized. This structure will enable Company XY to utilize the knowledge of sales offices to be responsive while still having the central units macro view to enable visibility and therefore be able to divide the resources in a better manner than today. This structure, since it demands common practices, will make Company XY work according to standardized processes which in turn has the effect of reducing misalignment and duplication of work.

    It is concluded that a centralized unit will be responsible for generating standardized reports to be distributed to mill and sales offices before 2020. After the implementation of SAP this will no longer be part of the central unit's tasks since it will be done by the system, this will decrease the information sharing issues present today. Furthermore, it is concluded that this central unit will be responsible for the allocation distribution therefore preventing the sub optimization of allocation distributions. Moreover, it is suggested that all mills work with allocations to enable more reliable production cycles.

    Through standardizing the processes so that all the sales offices correct the forecasts on a weekly basis the forecast deviation average can be decreased to 2,45% from 4.98% therefore decreasing the wrongly produced products or non-produced products worth 23 239 042 € a year.

    It is recommended that the replenishing of service stocks should be done by the sales offices. Suggested effects will be stock out costs to be lowered by 26 686 € a year.

    By adopting the suggested structure and change of processes it is believed that Company XY can become more agile, transparent and standardized leading them to increase their profitability and customer service. 

  • 5.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

  • 6.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Andersson Gare, Boel
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects2016In: Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ISSN 1057-3631, E-ISSN 1550-5065, Vol. 31, no 1, E1-E8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  • 7.
    Antonsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Ek, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Transportkostnader i HKScans distribution: En utredning av vilka faktorer som driver transportkostnader och hur de kan påverkas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a case study of the company HKScan and focuses on their internal handling of transports to customers. As HKScan operates in a competitive industry with small margins, it is important that all money is used in the best way. An activity that costs money but rarely is investigated is the transportation since it is seen as a very operative activity. It has, however, been found that although different functions of a company are traditionally controlled separately, there are strong links between transports and functions such as sales, marketing, purchasing, finance, human resource management and production. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate which factors that affect transport costs and provide suggestions on how transport costs can be reduced.

    The study of which factors that affect transport costs was carried out in several stages. First, factors mentioned in the theory were compiled and complemented by the factors that the Supply Chain department at HKScan believed could affect the cost. This resulted in a list of 18 possible influencing factors that were then demarcated depending on what HKScan measures and which was considered relevant to investigate. This demarcated list consisted of seven factors, which were then investigated using a multiple regression analysis. From this analysis, it could be mathematically proven that the parameters quantity, distance, weight per transport package, temperature, and the type of customer to which the transport went, affects the transport cost both at the shipping level and per transport package.

    After these drivers had been identified, interviews were held to investigate which departments have the greatest potential to influence them and, in the long run, affect transport costs. These interviews showed that it was primarily the sales and Supply Chain departments that affect the shipping costs, even though market and production have a more indirect impact.

    Finally, interviews were conducted with staff from the relevant departments to investigate how awareness and management of transport costs can be improved. This resulted in a large number of proposals where the most frequent one mentioned was a continuous follow-up on transport costs. This follow-up should point out which patterns in orders and shipments that gave rise to the higher cost. If this follow-up is to be done manually or by means of an automated tool, there are different views, but the staff feels that in order to reduce transport costs, they need increased awareness of what affects them.

  • 8.
    Antony, Jiju
    et al.
    Heriot Watt University, Scotland.
    Setijono, Djoko
    University of Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Six Sigma and Innovation - an exploratory study among UK organisations2016In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 1-2, 124-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research has been carried out linking Total Quality Management and Innovation, it was found that there is a dearth of literature exploring the relationship between Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and Innovation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between LSS and Process/Product/Service Innovation. A number of interviews were carried out with 10 UK-based companies to explore how LSS and Process/Product/Service Innovation are linked. The interviewees (Six Sigma Black Belts and Master Black Belts) were carefully chosen to ensure that sound and valid conclusions could be derived from the investigation. Due to constraints of limited time, the number of people who participated in the study was relatively small. However, the authors argue that this study can provide a good foundation to various researchers and practitioners to further explore the nature of the relationship between one of the most popular business process improvement methodologies (LSS) and Process/Product/Service Innovation. Based on the interviews of 10 companies in the UK engaging with LSS initiatives, the authors found that LSS is commonly viewed as fostering Process/Product/Service Innovation, Incremental Innovation, or Innovation Capability. The authors also identify seven features specific to LSS that are likely to have significant influence on the above types of Innovation.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary frameworks are needed to develop products that fit the human. Ergonomics is a multifaceted field that encompasses physical, cognitive and organizational aspects, and it is therefore a suitable subject to be taught to design engineering students.

    The objective of this paper was to describe and reflect upon how a systems perspective on Ergonomics is developed and conveyed in a course in Product Ergonomics to engineering students at the Design and Product Development (DPD) programme at Linköping University, Sweden. The paper is based on the authors’ experiences from teaching the course in Product Ergonomicsas well ason 52 students’ written reflections about their view on Ergonomics before and after taking the course.

    Means and ideas for teaching Ergonomics with a systems perspective included organizing a theoretical introduction into weekly themes and thereafter integrating and applying these themes in a product concept project under supervision of a multidisciplinary teacher team.

    The paper also reflects on how the systems perspective of Ergonomics is planned for and realized in the intended, implemented and attained curriculum.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theme-based assessment of education in design and product development2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One fundamental challenge in choosing an examination form to assess student achievements is to find an examination which, both encourages students to continuously elaborate the course content and constitutes a learning process itself. The objective of this paper is to share and reflect on the development and implementation of a new theme-based examination in a six credit course in Product Ergonomics given in the engineering programme Design and Product Development at Linköping University, Sweden. The course runs during four months and has two parts: one theoretical and one applied. The former focuses on theoretical ergonomic topics, models and methods while the latter is a project aiming at consolidating the students’ understanding of the theory by implementing the knowledge in a product development case. To encourage the students to adapt a deep learning approach, the traditional written mid-term exam for the theoretical part was abandoned and another concept developed. In the new concept, the theoretical part was split onto six weekly themes. Each theme was introduced at the beginning of the week by high-lighting main theories and models followed by a group-work assignment to be elaborated on by the students during the week. The theme was examined at the end of the week through a short written exam and a seminar to discuss and reflect upon the theme. From a student perspective, the positive outcome of the theme-based examination was peer learning and a more active learning style. The students appreciated the theme-based structure of the course. Occasionally, some students commented that weekly examinations could be perceived as stressful. The teachers perceived the students to be more acquainted with ergonomics theory and methods which increased the quality of the course project. The reported theme-based assessment is one example of implementing among others the CDIO syllabus parts 2.2 and 3.1and CDIO standards 8 and 11.

  • 11.
    Bergvall, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    För- och nackdelar med varuförsörjning via lokala mikroterminaler: En studie av köpcentrum i Linköping och Norrköping2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att världens städer blir allt mer tätbefolkade ökar behovet av varor i städerna. Varutransporter inom tätbebyggda områden för med sig många problem, så som luftföroreningar, buller och trängsel, men är vitala för städernas överlevnad. En av åtgärderna som föreslås i litteraturen för att minska dessa problem kallas lokal mikroterminal (LMT), som är en logistisk anläggning i utkanten av ett tätbebyggt område där varor konsolideras innan de levereras till mottagare inom det tätbebyggda området. Lokala mikroter- minaler har stor potential till att minska den miljöpåverkan som varutrans- porter i tätbebyggda områden för med sig, men de är ändå sällsynta.

    Studiens syfte var att ”identifiera potentiella för- och nackdelar, ur ett ekonomiskt, ekologiskt och socialt perspektiv, med att styra varuflödet till köp- centrum i Linköping och Norrköping via lokala mikroterminaler”. Efter lit- teratursökningen stod det klart att ur de ekologiska och sociala hållbarhets- dimensionerna hade flera fördelar med LMT:er identifierats och uppmätts. Fördelarna i dessa två dimensioner uppnås genom att varutransporten utförs effektivare om en lokal mikroterminal används. Eftersom LMT:n även har en driftskostnad så har många LMT:er dock lagts ner på grund av att de blev för dyra. Studien fokuserades därför på det ekonomiska perspektivet. Ifall fler möjliga ekonomiska fördelar med LMT:er identifierades skulle det öka sannolikheten att fler lönsamma LMT:er kan införas.

    Valet av aktörsperspektiv preciserades ytterligare genom att studien fo- kuserades på butiker och hur de påverkas av ett införande av en LMT. Den mest centrala utgångspunkten var hur personalens butikslogistiska (Kotzab & Teller, 2005) arbetsuppgifter påverkade deras möjlighet att erbjuda så bra service som möjligt och ifall en LMT kan motverka eventuella butikslogis- tiska problem hos butikerna. De butikslogistiska aktiviteter som undersök- tes var leveransmottagning, uppackning, prismärkning, larmning samt skräp- hantering/återvinning. Dessutom undersöktes butikernas behov av ett större lagringsutrymme. Studiens frågeställningar besvarades med hjälp av 51 semi- strukturerade intervjuer hos butiker i köpcentrum i Linköping och Norrkö- ping, samt till en viss del med hjälp av litteraturen.

    Den största potentialen till ekonomiska fördelar för butikerna identifiera- des som möjligheten till att få alla leveranser tidigt under dagen och möjlig- heten till att kunna utnyttja LMT:n som en lagringspunkt. 75 % av butikerna angav antingen butikslogistiska aktiviteter eller lagring som ett problem och därmed bör en stor andel av butikerna ha någon form av intresse för vad en LMT kan erbjuda. För att uppnå dessa ekonomiska fördelar är det därför viktigt att en LMT kan erbjuda ett stort antal tilläggstjänster. 

  • 12.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar logistik: Hur skapas innovation och lönsamhet?2016In: Supply chain effect, no 1, 10-12 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Logistics decision levels, activities and sustainability focus among swedish retailers2015In: Book of proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    What constitute a functioning business model for urban consolidation centres?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus university.
    Illustrating and Classifying Sustainable Logistics Innovation2016In: LRN conference 2016: proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linneaus University.
    In search of sustainable logistics innovation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business & Economics, Växjö, Sweden.
    The sustainable logistics innovation process: an exploratory study2016In: NOFOMA 2016 - Proceedings of the 28th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference / [ed] Lauri Ojala, Juuso Töyli, Tomi Solakivi, Harri Lorentz, Sini Laari, Ninni Lehtinen, Turku, Finland: University of Turku Press , 2016, 35-51 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Sustainability has become an important aspect for improving logistics, and the development ofmore sustainable logistics operations calls for innovative thinking. The purpose of this study isto explore how the sustainable logistics innovation (SLI) process is managed by some retailersand LSPs in order to suggest a framework for describing and analysing the SLI process.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature on general, logistics and sustainable innovation processes is studied. A multiple-casestudy in five Swedish retailers and LSPs is conducted. With a pattern-matching approach, theSLI processes in the companies are analysed and a framework is suggested.

    Findings: A framework for the SLI process is suggested and its differences from general innovationprocesses are highlighted, such as the use of 3BL business cases. It shows the characteristics ofthe SLI process and which actors that are involved. The SLI process can vary largely and stillgenerate SLIs. However, managerial improvement potentials were found in several phases ofthe process.

    Research limitations/implications: This study addresses the lack of empirically based research in logistics innovation and expandsit to retailers. It expands our knowledge into SLI, where the framework can be applied tostructure and understand SLI processes, and to identify improvement potentials.

    Practical limitations/implications: Managerial implications are found in the limited customer involvement in idea generation andthe often “secret” way of evaluating ideas. As the companies can be seen as forerunners in SLI,managers can get inspiration by studying how the process is managed.

    Originality/value: Very few studies are found in the area of sustainable logistics innovation.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Department of Accounting and Logistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Persdotter Isaksson, Maria
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Exploring logistics-related environmental sustainability in large retailers2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 1, 38-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and illustrate ways in which the world’s largest retailers describe their logistics-related environmental considerations, their environmental indicators applied to measure the effects of these considerations and their environmental consciousness in their CSR reports.

    Design/methodology/approach – Classification models are developed via a literature review on logistics-related environmental considerations, indicators and consciousness. A content analysis approach is then applied to examine CSR reports from 12 of the world’s largest retailers.

    Findings – Few retailers show environmental considerations in all logistics activities, but purchasing is especially well described. Even if many retailers claim to use the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, no one uses is completely. Judging consciousness from CSR reports raised a number of questions.

    Research limitations/implications – A contribution to theory is the development of two classification models. The first provides a description structure for environmental considerations related to logistics activities. The second expands the GRI indicator framework by incorporating a structure for logistics activities.

    Practical implications – The classification models developed can be an important mean for managers and also consumers to judge the environmental sustainability of retailers by their CSR reports.

    Social implications – The study makes a social contribution with its input on sustainability and especially environmental issues.

    Originality/value – Few studies have focused upon environmentally sustainable logistics in retail chains, and even fewer address how to measure environmental sustainability in this context.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, MariaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greening logistics2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging awareness of climate threats and other environmentally related problems creates challenges for logistics.Greening logistics introduces various avenues to understand and improve logistics systems from an environmental perspective.Freight transport is part of, as well as a consequence of, the logistics 
system, where the environmental challenges cannot, and should not, be met at the cost of efficiency and competitiveness.During the last decade, research into green logistics has expanded and matured dramatically. From being in the outskirts of the logistics field, environmental considerations have become a more natural part of logistics research. This book provides examples of research performed by Swedish PhD students, and illuminates parts of the multifaceted area of green logistics research. The PhD students have each contributed with one chapter, in which they present their research in their own words.Greening logistics is aimed at various audiences: for students and teachers in universities and professional programmes – to facilitate the understanding of a complex, important, and emerging area; for business – to demonstrate green logistics’ important role, and provide inspiration and guidance for further development; for funding bodies – to demonstrate the strength of a joint funding initiative: the development of research competence at various universities; and for researchers – as inspiration and introduction to the area of green logistics.

  • 20.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paulsson, Ulf
    Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds universitet.
    Academic papers and theses: to write and present and to act as an oponent2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An educational method that is becoming all the more common at colleges and universities is that of the seminar. In the seminar, students write academic papers and reports, present them, and act as opponents on each other’s work. The book covers all the sections that are normally included in the seminar. The learning environment of the seminar is based on a scientific way of thinking and on scientific methods. With its point of departure in this foundation, the book aims to provide easily accessible information and advice about the ways in which academic work can be organized and carried out. Furthermore, the book takes up issues regarding layout, presentation of one’s work, opposition, and cheating, as well as criteria used to assess academic papers and theses.

    The book is intended for use on first-cycle levels at university colleges and universities, and within other forms of post-secondary school education.

    There is also a Swedish version of the book with the title: Seminarieboken – att skriva, presentera och opponera.

  • 21.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piecyk, Maja
    Herriot watt University, UK.
    Why logistics service providers do (not) report on CSR: a swedis perspective2015In: Book of proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supplier relations and sustainability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Braun, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Leffers, Eicke
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Service Data Management: How data around services can help to manage services internally - a case study at the Volvo Group2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional manufacturing firms today are on the way to extend their product portfolio with services in order to broaden their offering and to strengthen the relation to their customers. New services are being developed, old services are substituted and replaced and existing services adapted, while the amount of services tends to increase in total. As the number of services increases, so does the administrative work and complexity that comes along with services.

    This thesis aims at investigating how to handle the rising amount of data internally created around services and which service data need to be managed to describe a service. The objective is to find a way that allows Volvo to focus on the development and adaptation of services and not being distracted with work on administration of data around services, but rather focus on value-creating work. Different types of metadata are identified that describe a service along its lifecycle, e.g. versions, lifecycle stages, dependencies to other services, etc. The way is summarized in a framework that illustrates which data are needed and how this information can be managed.

    Besides the literature study, a benchmarking study is conducted within three other, global operating companies that have made their way from a manufacturer to a service provider or are still on the way to become one. The objective is to analyze their way on handling service data and to compare those to the one of Volvo and use the gathered information to provide a recommendation that suits Volvo’s way of working. The benchmarking study aimed at investigating the current status and future objectives of the firms through interviews with service experts.

    The results show that there is a great variation among the firms, including Volvo. While the third benchmarking firm has a mature way of dealing with services in their administration, Volvo and the benchmarking firm 2 are at an early stage in the servitization process. However, benchmarking firm 1 has an intermediate state that is strongly supported by an existing ERP system that is capable of registering service data.

    The Volvo Group acts in a strong competitive market that demands fleet management services, maintenance agreements and repair contracts in addition to the product offering. A lean way of service data management with high efficiency allows Volvo to compete in this market successfully. Services can be developed quicker by reuse of existing modules, a tracking of changes allows users to see the evolution of a particular service and the impact of a change can be estimated with the right system that considers dependencies among services.

    A solution to improve in the service data management is presented in the developed framework of this thesis. It is one way to account for the growing number of data and services and to simplify the daily work with services with a software-based solution. It can help to approach the growing number of services and to structure them in a daily work environment as well as from a more holistic portfolio management perspective.

  • 24.
    Calmfors, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Werdin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Utveckling av en beräkningsmodell för effekten av transportåtgärder med fokus på miljöpåverkan för Runsvengruppen AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Runsvengruppen AB is a Swedish retail company that is interested in working towards reducing the environmental impact of their transports. Because they are acting in a price-competitive market it is also important to evaluate how changes impact the costs and the level of service. Because of that, the objective of this study was to develop a calculation method that can be used to evaluate the environmental impact as well as the cost and service effects of different measures. The method to calculate the effects was developed to be able to assess measures on the operating level of the transportation, with a focus on measures to change the mode of transportation, change fuel type, improve exhaust emission control and engine technology, implement new vehicle design and implement eco-driving. The development of the calculation methods was divided into three parts: environment, costs and service. The method was developed for transports conducted by truck, ship and train which are the three most common means of transportation for goods. At first theoretical methods was derived from relevant literature. Because the theoretical method does not take into consideration which information is available to the company the method had to be adapted to the information that was available at Runsvengruppen AB. The first step was therefore to investigate which necessary information was available at Runsvengruppen AB and after that analyze how the method could be adapted to ensure its relevance for the company. Regarding the environmental calculation method, the results were different for different means of transportation. For transports conducted by truck the required inputs were available to Runsvengruppen AB. This was mainly due to the company’s close relationship to its haulage contractors and thus the theoretical calculation method could be used. For transports conducted by boat and train however, the situation was different. In these cases, Runsvengruppen AB did not have access to a large portion of the required inputs that the theoretical method demands. To handle this, standard values had to be calculated to provide adequate estimates. Therefore, these calculations are less accurate. To calculate the cost effects, the theoretical calculation method could be used without modification since Runsvengruppen AB had access to the required inputs. The service effect was evaluated by the change in lead time and the amount of deliveries that arrive on time. Lead time was possible to calculate according to the theoretical method while input was missing for the amount on deliveries that arrive on time. Since it also proved difficult to estimate this effect it was not included in the final calculation method.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Resources to Form Logistics Capabilities: from the Perspective of a Small- or Medium-Sized Subcontractor2008In: Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, ISSN 1625-8312, E-ISSN 1624-6039, Vol. 9, no 2, 6-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for a small subcontractor to meet increasing global competitionis to develop a system supplying ability, which implies more focus onlogistical issues and a larger overall responsibility in the supply chain.Certain logistics capabilities have been identified as important to a smallormedium-sized subcontractor in order to cope with the systemsupplying role. Interviews have been carried out in a multiple case studywith the purpose of identifying important resources for a smaller supplierwith the ambition of forming logistics capabilities to support systemsupply. Resources within three different areas have been identified:organizational, competence base, and tools. Conclusions from acomparison among three companies, with different degrees of systemsupplying services, point out the importance of an organization with clearand distinct responsibilities and authorities. Competencies in logistics andenhanced understanding and use of IT support and communicationsystems are identified as areas to improve for the smaller companies.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investing in Lean to Improve Basic Capabilities: A strategy for System Supply?2017In: Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2013-8423, E-ISSN 2013-0953, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper describes the perceived effects of implementing lean production in aSwedish SME contract manufacturer. Especially focused are the effects on, and possible tradeoffsbetween, cost-efficiency and flexibility.Design/methodology/approach: SME suppliers need basic capabilities of qualitativeproduction performance as stepping-stones to develop more system supplier capabilities foradded customer value. Development of stable production processes is seen as a way to reachstable basic performance, efficient and with higher resource utilization. Quality is a precursor todelivery performance as well as to cost reduction and flexibility. This is a longitudinal single casestudy of a SME supplier striving to become a system supplier. Two main sources of datacollection are used: interviews and the main author’s presence as employee and businessdeveloper, participating in and following up the ongoing change process.Findings: Analyzing the development over time illustrated the importance of context andcontent for the change process. Two specific findings appeared: (1) An initial effect was animportant “eye-opener” for the balance between cost efficiency and flexibility in the organization.(2) Process orientation, as the basis of both lean and agile approaches, allows many improvementswithout any conflicts or trade-offs between these two goals. Stability in the production leads to increased controllability, initially resulting in both higher cost-efficiency and higher flexibility. Asthe organization develops however, strategic considerations relating to the chosen market strategymight occur: cost leadership or differentiation.Research limitations/implications: These results reflect the experiences of one SME supplierand further studies are needed for generalizability.Originality/value: The study increases the understanding of how a SME may develop stableprocesses in its different supplier-customer contexts. The study points at some necessary basiccomponents of this process approach as a first step for the transition to system supplier.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Developing system supplier capability by integrating knowledge with customers2017In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975Article in journal (Refereed)
    The full text will be freely available from 2018-06-01 15:00
  • 28.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    SIQ - Swedish Insititute for Quality, Sweden.
    A Tool For Measuring Quality Culture2016In: 19th QMOD Proceedings: International Conference on Quality and Service Sciences / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard, Lund University Library Press , 2016, 1272-1285 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s organizations face the challenge of measuring the right things and then using those measurements as a starting point to work with improved quality.  It is important to design a measurement tool that corresponds to the initiatives taken when a new management implementation such as adopting quality values is carried out. The failure to generate a shared value base is pointed out as one main cause for the inability to effectively apply Quality Management and Lean within organizations, thus it appears central to measure these values. However, the measuring of values and organizational culture, e.g. the soft side, seems to be missing within both concepts. The managers have great influence on what culture will be predominant in an organization, and how they act and behave affects the attitudes and behaviours of the co-workers within the organization. Therefore, there is a need for a tool that measures not only quality values, but also behaviours that support or obstruct a quality culture. Furthermore, it is of interest how the employees rank both the performance and the importance of quality values and behaviours. The tool should not be a ‘certification’ but rather a diagnostic tool for continuous improvement.

  • 29.
    Dahlgaard, Jens J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su MiLund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Best Papers from QMOD 2014 Conference in Prague2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pugna, Adrian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Potra, Sabina
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Negrea, Romeo
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Mocan, Marian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    A greenhouse approach for value cultivation2016In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 7-8, 836-852 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper explores design requirements to take into consideration when designing and developing new products or services. The purpose of this article is to develop a strategic approach for analysing variations between potential customer needs in order better to understand what qualities should be further cultivated before product launch. This new approach is called A Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation. Case study data of a new web-based customisation service for a Romanian shoe manufacturing company has been re-analysed by using questionnaire data on 166 respondents perceptions on 14 attributes importance and value. A nonlinear regression model was developed and used to understand relations between importance and value. Such relations were used together with the Greenhouse Model to better understand the service attributes potential life cycles if selected for further cultivation. The Greenhouse Model envisages new perspectives of the evaluation of customer needs to support strategic decision-making regarding further value cultivation for profound affection (= customer delight). Even if there is a need for further tests the suggested Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation is regarded as a new and original contribution to the theory of attractive quality creation which deepens its position in the theory of attractive quality and transforms it into a practical management tool to support new product and service design.

    The full text will be freely available from 2017-12-29 14:21
  • 31.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Editorial Material: Untitled in TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and BUSINESS EXCELLENCE, vol 26, issue 9-10, pp 933-9372015In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 9-10, 933-937 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 32.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Francesca Renzi, Maria
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Editorial in TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and BUSINESS EXCELLENCE2017In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, no 9-10, 931-933 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 33.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Mätningarnas roll i chefers styrning och förbättringsarbete2016In: Mot ett förändrat ledarskap?: om chefers arbete och ledarskap i ett organisationsperspektiv / [ed] Per-Erik Ellström, Anna Fogelberg Eriksson, Henrik Kock, Andreas Wallo, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2, 147-161 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Daneryd, Peter
    Kommunalförbundet Avancerad Strålbehandling.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Hållbart sjukdomsförebyggande arbete?: En studie av hur man arbetar med sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i två vårdsystem i USA2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en stor enighet om att vårdens uppdrag behöver förändras för att möta behoven hos befolkningen på ett bättre sätt. Hälsoläget i de rika delarna av världen är i hög grad beroende av den demografiska utvecklingen (med åldrande befolkning) och våra levnads­vanor, som gör att vi drabbas av livsstilssjukdomar. I WHOs nuvarande globala strategi för “health for all” ingår hörnpelare som integrerad befolkningsorienterad hälso- och sjukvård där aspekter som prevention, sjukdomsförebyggande, patientmedverkan lyfts fram (WHO 2015). I EUs forsknings- och utvecklingsprogram och strategiska planering stödjer man projekt som visar hur man kan identifiera, sprida och stödja ”best practices” för kostnadseffektiv prevention vad beträffar rökning, missbruk av alkohol, övervikt och HIV/AIDS (EU 2016).

    I Sverige har vi utvecklat nationella riktlinjer för sjukdomsförebyggande metoder. Rikt­linjerna har tagits fram av Socialstyrelsen för att stärka det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet i vården och därigenom förbättra patienternas levnadsvanor. I riktlinjerna fokuseras fyra områden – tobak, riskbruk av alkohol, fysisk aktivitet och matvanor. Landstingen och kommunerna, har sedan introduktionen av riktlinjerna år 2011 arbetat med implemente­ringen. Huvudmännen har kommit olika långt i arbetet men bland annat utifrån den an­strängande situationen i stora delar av den svenska vården har det varit svårt att få till­räckligt genomslag för arbetet. Som ett led i insatserna för att stärka upp det sjukdoms­förebyggande arbetet i Sverige har Socialstyrelsen uppdragit åt Linköpings universitet att belysa hur de sjukdomsförebyggande insatserna hanteras i två framstående hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisationer i USA. Den huvudsakliga frågeställningen är hur man organise­rar arbetet med det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Uppdraget innefattar även en genom­gång av internationell vetenskaplig litteratur med syftet att komplettera de två ovan nämn­da fallstudierna. Socialstyrelsen vill härigenom bidra med ökad kunskap om förutsätt­ningar och metoder för att arbeta med sjukdomsförebyggande metoder i kliniskt arbete, företrädesvis primärvården. Denna studie vill därför bidra till kunskapsunderlag om hur realiseringen av de sjukdomsförebyggande metoderna kan ske.

    En utgångspunkt för att kunna ringa in de relevanta frågeställningarna ur ett svenskt perspektiv är de resultat som identifierats i tidigare rapport Översättning av riktlinjer – Fallstudier av sjukdomsförebyggande metoders genomslag av Elg m.fl. (2016). Här stu­derades fyra svenska vårdsystem och deras väg fram i det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Fokus i föreliggande arbete är i likhet med tidigare studie de strukturer och processer som används för att styra, leda och organisera det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Vi tar således utgångspunkt i slutsatserna från den tidigare studien och undersöker empiriskt hur man försöker utveckla och vidmakthålla lösningar på Southcentral Foundation (SCF) och Intermountain Healthcare (IH), två vårdsystem i USA.

    De studerade verksamheterna arbetar aktivt med sjukdomsförebyggande arbete, men uti­från delvis olika utgångspunkter. En viktig skillnad är att medan Intermountain Health­care successivt, med nya initiativ, utökar sitt uppdrag, så ligger det sjukdomsförebyggan­de arbetet redan inbäddat i Southcentral Foundations grundläggande idé för primärvår­den. Det är också stora skillnader i patientpopulationernas storlek och socioekonomiska förhållanden. I analysen gör vi jämförelser mellan de två verksamheterna för att identi­fiera likheter och särdrag i hur man organiserar styrning och ledning om och för sjuk­domsförebyggande. Genom denna analys identifierar vi angreppssätt och metoder som vi bedömer kan ha betydelse ur ett svenskt perspektiv.

    Fyra, som vi ser det, viktiga dimensioner av hur man i de två fallen arbetar med sjukdoms­förebyggande presenteras i studien, nämligen 1) strategiskt styrnings- och ledningsfokus på frågorna; 2) lärande om sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i vårdens vardag; 3) skapande av tekniska stödsystem och processer som underlättar för sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet i vardagen; samt 4) vikten av att genom fysisk design av vårdens arbetsplatser underlätta integration av arbetsmoment och tekniska stödsystem och därigenom genomförandet av strategier för sjukdomsförebyggande arbete. Vi ser även i fallstudierna hur digitala designlösningar möjliggör för medskapande av sjukdomsförebyggande metoder hos med­borgare och patienter.

    Såväl Intermountain Healthcare som Southcentral Foundation har visioner som betonar vikten av hälsofrämjande och sjukdomsförebyggande verksamheter, vilket för båda inne­bär att det strategiska styr- och ledningsarbetet också har fokus på sjukdomsförebyggande arbete som en naturlig del i verksamhetens uppdrag.

    Men en vision kan bli verkningslös om det inte finns strategier och ägarskap på högsta ledningsnivå, som aktivt arbetar för realisering av frågorna. I diskussionen lyfter vi fram betydelsen av detta aktiva ägarskap i termer av resurssättande, hur man knyter strategiskt viktiga partners till arbetet, hur man på strategisk nivå prioriterar sjukdomsförebyggande bland olika patientgrupper samt hur man också knyter an analys och uppföljning på strateginivå.

    Att man även prioriterar resurser för förbättringsarbete och forskning med inriktning mot sjukdomsförebyggande skapar också en förutsättning för långsiktighet. Det finns som vi ser det en dynamik och ett tilltagande fokus för just dessa frågor. I rapporten vill vi ringa in och sätta fokus på hur realiseringen av det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet har gått till – vad som kan ligga bakom ett framgångsrik införande. Det är därför de organisatoriska processerna snarare än innehållet som vi tar fasta på och som vi också vill lyfta fram som avgörande för ett långsiktigt hållbart sjukdomsförebyggande arbete.

    Att lära om och för det sjukdomsförebyggande är en viktig del i framgången. Här ser vi exempel från våra fall där man via kontinuerlig träning och utbildning av de professionel­la lär sig att hantera frågorna genom vidareutbildningsinsatser. Det finns även fasta rutiner för att kontinuerligt träffas över organisationsgränser där frågorna diskuteras av kliniskt verksamma. Vi ser också att man proaktivt arbetar med berättelser om vad som kan åstad­kommas genom sjukdomsförebyggande arbete. Därutöver finns på SCF särskilda funktio­ner inom primärvården som är specialister på att åstadkomma beteendeförändring hos patienter. Denna kompetens vill vi särskilt lyfta fram då den skapar goda möjligheter att hantera de ofta komplexa problem som behöver hanteras i primärvården.

    Både SCF och IH arbetar mycket aktivt för att skapa tekniska stödsystem och processer som underlättar arbetet i vardagen. Ett uttryck som används är ”det ska vara lätt att göra rätt” och i våra amerikanska fallstudier arbetas det aktivt med att identifiera lösningar som faktiskt gör det lättare att göra rätt. Det gäller till exempel arbetsprocedurer för sjuk­domsförebyggande som bäddas in i den elektroniska patientjournalen, kriterier för att identifiera patienter som är i behov av förebyggande insatser samt standardiserade analys- och utvärderingsinstrument som underlättar beslut i vardagens vårdproduktion. Före­trädare för de studerade vårdsystemen menar att nya sätt att kommunicera med patienter behöver utvecklas, ett arbete som man anser ännu är i sin linda. Digitaliseringen lyfts fram som en möjliggörare där tid och rum inte är avgörande för god vård.

    Man pekar speciellt inom SCF också på vikten av den fysiska designen av vårdens arbets­platser. Det handlar om arbetsplatsens miljö och hur funktioner och kompetenser fysiskt är arrangerade i förhållande till varandra. När det gäller stöd för patienters sjukdomsföre­byggande arbete spelar dessa frågor en viktig roll. Framförallt ser vi hur man fysiskt sam­lokaliserar team och hur man rumsligt placerar undersökningsrum, samtalsrum och led­ning av primärvårdspersonal i avsikt att försöka optimera arbetet. Devisen ”out of sight, out of control” beskriver väl hur man anstränger sig för att ordna den fysiska miljön så att patienten konkret sätts i centrum. Inom IH breddas uppdraget bland annat genom att eftersträva lokalisering av sjukdomsförebyggande aktiviteter på nya sätt i kultur- och samhällscentrala institutioner. Dessa förebyggande insatser bedrivs inom ramen för det definierade vårduppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis, baserat på de reflekterade iakttagelser vi har gjort i de två amerikanska organisationerna, finns det en rad möjligheter till tips och råd som kan underlätta det svenska arbetet med sjukdomsförebyggande. Dessa sammanfattar vi i följande punkter:

    1. Ha en strategisk avsikt – De sjukdomsförebyggande insatserna har strategisk betydelse i de båda studerade vårdsystemens arbete. Ägarskapet i vårdsystemens ledningar är påtagligt. Detta är nödvändigt för att man ska få till ett hållbart arbete. Ta bort det ägarskapet och frågan är förlorad.
    2. Säkra resurser – framförallt säkerställande av kompetens – behöver prio­riteras för att kunna hantera uppdrag som omfattar sjukdomsförebyggande in­satser. Vi ser att både SFC och IH gör strategiska prioriteringar av resurser till primärvården för att detta uppdrag ska kunna få fotfäste.
    3. Balansera styrningen – Frågan om detaljstyrning av de sjukdomsföre­byggande insatserna är komplex och hanteras olika på SCF och IH. På SCF är ansvaret för beslut om vård i primärvården fördelat till integrerade team som gör en kollektiv, professionell bedömning tillsammans med patient och anhöriga om patientens problem och behov av insatser utifrån önskemål och förmåga att ta emot. På IH är processtyrningen mer betydelsefull. Här arbetar man efter vad som kallas ”shared baselines” och ”care process models”, man kommer överens om hur arbete ska utföras och följer sedan upp processvariationer.
    4. Arbeta behovsstyrt med utgångspunkt i kunskap om patientens problem – Analyser av behov hos befolkningen spelar en viktig roll i hur uppdragen formuleras. Här behöver vårdsystemen fortsätta driva och fördjupa forskning och utvecklingsin­satser i syfte att förstå behoven på ett djupare plan. Utredningar från forskare och kvalificerade utredare är förstås en viktig del i detta, men det finns även behov av att involvera patienter och medborgare på en regelbunden basis för att få större förståelse om var och hur insatser bör sättas in. Det kan till exempel göras genom olika former av segmenteringar av patienter med olika önskemål och behov. Kon­kret kan behovsanalyser genomföras t.ex. med fokusgrupper eller patientinflytan­de i olika beslutsorgan.
    5. Utveckla kompetens i förbättringskunskap – Både SCF och IH har bred kunskap om hur man driver förbättringsarbete på säkra och effektiva sätt. Till exempel genomförs pilottester – en form av lärandestyrt förbättringsarbete – i specifika verksamhets­delar för att maximera lärande och minimera effekterna av misstag. De pekar på risker att tidigt i utvecklingsprocesser genomdriva fullskaliga implementeringar – att istället testa i begränsad skala för att se effekter av satsningar. En annan viktig ingrediens i förbättringskunskapens verktygslåda är kompetens om mätningar. Här behöver man förstå och kunna argumentera syfte och vilka mätningar som behöver genomföras samt hur man använder mätningar för olika former av beslut i organisationen.
    6. Konstnärligt utvärdera insatser för sjukdomsförebyggande – De insatser som görs för att förebygga sjukdom behöver utvärderas ur flera perspektiv. Det är viktigt att den personal som utför arbetet också kan delta i eller åtminstone följa processerna för utvärdering. På så sätt ges möjligheter till lärande. Kompetens för att genom­föra utvärderingar bör byggas i vårdsystemet, exempelvis:
    1. Analys av behovsbilden hos befolkningen och verksamhetens bidrag till dess utveckling.
    2. Analys av värdet av insatserna för det egna vårdsystemet.
    3. Proaktiv identifiering av patienter som bedöms ha behov av sjukdomsföre­byggande insatser.
    4. Utvärdering av insatsernas effektivitet utifrån professionens perspektiv.
    5. Utvärdering av insatsernas effektivitet utifrån patientens perspektiv.
    6. Utvärdering av hur ofta insatser genomförs.
    7. Utvärdering av resultat och effekter av insatser.

    Författarna till denna rapport har inspirerats under vår datainsamling och analys. Svenska initiativ som möjliggör fördjupade jämförelser och analyser av svenska primärvårdssys­tem utifrån exempelvis de studerade amerikanska vårdsystemen skulle kunna göras. Vad skulle då framstå som möjliga utvecklingsområden för svensk primärvård på makro-, meso och mikronivå? Vi skulle också gärna se mer lust och möjligheter till systematiska experiment inom svensk primärvård, i det här fallet inom området sjukdomsförebyggande metoder. Sådana experiment kräver naturligtvis design, metodkunskap, förbättringskun­skap, utvärdering och diskussion av resultat.

    Vi menar att såväl fördjupade jämförelser och experimentsituationer bör gå att ordna i samverkan mellan landsting, kommuner, verksamheter och forskarsamhället för att for­mulera frågeställningar, design för aktiviteter, föreslå metoder för utvärdering, ordna kommunikation runt resultat med mera.

  • 35.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Sustainable development in organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: Studies on Innovative Practices / [ed] Elg, Mattias, Ellström, Per-Erik, Klofsten, Magnus, & Tillmar, Malin, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1-15 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-ErikLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.Klofsten, MagnusLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.Tillmar, MalinLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly competitive environment can lead to considerable problems for many organizations as they struggle to adapt to change. As a result, they fail to create the conditions that can lead to sustainable development over the long term, thus affecting the capabilities of employees. This book provides a fresh perspective on sustainable change and development in organizations, as well as a critical perspective on lean implementation, work environment and sustainability.

    The expert contributors address the development in, and of, organizations, as well as the development process between organizations, such as in networks or clusters. They discuss topics, such as the role of customers in the development of public organizations; developing knowledgeable practice at work; exploring evidence-based practice and the challenge of regional gender contracts.

    Undergraduates and postgraduates in different management fields including organizational theory, innovation, human resources, quality development and entrepreneurship will find this book to be of interest. The empirical results and interdisciplinary approach will appeal to practitioners and policy-makers at national, as well as international levels.

  • 37.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Impact Evaluation report: Helix Vinn Excellence Centre 2006 - 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This impact evaluation report concerns the activities of HELIX VINN Excellence Centre at Linköping University. HELIX is an established Centre within working life research, focusing specifically on sustainable development in organizations. This entails research and innovation activities that promote good working conditions, learning, health and gender equality in combination with an effective and innovative production system.

    In the HELIX VINN Excellence Centre, the interactive collaboration between researchers from different disciplines and the partner organizations has enabled us to face the challenges and the complexity of contemporary working life. The research strategy contained three key elements. Firstly, research and innovation activities were carried out with the well-established interactive research approach. Secondly, a multidisciplinary, integrative research approach was used. Researchers from different disciplines within behavioral sciences, management, business and public administration, entrepreneurship and innovation, as well the health and work sciences, collaborate within the Centre. Thirdly, a partnership approach was used, engaging universities and private firms as well as actors within the public sector and labour market organizations. The problems and issues defined in dialogue between partner organizations and researchers enabled the research activities.

    HELIX vision can be captured by the phrase Knowledge for Sustainable Development in Organizations. Our research programme has focused on organizational development across a broad front in working life, including attractive working environments, high welfare standards, and effective organizations, offering sustainable job opportunities.

    The research at HELIX has advanced scientific knowledge about development of new types of work arrangements and development of sustainable working life in Sweden. The Centre has also strengthened the potential for Swedish organizations to be more sustainable in the long-term and to stimulate endeavors between public and private organisations. As expressed by the partner organizations, they have joined HELIX to get support in developing their organization towards better economical and social sustainability. Our overarching goal has been to contribute significantly to scientific knowledge and, at the same time, add value to practice – that is, to put working-life research to use.

    The HELIX program has also had a considerable impact on partners and other organizations. Indeed, most partners report clear benefits from the research collaboration. These benefits may concern a direct, instrumental impact (e.g. changes in organizational policies and/or routines), an indirect impact (e.g. access to new knowledge and ideas or know-how), or impact in a broader sense (e.g. interactions with other participating companies, cross-fertilization of ideas). Participation in the HELIX partnership has also for many partners meant increased interaction with research and the university, and, thereby, a significantly increased access to research-based knowledge concerning issues covered by the HELIX research program.

    In spite of the often-reported difficulties in reaching direct and instrumental types of knowledge use, that is, types where research results are used more or less directly as input or guidelines for action or organizational change, our analysis shows that more than half of the respondents report direct, instrumental benefits from their engagement in HELIX, and almost three quarters of the respondents reported different forms of indirect impact. These findings are supported also by our impact cases.

    A closer analysis of the HELIX program and the cases reported above, indicate a number of key success factors. First, the multi-disciplinary and interactive research approach has made it possible to reach a high degree of relevance in research questions and projects. Second, the partner organizations have had a high degree of joint ownership of the HELIX program and the projects through the HELIX partnership. Third, in the most successful cases with respect to research use and impact, we have been able to anchor the projects at the top management level and, thereby, to assure a high degree of management attention and support for the research and innovation efforts. Fourth, that there is one or more enthusiasts or “idea champions” within the organization that can promote a project or a new idea. Fifth, in the most successful cases we have also been able to create opportunities for individual and collective learning through different types of learning activities, for example, joint analysis seminars and workshops for dissemination and use of research results.

  • 38.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Lindmark, Jan
    CIO Axfood AB.
    Wiger, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Översättning av riktlinjer: Fallstudier av sjukdomsförebyggande metoders genomslag2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Board of Health and Welfare decided in November 2011 on the national guidelines for methods of preventing disease. The guidelines focus on four areas: tobacco use; hazardous use of alcohol; insufficient physical activity; and unhealthy eating habits. Health care systems in Sweden, ie, county councils and municipalities, have since the introduction of the guidelines established effort for the implementation of these guidelines. The National Board of Health and Welfare has also since January 2011 been assigned to support its implementation. It turns out that there is variation regarding how far the various county councils have A utilize these guidelines in clinical work. A central question is why there is varied result and how implementation efforts may be strengthened. This report addresses these two issues. More specifically we analyze the implementation processes of the guidelines for methods of preventing disease in a multi-level perspective and with respect to how they are translated into clinical activities in meetings with patients. The overall aim is to analyze the translation of the guidelines for disease prevention methods from policy level through administrative levels of administration to the clinical activities in meetings with patient. We are, thus, especially interested in how translation processes are constructed and sustained in the interplay between policy making and healthcare management.

    The central problem motivating our study is the perceived difficulty of managing policy guidelines into practice. From experience we know that there are an increasing number of attempts that fail to effectively deliver implemented policy initiates. Therefore, a great deal of scholarly work focus on analyses and explanation of why organizations accomplish their policy implementation initiative and why others have good, well-founded reasons to refrain from applying new ideas.

    As a starting point for our analysis, we argue that there is a need to view healthcare organizational systems and their policy implementations from a network perspective. The theoretical input that frame our analysis of the implementation, management and control of public services is about making sure these implementation processes function as a continuous translation between different actors of a rather complex organization.

    We used a multiple case study approach of efforts in four regions to implement the guidelines for methods of preventing disease. The four regions studied were: Norrbottens County Council, Stockholm County Council, Region Östergötland and Skåne Region . The case studies are based mainly on interviews with key people in each county / region as well as the study of policy documents. Overall, 31 people were interviewed in different parts of the county councils/regions; from public policy makers, administrative management, healthcare developers and clinicians. The interviews have both given insight into implementation efforts, the current work on the guidelines and settings in which these guidelines, with various success, have been immersed.

    Our findings show that there are several ways in which the policy guidelines enter the regional level: (1) directly from the national guidelines, (2) through earlier efforts in nearby areas, and (3) through participation in the development of the guidelines along with previous work in nearby areas. The various entries into the regional level also have different implications as it assembles different networks of actors. A mechanism that explains this is problematization where the leading actors define the orientation of the work.

    Management of the guidelines are then carried out through a variety of activities: prioritization of actions, initiating projects, financial prioritization, competence development efforts, technology and process development of clinical guidelines in clinical care programs.  All of these activities take place at the system-wide regional level, leading then to various entries into clinical work. However, uncertainties in the environment create constrains for actors in their implementation efforts. It may be a county’s internal financial and organizational choices that lead to a slowdown of the translation process. Also uncertainty about how to interpret and understand the use of the methods may have important impact on the effectiveness of implementation.

    Further, ideas about how to handle methods of preventing disease developed at the regional level are to various extent translated into local practice. In primary care units the guidelines are when implemented fully adapted and integrated into the local clinics management structure. An important mechanism for use in these work units is dedicated, active employees. The final choice weather a patient may or may not enter the health promotion activities are decided mainly by the individual caregiver.

    The conclusions in the report points to a number of mechanisms that support guideline implementation:

    • Active ownership - a necessary factor for success in the work of implementing the guidelines is that it is driven by active players in all parts of the health care system. It is manifested for example by the National Board of Health and Welfare’s support to implementation in order to clarify the statutory mandate, further development of the disease prevention methods and support in learning between the county councils. At the county level overall is the active ownership of the questions to prioritize and allocate resources. But the top management leaders also need to be more actively involved and engaged in the process of developing the utilization of disease prevention methods.
    • Wide anchored processes - It is clear that in the context in which the disease-prevention work has leveled out into clinical practice, there have been inclusive, participatory processes. The leading players who control the implementation work therefore should be aware of how exclusion may be created through a variety of resources at their disposal. For example, our study shows that the actors involved in public health issues in the county councils / regions have had an influence on how the work has been formulated.
    • Translators who create and support conditions - In addition to the need for an active ownership at the political level on the issues we also see a great need for resource support in the operations environment. This is an important component of maintaining a sustainable implementation chain. The translators create the links in this chain and binds together different activities with its surroundings. Translators can provide support and create conditions by participating in the development of clinical guidelines and decision support, support and drive improvement, skills development, develop new IT solutions and quality work at operational level.
    • Developmental oriented leadership among operations managers - the same way that other levels of the health care system requires a development-oriented leadership among managers. We see that these managers can use a range of different approaches and tools to support the implementation of the guidelines. They have a key role in the translation, motivations and the design of the work in the clinical practice. It is therefore necessary that the managers of the clinical departments have the ability and discretion to run the operations in such a way that the implementation is enhanced - that the chain is held together. When managers and other professionals succeed in this then it will increase guideline legitimacy both internally within the organization and towards others.
    • Impact of projects and its embeddedness in everyday work - Many projects run test new solutions and have short time horizons. Evaluation of the projects is ongoing and changes are recorded continuously. The effects of a sustainable work can only be realized if the project results are integrated in daily work - something that is perceived problematic when the project will move into daily operations and management. This means that project ideas that go well must be embedded in the everyday work and become more long-term in order to really have an impact.
    • Meanings of role models - We note in particular that there are no stories about best practices and successful implementation in organizations or among individuals. A hallmark of successful realization is that any activity can be highlighted as a good example that shows the possibilities for a good implementation with good effects.
  • 39.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Örnerheim, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public quality – for whom and how?: Integrating public core values with quality management2017In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, no 3-4, 379-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality management (QM) plays an important role in public organisations’ efforts to create better access to, and effectiveness of, specific services. When transferring QM models from market-based firms to public services provided by public organisations, several basic contrasts and even contradictions must be addressed. Core values of the public sector differ from those of the private sector, but what are the consequences of this distinction? In this article we discuss the importance of four central arguments on public services: rights and access have to be considered; equality is an important facet of public services; coerciveness is a unique feature of public services; and legitimacy can be improved by high-quality services. These arguments have not been discussed explicitly in the context of QM. Adding these central aspects of public services to the QM field could generate more sustainable ways for developing quality and QM in public services in particular and the public sector in general.

  • 40.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    A self-determination theory perspective on customer participation in service development2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6/7, 511-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore what motivates patients to participate in service development and how participation may influence their well-being. Health-care providers are increasingly adopting practices of customer participation in such activities to improve their services.Design/methodology/approach– This paper builds on an analysis of data from a service development project in which lung cancer patients contributed by sharing their ideas and experiences through diaries. Out of the 86 lung cancer patients who were invited to participate, 20 agreed to participate and 14 fully completed the task. The study builds on participants’ contributions, in-depth interviews with six participants and the reasons patients gave for not participating.Findings– This paper identifies a number of motives: non-interest in participating, restitution after poor treatment, desire for contact with others, volunteerism, desire to make a contribution and the enjoyment of having a task to complete. A self-determination theory perspective was adopted to show how the need to satisfy basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness determines if and how patients participate. Participation may have important benefits for patients, especially an improved sense of relatedness.Practical implications– Service providers must be prepared to meet different patient needs in service development, ranging from the need to express strong distress to expressing creativity. By understanding the dynamics of motivation and well-being, organizers may achieve better results in terms of improved services and in patient well-being.Originality/value– This study makes a significant contribution to the study of customer participation in service development, especially in relation to health care, by offering a self-determination-based typology for describing different styles of patient participation.

  • 41.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Snyder, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of customers in the development of public organizations2015In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 93-108 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stopptids- och avvikelseuppföljning vid långa takttider: Från avvikelse till införd förbättring2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    High quality within a Lean production system begins with standardised work, which creates stable processes able to generate predictable output. If nonconformity from the standard procedures occurs, routines are needed to analyse, correct and prevent the nonconformity from occurring again. In that way, the nonconformity can be a trigger for continuous improvements toward more stable processes. In takted production lines, where the operator follows a standard sequence with tasks set to be completed within the takt time, a nonconformity leads to downtime in the operator’s sequence, and no value is added. With short takt time, the nonconformity leads immediately to line stop and the nonconformity will be detected. With long takt time it is often possible to catch up in the sequence before the nonconformity stops the whole line. Thus, as a consequence the problem will be hidden.

    The aim of this study is to investigate how downtime and nonconformities can be tracked and measured in a Lean production system with long takt time, as well as investigate how this data can contribute to improvements. The study has been carried out as a case study of an assembly line at Atlas Copco Rock Drills division of Underground Rock Excavation in Örebro. Within this case study semi-structured interviews were performed to investigate needs from data collection and improvement processes. Beside the case study at Atlas Copco, external case studies have been performed to gather information about other companies’ processes. Participating companies for external case studies has been RUAG Space, AstraZeneca, Väderstad-Verken and Saab Aerostructures.

    The result of the study generated three different processes, one for collecting data about nonconformities and related downtime and two parallel processes to use the data for improvements. The data collection process shows how the downtime can be tracked to support investigated needs. The downtime data is also complemented with information about key factors that affect the accuracy of the downtime measurements. The different type of downtimes that are gathered from the process is the deviations total recovery time, recovery time affecting production and downtime for the entire production line. Together with the time measurement the nonconformities is categorised and described with attributes and text to make a thoroughly analysis possible. Analysis tools proposed for the gathered data is pareto analysis, trends, calculation of cost of poor quality and identification of areas with overcapacity. Also, the result shows how some classic TPM-indicators can be used in the analysis.

    The gathered data can then be used in two developed improvement processes, one for reactive improvements and one for proactive improvements. The reactive process aims to in a systematic manner find corrective and preventive actions for detected nonconformities with high impact on the production. The nonconformities are handled one by one like the procedure for many deviation systems for product quality assurance. The proactive improvement process focuses on patterns in historical data about major nonconformity areas. Together with high level KPI:s and SMART goals to support high level goals, the nonconformity areas helps to identify which activities to carry out in order to fulfil the goals. 

  • 43.
    Forslund, Helena
    et al.
    Linneaus University.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supplier evaluation in supply chains, Actors’ influences and perspectives on performance management2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Fridell, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Glänås, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Tidigareläggning av logistiska aktiviteter i en försörjningskedja: En fallstudie utförd på en svensk detaljhandelskedja2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har genomförts på varuhuskedjan med det fiktiva namnet RetailusAB och syftar till att ta fram ett beslutsunderlag för huruvida Retailus kan tidigarelägga de två pre-retail-aktiviteterna larmning och galgning i försörjningskedjan. Bakgrunden till studien är att Retailus har kommit till insikt att tiden och därmed kostnaden för aktiviteter som utförs på baklagren är stor och att det finns en önskan om att personalen ska kunna fokusera mer på sin kärnuppgift, att finnas tillgänglig för kunderna på försäljningsytan.

    Aktiviteterna utförs i dagsläget i Retailus butiker och upptar cirka 2 % av de butiksanställdas arbetstid vilket motsvarar 15 miljoner kronor i lönekostnader. Det har i studien utgåtts från tre olika scenarion där en eller båda aktiviteterna tidigareläggs till antingen Retailus distributionscentral eller till någon av Retailus leverantörer. Scenarierna har i studien utvärderats utifrån de två aspekterna totalkostnad gentemot nuläget och implementerbarhet med avseende på tidshorisont, påverkan på befintliga processer samt leveransservice.

    Totalkostnaden har i största möjliga mån utvärderats kvantitativt och beräknats utifrån observationer, tidsstudier i butiker, tidsstudier i simulerad miljö, olika försäljnings-och saldodata samt intervjuer med transportföretag och leverantörer. Om det bortses från faktorer som att tidmätningarna kan vara osäkra och uppgifter från både transportföretag och leverantörer inte är exakta visar det sig att det kostnadsmässigt mest lönsamma scenariot av de tre undersökta scenarierna är att tidigarelägga larmning och galgning till Retailus distributionscentral.

    De två övriga scenarierna, vilka innebär att endast larmning tidigareläggs till olika leverantörer, kan det inte fastlås en slutlig kostnad för på grund av brist på prisuppgifter.

    De kostnadsposter som visar sig vara störst är en ökning av transportkostnader från distributionscentralen till butikerna till följd av att galgade varor medför en betydande volymökning för det transporterade godset, transportkostnader till följd av returflöden av larm och galgar från butiker till distributionscentralen och till leverantör samt kostnader till följd av att fler larm och galgar behöver köpas in.

    Vad gäller implementering finns det problematik med samtliga scenarion men studien tyder på att det sannolikt är det scenario som har den största besparingen som också är svårast att implementera sett till samtliga av de tre aspekterna tidshorisont, påverkan på befintliga processer och leveransservice. Vad gäller de två scenarierna där leverantör larmar ligger de största utmaningarna i att upprätta returflöden av larm tillbaka till leverantören.

    Det har i studien utgåtts från en teori kring att det vid tidigareläggning av aktiviteterna kan dras nytta av skalfördelar då tidigareläggningen avses göras till ett skede i flödet där varor fortfarande är sortrena, till skillnad mot när de anländer till butik. Det har dock inte kunnat slås fast vid de mätningar som genomförts i studien att tidsvinster kan härledas till skalfördelar eller om det finns andra faktorer som spelar in på resultatet.

    I studien presenteras ett beslutsunderlag där totalkostnaden samt de viktigaste implementeringsaspekterna, både positiva och negativa, presenteras för vart och ett av de tre undersökta scenarierna.

  • 45.
    Fristedt, Mårten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Describing hybrid purchasing organizations - the case of a Swedish industrial firm2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Haro Vicente, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Customer Loyalty in the Swedish Telecommunication Industry: A case study at Telia2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main purposes of this thesis. The first one is to get a better understanding of the aspects affecting customers’ loyalty in the telecommunication industry, in the context of when customers are using the services. The second purpose is to look into what the case company gains by having customers that are more loyal, where the degree of loyalty is measured by the Net Promoter Score metric.

    The methodology used to carry out the research is a case study with an approach that is both qualitative and quantitative. Where the quantitative approach has the largest share. Two datasets have been used in this thesis, one collected by the authors by sending out surveys and one collected beforehand at the case company. The survey created by the authors aim to let customers assess the satisfaction level with technical and non-technical aspects that can affect loyalty. The dataset that is already collected by the case company document the initial degree of loyalty of customers along with the revenue per customers over a period of years. The two datasets are used for the two different research purposes respectively. The statistical analysis for the data is conducted using the statistical tool Minitab.

    The findings for the first purpose are that our survey questions can be split into three categories using factor analysis. The categories are Perceived mobile multimedia quality, Perceived broadband multimedia quality and General perceptions. The first two categories are driving customer loyalty and the third category are indicators of customer loyalty. For the second purpose the findings are that the case company has different gains of more loyal customers depending on if the customers are either mobile or broadband customers. More loyal mobile customers stay longer as customers and also buy more. More loyal broadband customers only stay longer as customers.

    The practical implications of the findings are that the case company has to think of customer loyalty in new ways. There are more indicators of if a customer is loyal than the Net Promoter Score, these are for example customer satisfaction, perceived brand value, perceived overall quality, perceived customization etc. Therefore it would be better to measure customer loyalty not only with the Net Promoter Score Metric but to pick out 2-3 indicators to ask the customer and create an average index for all the questions that can represent the customers’ loyalty. Furthermore there are not a specific variable that drives customer loyalty more or less, several aspects are acting together in two high level groups. Another practical implication is that the gains of more loyal customers are higher for mobile customers since they buy more from the case company and stay longer as customers. However, for broadband customers, they only stay longer. Therefore the Net Promoter Score is not as useful to track for broadband customers. Either the broadband customers should have more opportunities to buy more or another metric should be used for broadband customers.

  • 47.
    Hemilä, Jukka
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Aminoff, Anna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Reverse supply chain relationship to circular economy2016In: The Proceedings of 21st International Symposium on Logistics (ISL 2016): Sustainable Transport and Supply Chain Innovation / [ed] KS Pawar and KM Tsai, Nottingham, UK: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School , 2016, 217-223 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the focus in logistics and supply chain research has been on forward logistics, but the reverse supply chain (RSC) has been studied for more than a decade. Meanwhile, the Circular Economy (CE) has gathered a lot of attention in recent years from management sciences as well as companies offering a practical alternative to the current linear economic model. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship of these two concepts of RSC and CE, especially in terms of value creation. The study also suggests how to develop a sustainable business model by following RSC and CE concepts. The paper indicates future research questions and hypotheses for these topics.

  • 48.
    Holmén, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Jonsson, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Effektivisering av manuell hantering i terminal: En fallstudie inom tredjepartslogistik2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en fallstudie på Bring som fokuserar på manuell hantering i terminal och hur den kan bli mer effektivt. Uppgiften utformades i samarbete med företaget. Bring har upplevt en ökad konkurrens på marknaden och strävar därför efter att effektivisera verksamheten för att kunna erbjuda lägre priser och kortare ledtider till kunderna. Syftet var att identifiera förslag på hur arbetet i terminalen i Jönköping kan effektiviseras på ett varaktigt sätt med avseende på kostnad och/eller ledtid utan negativ påverkan på Brings leveransservice samt urskilja de förslag med bäst potential.För att besvara syftet genomfördes litteraturstudier, empiriinsamling och analys. Analysen identifierade tio förbättringsförslag som sedan jämfördes med varandra för att identifiera de förslag som hade störst potential. Jämförelsen var baserad på förslagens varaktighet och möjliga besparingar.Två förbättringsförslag hade hög varaktighet och hög möjlig besparing och ansågs därför vara de förslag som hade störst potential. Dessa två innebär att skapa en standard för halvpallar och sluta svartplasta de färdigsorterade pallarna. Att skapa en standard för halvpallar tydliggör för terminalarbetare när halvpallar ska användas för att öka användningen av halvpallar och uppnå minskade fraktkostnader. Studien visar att en ändring från helpall till halvpall i genomsnitt ger en besparing på 417 kostnadsenheter per pall. Att sluta svartplasta färdigsorterade pallar innebär att de färdigsorterade pallarna från Kund 1 endast behöver skannas och köras till porten. Detta minskar hanteringen av pallar och kostnader för svartplast och ger en genomsnittlig besparing på 88 kostnadsenheter per pall.I studien togs även ställning till vilka förslag som har största potential av förslagen med hög varaktighet och låg möjlig besparing, och förslagen med låg varaktighet och hög möjlig besparing. I det här fallet ansågs förslagen med låg varaktiga och hög möjlig besparing ha större potential än de med hög varaktighet och låg möjlig besparing. Detta beror på att förslagen med låg varaktighet klassificerades på det viset eftersom de innebar förändringar hos kunden och den här studien visar inte hur villiga kunder är inför att genomföra förändringar. Om dessa förslag studeras djupare och det visar sig att kunderna är positiva till att genomföra förändringar, kan dessa förslag klassificeras med hög varaktighet och hög möjlig besparing och därför vara attraktiva för Bring.

  • 49.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinsen Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sustainable Logistics Service Providers: A strategic perspective on green logistics service provision2015In: Proceedings from the 20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Resource Efficiency and Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management / [ed] Lim, M., Jones, C., Day, J. and Smith, S., Derby: The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport & Derby University , 2015, 1-8 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental sustainability is of increasing importance. The Logistics Service Industry is of specific interest: its impact from mainly transports is still increasing. However, the sustainability of any company also includes a long-term prosperous business. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a hauler, as an example of a logistics service provider (LSP), through approaching environmental sustainability from an overall strategic business perspective, can succeed long-term.

    Research Approach: The paper builds on an in-depth case study of a medium sized privately held LSP. The case was selected as it stands out compared to its competitors with respect to environmental engagement and long-term commitment to sustainability related issues. Starting from a framework based on RBT (Resource Based Theory), the case is analysed regarding how various types of resources and dynamic capabilities can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage.

    Findings and Originality: The case study illustrates how an LSP can put various resources to work and how resources can be combined. It is demonstrated that these combinations of resources are valuable, rare and perfectly inimitable, and that they to a high extent are well established in the company, and hence not rely in certain individuals. The cases study further demonstrates how an LSP can sense possibilities, seize opportunities and, when needed, reshape its business accordingly, and hence possess critical dynamic capabilities. This research contributes by analysing an LSP that, in contrast to most of its competitors, has succeeded in making its sustainable development a strategic asset. This asset reaches beyond the commonly acknowledged efficiency gains, and is an interesting example of how an LSP through its dynamic capabilities can gain a unique position.

    Research Impact: The strategic perspective through an RBT lens has previously been applied to LSPs mainly in survey based research. The results of this paper are rare, as they build on a real-case situation of a successful and sustainable LSP, while the extant research of success among LSPs going greener mostly suggest future development to become successful. This paper suggests how sustainable development can become a strategic asset for an LSP, and how dynamic capabilities can support that. Theories on dynamic capabilities have previously only been applied to a very limited extent on the analysis of LSPs aiming for going greener

    Practical Impact: Based on this case, other LSPs may get inspiration to how they can develop their business to become more sustainable. The analysis points to that greening efforts cannot be seen in isolation, rather it is the combination of efforts, uniquely orchestrated for each case, that can make a difference. Therefore, the results point to relationships between various efforts, as well as how the different greening efforts fit the context of the LSP.

  • 50.
    Jansson, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Delin, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Process for preparing work instructions: A multiple case study at Volvo Group Trucks Operations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study made by Johansson, Fast-Berglund and Moestam (in press) shows that diversity regarding how information is used exists in global production networks. To be closer to markets, organizations have chosen to globalize their business which is one reason for why diversity arises. This because product types and brands historically have been different. One company that is currently working with improving consistency among processes is Volvo Group Trucks Operations (GTO). The company wants to evaluate how the process for preparing assembly work instructions looks like at different sites within their production network. This enables Volvo GTO to start their work towards a standardized process and uniformity.

    A starting point for this is to make a current state analysis of the process for preparing assembly work instructions when producing Volvo trucks, engines and transmissions in Sweden. The purpose is to identify key activities within the process and important factors to consider when standardizing the process. This is done on three sites, one for each area.

    Volvo GTO is the part of the Volvo Group that covers all production of engines and transmissions as well as the production of Volvo, Renault, Mack, and UD trucks. In 2012 the group choose to reorganize from brand based where each brand was an own organization to joint units, for example center of development, operations etc. This has led to a greater need of one common process for preparing assembly work instructions in order to create uniformity among the brands Volvo, Renault, Mack, and UD trucks.

    The result of the current state analysis shows that the process for preparing assembly work instructions is differently performed depending on the site studied. Despite this, some activities in each process are similar. These were found to be: design, review, time setting, time analysis, balancing, station marking, create assembly work instructions, and share information. Since some activities actually are similar, it would be possible to standardize the process for preparing assembly work instructions in the future. Important to consider when standardizing a process is to create awareness and involvement among employees. It is also important to have the management committed as well as uniformity among IT systems used when performing a process. One last thing to consider is that the process needs to be adaptable because sites are located all over the world and have different culture and regulations.

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