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  • 1.
    Ruiz Muñoz, Juan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Product Realisation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Product Realisation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design team formation using self-assessment and observer-assessment techniques: mapping practices in a global network of universities2024In: Design Science, E-ISSN 2053-4701, Vol. 10, article id e7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design engineering education is increasingly challenge-based, which requires educators to form cohesive student teams capable of delivering desired outcomes while fostering learning and collaboration. An example is an international network in which students from different global universities collaborate. Student teams work on researching the problem space, re-framing their challenge and producing multiple prototypes. The challenge for the teaching teams is to be able to form multiple cohesive teams out of a pre-selected group of highly motivated students. Because of the exclusive nature of this educational program, it is a suitable case study for exploring student design team formation practices. The aim is to identify the methods, tools, theoretical underpinnings, challenges and limitations of student team formation. We interviewed teachers from seven universities about their practices. The interviewees had several years of experience in team building. The interviews were analyzed to contrast practices across universities as well as to the team formation literature. Our findings show that mixed methods that combine self-assessments and observer-assessment methods are the preferred means of forming teams. Our findings also show that current practices have evolved over time through trial and error, and are only partially grounded in different literatures and not necessarily in team formation literature.

  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ruiz Muñoz, Juan Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Product Realisation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Problems in Problem-Based Design Engineering Education: Towards a Multidisciplinary Designerly Educational Approach2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern industry faces complex and 'wicked' problems that require engineering professionals to go beyond traditional natural science-based linear problem-solving approaches and adopt collaborative, multidisciplinary, and iterative problem-solving strategies. To tackle these kinds of problems, organizations are increasingly turning to design problem- solving methods based on the designer’s way of thinking, acting, and doing. Designers have a distinctive ability to deal with poorly defined, ambiguous, or "wicked" problems by emphasizing iterative exploration of both the problem and the solution spaces. They do this through design reasoning patterns that involve constant iteration and temporary solutions. This shift towards designerly ways of problem-solving has, in turn, had an effect on engineering education, where there has been a significant shift towards educational models that utilize design methodologies to engage students in immersive problem-solving experiences. One challenge for educators who utilize models based on designerly thinking is to create structures that actually support the learning objectives, and the development of student skills that are rooted in design reasoning and acting, and not merely in design tools. Another challenge is to support collaboration across multiple areas that traditionally had clear boundaries.

    This thesis studies practices utilized by educators in problem-based designerly education to understand the underlying mechanisms and theoretical underpinnings of problem exploration in multidisciplinary education. Additionally, this thesis aims to explore and discuss the same processes and methods in the context of multidisciplinary education and design objects that can support collaboration across boundaries.

    This thesis's key contributions are the exploration and discussion of aspects of problem exploration, framing, and reframing in a designerly problem-based multidisciplinary educational environment, as well as the challenges and difficulties that educators and students encounter in the process of exploring problems and collaborating and crossing disciplinary boundaries with participants from multiple disciplines. To do so, this thesis first explores the importance that (the framing of the) design brief has in the problem-solving process. Furthermore, the design briefs are discussed as boundary objects that serve a crucial role in negotiation, communication, and coordination tools between stakeholders. Second, the importance of the reflective process that follows the idea generation and prototype-building activities are discussed as an aspect of an educational model that allows participants to explore problems and avoid design fixation. Moreover, these objects are discussed based on their function as disciplinary boundary crossing objects and as an aid in negotiation, and collaboration objects in problem exploration. Thirdly, methods and processes for assessment of student characteristics and skills are discussed, where tensions and trade-offs between self-reporting and observer-based methods are studied and explored. These methods then serve as boundary objects in the discussions between teaching teams in the student team formation process. Furthermore, team building and specifically the process of trust-building and objects that aid in boundary-crossing collaboration and communication to develop trust between students are also discussed.

    List of papers
    1. The Problem of Formulating Design Problems: A Typology of Design Briefs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Problem of Formulating Design Problems: A Typology of Design Briefs
    2020 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for a design team to be handed a problem to solve for others. The handing over is normally referred to as a ‘briefing’ process, and the documentation of the starting point and what is to be done is known as a ‘brief’. It is known that the way we frame and understand a problem influences what paths we see to potential solutions. The aim of this thesis is to understand what makes a good design brief and to do so in order to create an empirically informed, and theoretically underpinned, typology of design briefs and the kind of search processes they are disposed to induce.

    Different bodies of literature have tried to grasp how design solves problems in order to understand designer’s behavior and ultimately facilitate or improve it. Distinctions can, and have been made, between different kinds of problem formulations, as well as different problem-solving approaches. This thesis aims to integrate two previously distinct literatures, search process from the organizational perspective developed by James G. March, Herbert A. Simon, Richard Cyert and others and Design and the Design Process from the perspectives of authors such as Donald Schön, Kees Dorst and Nigel Cross among others, to propose a typology of design briefs in order to ultimately facilitate problem formulation and subsequently facilitate the design process.

    The simple and immediate answer to the question of what makes a good design brief is: ‘that depends’. It depends on the design process to be followed (if there is one), it depends on the kind of goals that should be achieved, the time available, and it also depends on how much and what is known about the problem and potential solutions. Based on this, four ideal types of design briefs are articulated, including the expected associated search behavior and challenges of design teams.

    Abstract [sv]

    Det är vanligt att ett designteam får ett problem att lösa åt andra. Överlämnandet kallas normalt en ”briefing” -process och dokumentationen av utgångspunkten och vad som ska göras kallas ett ”design brief ”. Det är känt att det sätt vi ramar in och förstår ett problem påverkar vilka vägar vi ser till potentiella lösningar. Syftet med denna avhandling är att förstå vad som gör ett bra ”design brief ” och att göra det för att skapa en empiriskt informerad och teoretiskt underbyggd typologi av design brief och vilken typ av sökprocesser de uppmuntrar.

    Olika litteratur har försökt förstå hur design löser problem för att förstå designerns beteende och i slutändan underlätta eller förbättra det. Skillnader kan och har gjorts mellan olika typer av problemformuleringar och olika problemlösningsmetoder. Denna avhandling syftar till att integrera två tidigare distinkta litteraturområden, sökprocess ur det organisatoriska perspektivet som utvecklats av James G. March, Herbert A. Simon, Richard Cyert och andra samt Design och designprocessen ur perspektiv av författare som Donald Schön, Kees Dorst och Nigel Cross bland andra för att föreslå en typologi av design brief för att underlätta problemformulering och därmed också underlätta designprocessen.

    Det enkla och omedelbara svaret på frågan om vad som gör ett bra design brief är: ”det beror på”. Det beror på designprocessen som ska följas (om det finns en), det beror på vilken typ av mål som ska uppnås, den tillgängliga tiden, och det beror också på hur mycket och vad som är känt om problemet och potentiella lösningar. Baserat på detta artikuleras fyra idealtyper av design brief, inklusive det förväntade associerade sökbeteendet och utmaningar för designteam.  

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. p. 155
    Series
    Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1895
    National Category
    Design
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-171558 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-171558 (DOI)9789179297374 (ISBN)
    Presentation
    2020-11-24, ACAS, A-Building and Zoom, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
    Opponent
    Supervisors
    Note

    ISBN saknas i avhandlingen.

    Available from: 2020-11-23 Created: 2020-11-23 Last updated: 2024-04-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Design team formation using self-assessment and observer-assessment techniques: mapping practices in a global network of universities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design team formation using self-assessment and observer-assessment techniques: mapping practices in a global network of universities
    2024 (English)In: Design Science, E-ISSN 2053-4701, Vol. 10, article id e7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Design engineering education is increasingly challenge-based, which requires educators to form cohesive student teams capable of delivering desired outcomes while fostering learning and collaboration. An example is an international network in which students from different global universities collaborate. Student teams work on researching the problem space, re-framing their challenge and producing multiple prototypes. The challenge for the teaching teams is to be able to form multiple cohesive teams out of a pre-selected group of highly motivated students. Because of the exclusive nature of this educational program, it is a suitable case study for exploring student design team formation practices. The aim is to identify the methods, tools, theoretical underpinnings, challenges and limitations of student team formation. We interviewed teachers from seven universities about their practices. The interviewees had several years of experience in team building. The interviews were analyzed to contrast practices across universities as well as to the team formation literature. Our findings show that mixed methods that combine self-assessments and observer-assessment methods are the preferred means of forming teams. Our findings also show that current practices have evolved over time through trial and error, and are only partially grounded in different literatures and not necessarily in team formation literature.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2024
    Keywords
    Team formation; Challenge-based learning; Design thinking; Design education
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201684 (URN)10.1017/dsj.2024.4 (DOI)001165323400001 ()
    Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-04-23
    3. This is how we roll; A play on creative thought and the generation of novelty
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>This is how we roll; A play on creative thought and the generation of novelty
    2019 (English)In: Proceedings of Meaningful Play 2018 / [ed] RABINDRA RATAN, BRIAN WINN, & Elizabeth LaPensée, ETC press, 2019, p. 380-387Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines generation of novelty and creative dynamics in design teams that aim at arrivingat something truly novel. Looking at the works by Schumpeter, Campbell and March in explorationsfor solutions that go beyond what could be easily foreseeable and the works of Smith, Lindsey,Cardoso among others, in the field of design fixation, this paper explores an approach taken tointroduce elements of randomness in design exercises to prevent fixation and facilitate aimless andunguided explorations. The dynamic explained in this paper presents the utilization of a game-baseddynamic in design teams that facilitates the generation of novel ideas.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ETC press, 2019
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202978 (URN)10.1184/R1/9995969.v1 (DOI)
    Conference
    International academic conference on meaningful play, October 11-13 2018, East Lansing, Michigan
    Note

    The conference paper is licensed under a Creative CommonsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

    Available from: 2024-04-23 Created: 2024-04-23 Last updated: 2024-04-23
    4. What is your (freaking) Problem? Prototypes for problem exploration on early stages of design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is your (freaking) Problem? Prototypes for problem exploration on early stages of design
    2023 (English)In: From Abstractness to Concreteness – experiential knowledge and the role of prototypes in design research: International Conference 2023 of the Design Research Society Special Interest Group on Experiential Knowledge (EKSIG) Conference Proceedings / [ed] Silvia Ferraris, Valentina Rognoli, Nithikul Nimkulrat, Politecnico di MIlano , 2023, p. 702-715Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping is a crucial element of the design activity. Prototypes serve as temporary and incomplete embodiments of design ideas with which designers explore the design problem as well as propose and refine possible solutions to the problem. Given its deep connection to solutions, prototyping has been typically associated with the later stages of design. A stage in which the problem has been sufficiently mapped that a solution can be proposed and refined based on the discovery of requirements. Yet the question of what it means to prototype for problem exploration remains. To provide an answer to this question, first we take a quick look at what the role of prototypes is in design and more specifically what their role might be in the early stages of design. And later we discuss from the perspective of the reflective conversation that the designer has with the artifact it has created and what we reflect on when dealing with problem exploration. Subsequently some illustrative examples are presented of unintentional problem exploration prototyping from student design projects. To conclude, a reflection of the importance of design education in preparing practitioners to better deal with different types of prototyping beyond solution refinement. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Politecnico di MIlano, 2023
    Keywords
    Problem-space, early design, problem-oriented prototyping, design education, prototype
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Design
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198348 (URN)9788894167436 (ISBN)
    Conference
    EKSIG23 - International Conference 2023 of the Design Research Society Special Interest Group on Experiential Knowledge, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 19-20 June, 2023
    Available from: 2023-10-06 Created: 2023-10-06 Last updated: 2024-04-23Bibliographically approved
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