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  • 1.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    No exchange, same pain, no gain: Risk–reward of wearable healthcare disclosure of health personally identifiable information for enhanced pain treatment2019In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1675-1691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable technologies have created fascinating opportunities for patients to treat chronic pain in a discreet, mobile fashion. However, many of these health wearables require patients to disclose sensitive information, including health information (e.g., heart rate, glucose levels) and personal information (location, email, name, etc.). Individuals using wearables for treatment of chronic pain may sacrifice social health elements, including their privacy, in exchange for better physical and mental health. Utilizing communication privacy management, a popular disclosure theory, this article explores the policy and ethical ramifications of patients disclosing sensitive health information in exchange for better health treatment and relief of chronic pain. The article identifies scenarios where a user must disclose information, and what factors motivate or dissuade disclosure, and ultimately the use of a health wearable. Practical implications of this conceptual article include an improved understanding of how and why consumers may disclose personal data to health wearables, and potential impacts for public policy and ethics regarding how wearables and their manufacturers entice disclosure of private health information.

  • 2.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Factors predicting attitude toward disclosing personal data online2018In: Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, ISSN 1091-9392, E-ISSN 1532-7744, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 214-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test a theoretical model, this study explores the effect of anxiety, trust, personality, and perceived benefits on the disclosure of personal information online. An online survey conducted among participants in the United States (n = 248, age range: 20–82 years) examined attitudes toward disclosing personal data online. Specifically, the study researches the impact of anxiety disclosing personal data, trust (both in the Internet and in institutions), the Big Five personality traits, and four sets of perceived shopping benefits (opportunity, bargain, purchase, and expected privacy benefits) in e-commerce disclosure and their role as antecedents for adoption and use of e-commerce. The study aligns with existing trust literature and corroborates other findings on how perceived purchase benefits impact individuals’ attitudes toward disclosing personal data online. The data suggest that both trust in the Internet and trust in institutions positively influence attitude toward disclosing personal data online. Perceived purchase benefits were also significant positive predictors for attitude toward disclosing personal data online. Furthermore, personality dimensions can affect attitude toward disclosing: the more neurotic a person is, the more negative their attitude is about disclosing personal data online. The study underscores that consumers have a responsibility to educate themselves about online disclosure and marketing practices, and about how to protect their online privacy. Most importantly, fostering trust, reducing anxiety, and promoting benefits are essential to the future of e-commerce. Implications for theory, consumers, marketing practice, and public policy are also discussed.

  • 3.
    Robinson, Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Disclosure of personal data in ecommerce: A cross-national comparison of Estonia and the United States2017In: Telematics and informatics, ISSN 0736-5853, E-ISSN 1879-324X, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 569-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This study examines how demographic variables affect willingness to disclose and perceived risks of disclosing personally identifying information (PII, also referred to as personal data in Europe) in ecommerce in the United States and Estonia. The study utilized a 17-item list of potential disclosure items (name, email address, etc.), categorized reliably into six sub-indices: contact information, payment information, life history information, financial/medical information, work-related information, and online account information. Online disclosure consciousness (ODC) is introduced as a framework to conceptualize, explain the study’s findings, and empirically measure the gap between one’s willingness to disclose and perceived risk pertaining to the overall 17-item index used in the study, the sub-indices, and particular items. The results show significant gaps among participants both within and across nations. Despite Estonia’s advanced adoption and progressive policies and practices toward the Internet, Americans are more willing to disclose, and less concerned about perceived risks. The findings suggest willingness to disclose and risk aversion can and should be analyzed empirically together. The theoretical model provides an alternative conceptualization to the ideas of the privacy paradox, privacy calculus, and privacy cost-benefit ratios. Implications for theory, consumers, marketing practice, and public policy are discussed. Importantly, the study can inform increased adoption of ecommerce and the digital economy, while also protecting consumer’s personal data.

  • 4.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Disclosure and Managing Privacy: Implications for Interpersonal and Online Communication for Consumers and Marketers2017In: Journal of Internet Commerce, ISSN 1533-2861, E-ISSN 1533-287X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 385-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our fast-changing technological world, the line between the offline and online world has become blurred and individuals are faced with constant opportunities to divulge personal details. The process of disclosing sensitive information to others is necessary for establishing, maintaining, and building relationships, both with people and businesses; however, it also creates opportunities for misuse of the disclosed information. Consumers who are willing to disclose personal information online may often be unaware of the full implications of such disclosure. By thoroughly exploring the origins and processes of self-disclosure, and outlining its development in interpersonal and online communication, individuals will become more aware of their (sometimes competing) implicit and explicit disclosure behaviors necessary for enacting strong privacy management. Utilizing communication privacy management (CPM) theory, this article proposes a framework for ongoing consideration of how self-disclosure and privacy function online. By framing privacy in terms of the literature of communicative self-disclosure, CPM instructs the building of privacy boundaries that are functional for consumers and marketers alike, allowing people to protect themselves online while also ensuring their continued enjoyment of Internet provided benefits.

  • 5.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What’s Your Anonymity Worth? Establishing a Marketplace for the Valuation and Control of Individuals’ Anonymity and Personal Data2017In: Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, ISSN 2398-5038, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The viability of online anonymity is questioned in today’s online environment where many technologies enable tracking and identification of individuals. By highlighting the shortcomings of government, industry, and consumers in protecting anonymity, it is clear that a new perspective for ensuring anonymity is needed. Where current stakeholders have failed to protect anonymity, some proponents argue economic models exist for valuation of anonymity. By placing monetary value on anonymity through Rawls’ concept of primary goods, it is possible to create a marketplace for anonymity, therefore allowing users full control of how their personal data is used. Such an identity management marketplace offers users the possibility to engage with companies and other entities to sell and auction personal data. Importantly, participation in a marketplace does not sacrifice one’s anonymity since there are different levels of anonymity in online systems.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a conceptual framework based on the abstractions of anonymity and data valuation.

    Findings: The manuscript constructs a conceptual foundation for exploring the development and deployment of a personal data identity management marketplace. By suggesting features allowing individuals’ control of their personal data, and properly establishing monetary valuation of one’s personal data, it is argued that individuals will take a more proactive management of personal data.

    Research limitations/implications: Because the paper is conceptual in nature, it would be beneficial to explore the feasibility of establishing a personal data marketplace.

    Originality/value: An overview of available services and products offering increased anonymity is explored, in turn, illustrating the beginnings of a market response for anonymity as a valuable good. By placing monetary value on individuals’ anonymity, it is reasoned that individuals will more consciously protect their anonymity in ways where legislation and other practices (i.e., privacy policies, marketing opt-out) have failed. 

  • 6.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    iDisclose: applications of privacy management theory to children, adolescents and emerging adults2016In: Youth 2.0: social media and adolescence: connecting, sharing and empowering. Part II / [ed] Michel Walrave, Koen Ponnet, Ellen Vanderhoven, Jacques Haers and Barbara Segaert, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 139-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting personal information in online environments is vital to most individuals, including those in the three distinct age groups of children, adolescents and emerging adults. As each group interacts online, they use different disclosure practices and protection mechanisms to manage and distribute their personal information. After describing self-disclosure and communication privacy management theory (CPM), this chapter examines how privacy management strategies and self-disclosure practices in online environments differ between children, adolescents and emerging adults. The chapter considers theoretical strengths and weaknesses of CPM and also explores the applicability of the tenets of CPM to online communication in self-disclosure. In concluding, the text argues that a greater understanding of the privacy protection mechanisms employed by children, adolescents and emerging adults will help to strengthen privacy regulation and protection of personal information for each of these specific groups. Implications for media literacy, privacy protection practices, online marketing and advertising are presented.

  • 7.
    Robinson, Stephen Cory
    Department of Journalism and Media Communication, Colorado State University, USA.
    The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Applying Rawlsian Ethics in Data Mining Marketing2015In: Journal of Media Ethics, ISSN 2373-6992, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Rawlsian approach to analyze the ethical implications of data mining within three major codes of ethics used by American marketing firms, the author argues that marketers should re-conceptualize their business conduct, as defined in their individual codes of ethics, to incorporate a Rawlsian concern for society's least advantaged members. Rawls's concept of primary goods provides the framework for the argument that anonymity, a component of privacy, is vital for consumers whose autonomy is affected by data mining. A combination of practical measures, ethical guidelines, and legislative protections are recommended for minimizing concerns about data mining, while still allowing for commercial advantages provided by the practice.

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