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  • 1.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?2018In: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholders’ stake and relation to smartness in smart city development: Insights from a Swedish city planning project2018In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 693-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of today's city planning projects aim to realize smart city ambitions. In order to plan and build a smart city district, where ICT is integrated in critical infrastructure and used to control and govern city functions in innovative ways, new ways of working in city planning are needed. The purpose of this article is to develop a framework that takes into account stakeholders and smartness dimensions in city planning. We have studied a city district development in Sweden where a new planning approach was implemented. The developed framework was used to analyze the complexity of this city planning process. By defining which smartness dimension each stakeholder primarily focus on and analyzing the consequences of this, the framework pinpoints each stakeholder's contribution and/or hindrance to the process and outcome. A recommendation from this study is that new stakeholder groups are important to involve in smart city planning, but this also adds complexity that must be acknowledged when setting up this kind of projects. The developed framework can be useful when organizing and staffing city planning processes as well as when evaluating project outcomes.

  • 3.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfstedt, Truls
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding an Integrated Management System in a Government Agency – Focusing Institutional Carriers: Focusing Institutional Carriers2018In: Electronic Government. EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek, Peter; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Virkar, Shefali, Springer International Publishing , 2018, p. 15-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with an integrated management system (IMS) is a challenging task. In public organizations, the formalization of an IMS including the communication of control mechanisms, rules, goals and culture are crucial. Several types of carriers are used in order to communicate the content in an IMS – both human actors and artefacts. An artefact studied in this paper is an intranet, as one carrier of the IMS. The purpose of this paper is to explore how institutional theory – focusing institutional carriers – can help us to understand how an IMS is represented through human actors and technology in a government agency. The conclusion is that the application of an institutional carrier perspective on an IMS can help us to understand the past and present, the role, and the relative success of such a system. An IMS can be aligned or misaligned related to three dimensions of structure, process and people. Achieving an aligned and legitimate IMS is crucial in order to achieve goals in an organization. The implications of this study are that further research and practice should give more attention to institutional carriers when studying and improving IMS.

  • 4.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. School of InformaticsUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    External User Inclusion in Public e-Service Development: Exploring the Current Practice in Sweden2017In: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, p. 60-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the last decade e-government research has underlined the importance of an external user perspective in public e-service development and there have been numerous attempts to provide guidance and directions for government agencies in this matter. Individual research studies show little progress in this matter, but a more generalisable picture of the current state of external user inclusion is missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better and more generalisable understanding of Swedish government agencies’ current practice of external user inclusion in public e-service development. In order to do so, we have interviewed Swedish government agencies regarding their perceptions on external user inclusion. Our findings show mixed results regarding attitudes towards and current practice of external user inclusion. It is clear that organisational size and previous experience of public e-service development matter. At the same time challenges such as a general lack of resurces and a lack of time are seen as general barriers, regardless of agency level and size.

  • 5.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    NOT ANOTHER NEW WINE IN THE SAME OLD BOTTLES: MOTIVATORS AND INNOVATION IN LOCALGOVERNMENT E-SERVICE DEVELOPMENT2017In: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2017, p. 691-702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-services hold the potential to innovate how the public sector operates, and to increase the transparencyof public services. Numerous research initiatives have illustrated the innovation power of eservices;with new technology and new solutions to existing problems. Research on this topic also emphasizesthat in order for public e-services to reach their full potential, they need to be designed in away that users find useful and beneficiary. Interestingly, in practice, only fragments of this claimedinnovation seem to take place. Today, most public e-services launched are merely electronic versionsof existing services with no, or very low, degree of innovation. In this paper, we analyse empirical datafrom local government e-service providers. The aim is to explore the current practices in local governmente-service development with respect to how aspects related to innovative and high quality serviceprovisioning are handled. In doing so, we analyse what basic motivators there are for local governmentsto offer e-services in the first place, and how such motivators influence innovation in localgovernment e-service development. The analysis concludes that local governments are facing a challengingsituation in terms of a general lack of resources regarding time, competence, and skills, aswell as a dispersed user segment where needs and wills often are hard to grasp. Furthermore, localgovernments are facing conflicting interests and agendas. At the end of the day, the heights of innovationare then hard to achieve. We call for further research on the applicability of previous researchfindings in other research areas in order to promote more innovative e-service provisioning.

  • 6.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Action in action research: Elaborating the concepts of action, roles and dilemmas in a public e-service development project2016In: Journal of Systems and Information Technology, ISSN 1328-7265, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 118-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of action by addressing actions and roles in the practice of action research, illustrated by dilemmas in an action research project on information systems development in public sector. The main ambition with action research is being able to solve organisational problems through intervention and to contribute to scientific knowledge. The main emphasis has so far been on the “research part”. Here the authors focus on the “action part” of action research to generate rigorous research, to solve local problems and to deal with evident dilemmas in action research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This is a qualitative case study. The empirical illustrations of this paper originate from an action research project that focused the two e-service development initiatives analysed below. The analysis is structured using key aspects and phases proposed by Avison et al. (2001). As a result of the analysis, the concept of action is elaborated. The action elements action, actor, motive, space and time are analysed together with different roles. This goes beyond the existing action research literature.

    Findings

    The conclusions show that there is a need to understand actions and roles within action research projects – not separating action from research. Research is also seen as action. The practice of action research is also discussed as context-bounded interactive social action: action research as a recurrent, interactive and dynamic activity. It is also identified that the understanding of roles, actions and interaction can help handle dilemmas in action research.

    Research Limitations/implications

    The authors contribute to the body of knowledge concerning action research in the information systems research field and in general by exploring the need to study the concept of action (e.g. situations and elements), to be explicit concerning the different phases, roles and responsibilities and management of different dilemmas in action research. A limitation of this study is that the inter-organisational development character in this study adds an extra dimension into the practice of actions research only partially highlighted. Another limitation is focus on public agencies. However, this is not critical for the results on action elements and the action research dilemmas that are studied.

    Practical Implications

    The understanding of roles, actions and interaction can solve the dilemmas and challenges linked to the practice of action research in the information systems field, but such understanding can help discover and handle dilemmas in action research.

    Originality/value

    The originality in this research is an illustration of and a perspective of action research as a context-bounded interactive social action: action research as a recurrent, interactive and dynamic activity. The value is that this knowledge can help handle dilemmas in action research.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In search of ICT in smart cities: Policy documents as idea carriers in urban development2016In: Electronic government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, 2016, Vol. 9820, p. 215-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how policy documents carry and institutionalize smart city ideas from high policy level to concrete policy level in an urban development context. We analyze the national urban development vision for Sweden and documents in a local urban development project in a Swedish city, in order to explore what kind of roles and expectations ICT is given in these documents. We contrast this with views of how social and environmental aspects are discussed in the studied documents. In order to understand and analyze the result we apply the concept of institutional carriers from institutional theory to our findings. Our analysis shows that as carriers of how ICT can contribute to increased sustainabilityin urban development, the policy documents do not function very well. ICT aspects are not put forth by any policy-making actor, neither on national nor on local level. The notion of institutional carriers helped us understand that without a responsible actor focusing on ICT’s role in smart cities, it is easy to forget or lose sight of technology

  • 8.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing the development of e-ID in a public e-service context: Challenges and path dependencies from a life-cycle perspective2016In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 72-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to analyse and understand the contemporary management of electronic identification (e-ID) development to: identify and formulate challenges and reflect upon the use of a combination of perspectives. To generate knowledge on this issue, we investigate e-ID development in Sweden from: an e-government systems development lifecycle perspective and a project challenge and critical success factor (CSF) perspective. Design/methodology/approach– This is a qualitative case study covering an analysis of the three years in a larger project focusing e-ID in a public e-service setting. Empirical sources have been face-to-face interviews; official documents and different kind of forums for presentations and discussions in, for example, hearings arranged by authorities; meetings with the coordinating agency, and practitioners’ networks events. Findings– This study concludes that there are significant challenges involved in managing e-ID development because of its contextual and integrated character. Challenges involve the organization and management of the program and can be traced back to e-government, general project management literature and theory on path dependency. Based on this study, we can question, e.g. governance models, centralization and a narrow focus on the technical artefact. Our study is also an illustration of a possible way to analyse e-ID within an e-government initiative. Research limitations/implications– The present study shows that an e-ID can be considered as a back office-enabler for launching e-services, but also highlights the need for management of the artefact as an integral part of e-service development because it is intertwined with the use of e-services from a user perspective. This aspect together with the insights related to challenges and success factors including path dependency provides implications for future practice of e-ID management and development in particular and information systems artefact development in general. Originality/value– This paper addresses challenges related to the development of e-ID in a public e-service setting. Few studies have theoretically combined a lifecycle perspective on challenges and success factors related to e-ID development while also focusing different dimensions of path dependency as an example of a challenging area within a program frame. Studying e-ID as a contemporary phenomenon from a contextual perspective in line with sociomaterial thinking – with a focus on the interplay between technology and people –can also help us to understand and discuss artefact development in general.

  • 9.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective2015In: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 183-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

  • 10.
    Sefyrin, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Problematizing the needs of residents in the development of smart grid services2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from a pilot study conducted in an ongoing research project focusing on how users and their needs are being part of the development of smart grid services. The project aims to explore how development and use of services related to smart grids in homes might affect practices involving electricity consumption. The empirical material centers around an urban development project with a focus on social sustainability. So far only preliminary remarks can be made, and these points to that smart grid services are not in the center of attention, but rather taken for granted, and that the users are rather absent from the discussions. This indicates that the practices of which electricity consumption are part are not taken into consideration, but instead it is taken for granted that users shall adjust their needs based on information about electricity consumption patterns and prices.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contextual Factors Influencing Health Information Systems Implementation in Public Sector: Investigating the Explanatory Power of Critical Success Factors2014In: Electronic Government: 13th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2014, Dublin, Ireland, September 1-3, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Frank Bannister, Springer, 2014, p. 59-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach the field of critical success factors (CSF) by analyzing a successful case of IT implementation within the public health sector. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs can explain a successful case. The main conclusion drawn is that even though the studied organization shows signs of common CSFs, this alone cannot explain the success. An important contribution from this study is thus the focus on contextual factors when trying to understand what makes an implementation project successful.

  • 12.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Correction: Implementing healthcare information systems - Mirroring a wide spectrum of images of an IT project (vol 3, pg 26, 2014)2014In: Health Policy and Technology, ISSN 2211-8837, E-ISSN 2211-8845, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 343-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 13.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementing Healthcare Information Systems: Mirroring a Wide Spectrum of Images of an IT Project2014In: Health Policy and Technology, ISSN 2211-8837, E-ISSN 2211-8845, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the spectrum of interpretations that can be related to the implementation and use of a healthcare information system (HIS). The empirical part of this paper is based on a qualitative case study of a Swedish healthcare provider, called “Alpha”, where a HIS was implemented. By studying how different actors interpret technological and organizational changes in a healthcare case, we mirror different images of the implementation project. Put together, this diversity of images provides an illustration of the complexity associated with the process of implementing a HIS. We apply an adjusted version of Orlikowski’s practice lens, with its roots in Structuration Theory, in order to study technology in organizations (focusing inertia, application and change). The implementation process of a HIS is much too complex to be judged as being either entirely positive or negative; instead it offers an illustration of the multi-faceted and reciprocal relation between IS and organization. This challenge literature on critical success factors. This study illustrates several images of HIS implementation and use. Highlighting images is one way to illustrate reluctance, support, complexity and power that are present in HIS implementation and use. This is one important contribution from this article. The complexity in the implementation is linked to healthcare organizations as professional bureaucracies, being highly politicized and institutionalized and to the IT artefact as an integrated HIS. Viewing images as rational myths is also discussed in this paper as an original approach to understand HIS implementation.

  • 14.
    Garatli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multi‑Channel Service Management in Public Sector … Three Interpretative Frames Illustrating E‑government and Work Practice in a Swedish State Agency2014In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 112-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deliver services to citizens, public sector agencies of today offer various types of channels for interaction. In this article we aim to develop an understanding of the reciprocal relation between multi‑channel services and work prac tice. By showing how actors at different organizational levels in an agency differ in their interpretation of multi‑channel services we have generated knowledge that is essential in multi‑channel strategy formulation. The study illustrates an example of a n agency that works actively and in a mature way with e‑government and e‑services. This qualitative case study illustrates that the top level management, middle management and the case officers need to confront and discuss their understanding of e‑governm ent and their work practice in order to reach a situation where strategies actually are influencing daily work more explicitly. An important aspect is the decision to adopt an internal or external perspective on multi‑channel service management. The resul t of this decision might be to view multi‑channel service management as a way of reaching either internal agency efficiency or external citizen benefits.

  • 15.
    Granath, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholders’ views on ICT and sustainable development in an urban development project2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT potentially plays an important part in achieving sustainable urban development. Subsequntly, ICT could be expected to have a central role in the general discourse of urban development, and in specific development projects, both as a means in the planning process itself and as an end product, i.e. smart city solutions. By exploring a case study of a local urban development project (Urb@n) in Sweden, we explore different characteristics given to ICT and how they can be understood as different discourses of sustainable development. By studying how ICT is spoken of in the planning phase of urban development we can understand how different stakeholders interpret and incorporate (or not) the technology in the design and development of urban areas, and how they collaborate in order to achieve goals. Our findings show that there are discrepancies between how ICT is spoken of on a policy level and in practice. A conclusion is that technology is both taken for granted and black-boxed at the same time. This indicates rather naïve conceptions and understandings among stakeholders of what characterizes ICT and how it can be used for different purposes to support sustainable development.

  • 16.
    Veenstra, Anne Fleur van
    et al.
    TNO, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theoretical and practical implications from the use of structuration theory in public sector information systems research2014In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Avital, Leimeister and Schultze, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain better understanding of the development, implementation and use of information technology(IT), many scholars in the field of information systems (IS) use structuration theory (ST). However, STis, so far, more seldom applied to, and reflected upon, in studies of public sector IS to account for(unexpected) outcomes of IT development and implementation. This paper creates an overview of theuse of ST in studies on public sector IT in order to identify theoretical and practical implications forthe digital public sector. Most (ten out of twelve) papers in this field apply ST to empirical studies,while three papers were found to adapt ST to fit public sector settings, and none were found tocritically address ST. While ST as a lens for studying public sector IT was thus seen to have practicalusefulness, theoretical usefulness is still underdeveloped regarding theory adaption andcontextualization. Based on this study we argue that there is a need to further investigate the risksassociated with the transfer to the public sector as it is important to achieve conscious adaptation anduse of ST in public sector IS in order to progress with using ST in that context.

  • 17.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem är vem på nätet?: en studie av elektronisk identifiering2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att identifiera sig är något vi gör i många olika vardagssituationer; exempelvis när vi ska styrka vår ålder i krogkön, uträtta bankärenden eller bli insläppta av vakten på en bevakad arbetsplats. För att identifiera oss i dessa situationer använder vi oftast någon form av fysisk identitetshandling; ett körkort, pass eller ID-kort. Samtidigt har vi idag ett samhälle där allt fler ärenden går att utföra via nätet, där såväl offentliga som kommersiella aktörer erbjuder elektroniska tjänster (e-tjänster) i ökande omfattning. Vi blir därmed alltmer beroende av informationsteknik (IT) i samhället för att samverka och kommunicera effektivt och enkelt. Vår riskexponering och sårbarhet ökar i takt med att vi utför allt fler ärenden via e-tjänster. Känslig information kan utnyttjas av obehöriga eller missbrukas på olika sätt.

    Elektronisk identifiering blir i dessa sammanhang en viktig komponent och förutsättning för att kunna erbjuda och använda effektiva och säkra e-tjänster. När man identifierar sig på nätet och i IT-system kan man göra det på många olika sätt; man kan logga in med användarnamn och lösenord, använda elektroniska ID-lösningar (eID) med dosor och koder, scanna fingeravtryck, använda e-tjänstekort och kortläsare eller RFID-teknik. Man skulle kunna betrakta dessa identifieringslösningar som rent tekniska landvinningar, som bara syftar till att man ska kunna nå den e-tjänst man vill använda. Likt en nyckel som används för att låsa upp dörren så att man kommer in i sitt hus. Vi menar dock att det är en alldeles för snäv syn på elektronisk identifiering – den behöver vara vidare än så för att vara fruktbar och kunna sättas i meningsfulla sammanhang av exempelvis design, utvärdering och vidareutveckling.

    Även om det är en teknisk lösning (en artefakt) med en begränsad uppgift vi avser, så kan dess utformning och sättet den införs och används på få stora konsekvenser för hela användningssituationen. Med artefakt menas här konstruerade föremål i form av olika tekniska lösningar och människors meningar kopplade till dessa. Identifieringslösningen påverkar både säkerheten i sig och den bild vi får av den e-tjänst eller det IT-system där vi identifierar oss. Dessutom påverkar den också bilden vi har av det sammanhang där vi använder identifieringslösningen. Om vi använder en e-tjänst som erbjuds av exempelvis den kommun där vi bor, påverkas också vår tilltro till kommunen och samhället av hur vi uppfattar identifieringslösningen och e-tjänsten. Samma resonemang gäller om vi köper en vara av ett privat företag på nätet. Med andra ord påverkas samhällets såväl som företagens legitimitet av hur vi som medborgare eller kunder uppfattar olika IT-lösningar.

    Den här boken handlar därför om de möjligheter och utmaningar som elektronisk identifiering kan innebära för individer, organisationer och samhället. Vi talar inte om isolerade tekniska problem i första hand, utan anlägger ett vidare perspektiv på de möjligheter och problem som kommer med e-tjänster och elektronisk identifiering.

    Vi har skrivit den här boken för att dela med oss av en del av de tankar och insikter som vi fått under projektet. Syftet med boken är att sätta ljuset på ett antal teman som framstår som centrala för utveckling och användning av elektronisk identifiering. Vi beskriver tre exempel som hämtar inspiration från våra studier inom projektet. Utifrån dessa exempel lyfter vi fram ett antal teman och diskuterar dessa samt sammanfattar utmaningar som vi sett i våra studier. Vår förhoppning är att Du som läser vår bok kan använda våra resonemang för att diskutera frågorna vidare i det praktiska sammanhang som Du befinner Dig i. Oavsett om Du finns på ett kommunkontor, i ett landsting, i en myndighet eller i en privat livssituation. Vi har inte haft ambitionen att skriva en vetenskaplig, teorirelaterad text, men Du som vill läsa forskningsbaserade publikationer från projektet hittar lästips i slutet av boken.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Applying an Ethical Perspective on Stakeholder Participation in Public E-service Development2013In: GI Edition Proceedings Band 221: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation / [ed] Wimmer M.A., Janssen M, Macintosh, A., Scholl H.J., and Tambouris, E., 2013, p. 150-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to balance between citizen and agency aspects’ importance and visibility in public e-service development, the question how to involve different stakeholders is often raised. However, identifying and analyzing several internal as well as external stakeholders in relation to e-government development raises some ethical questions: Who should participate and who should not? For what reasons do we involve stakeholders? What will the result of stakeholder participation and involvement be? In this article empirical findings from an egovernment project are revisited and discussed from an ethical perspective. The main conclusion is that we need to consider ethical aspects of stakeholder participation in e-government projects more thoroughly. The ethical discussion in stakeholder participation rhetoric has often been shallow. An important task for e-government researchers is therefore to address this discussion in public e-service development,as the results in terms of quality of the e-services as well as citizen benefits are at stake.

  • 19.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational interaction in public and private sectors – a comparative study2013In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 431-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This article compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) to support IO interaction in public and private sectors. The purpose of the article is to explore and discuss differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case studies performed in private and public sectors.

    Design/methodology/approach – A comparative study of two cases in two sectors (private and public) is conducted. IO concepts from industrial markets that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) are used as analytical lenses. The empirical case study data, mainly generated from interviews, have been analyzed in a qualitative, interpretive way, using these central IO concepts from industrial markets (the IMP approach). This approach is in line with a strategy to use theory as a part of an iterative process of data collection and analysis.

    Findings – The findings in the present study show that there are several similarities concerning interaction in relations between organizations in the two sectors. There are also differences depending on the level of analysis (empirical level vs analytical level). The study shows the need to be explicit regarding organizational value, end-customer or client/citizen value and the type of objects that are exchanged in the interaction. This is presented in the article together with suggested refinements of the analytical framework used for understanding IO interaction. The latter finding is a contribution to the general field of interaction and network studies and also a contribution to the e-government field.

    Practical implications – This article is a point of departure to facilitate learning between the public and the private sectors focusing on IO relations and IOS. Learning between the two sectors is needed for researchers in the two areas as well as policy makers and practitioners developing e-government interaction and IOS.

    Originality/value – There are few articles addressing learning between the private and the public sector within the e-government area. Not at least when focusing IO issues. There is also a tendency that wheels are reinvented in the sectors and in the e-government research area. An important initiative in this article is to contribute in filling this gap by providing examples of a comparative analysis as well as understanding of how to perform such analyses of IO interaction.

  • 20.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing The Development Of Secure Identification - Investigating A National e-ID Initiative Within A Public e-Service Context2013In: Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the management of developing electronic identification (e-ID) within a public e-service context. e-ID is an important key enabler for secure identification, authentication and digital signing via the Internet and a part of e-service design. As users, and citizens, we become reliant on electronic solutions that give us a certain level of utility and trust, and use e-ID solutions to interact with local and central government in an e-service context. The management of e-ID development in a national context is the case in focus for investigation. Such development initiatives, and especially inter-organizational projects, face a number of challenges. Therefore it is a need for a more thorough understanding of e-ID development within a public e-service context. The purpose is to analyse the contemporary management of e-ID development in Sweden from: a) an e-government systems development life-cycle perspective and b) a project challenge and critical success factor perspective. This study concludes that there are significant challenges involved in managing integrated e-ID development. Challenges involve the organization and management of the program and can be traced back to e-government and general project management literature, but based on this study one can question, e.g. governance models, centralization, and a narrow focus on a technical artefact. Important implications from this paper are a call for further contextual studies of e-ID development, putting the user and organizational setting, path dependency, and governance models in focus.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis2013In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of e-government are to increase agency efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. These goals have often been addressed as two interplaying outcomes of public e-service development, which are possible to achieve in parallel. This article shows that the two frequently applied stakeholders of e-government (agencies and citizens) are much too extensive and heterogeneous in order to be meaningfully addressed in public e-service conceptualization and development. We conduct a stakeholder centered analysis of a public e-service development and implementation process in order to identify stakeholder groups and discuss how they differ in their perceptions and, consequently, also in their feelings of relevance and need related to the e-service. By adopting a multi-faceted perspective on stakeholders, public e-service development can be analyzed and understood in a way that takes several stakeholder groups into account. Our study contributes with deeper insights about a situation where stakeholder salience changes over time, while some stakeholder groups have low salience during the entire process. The result of conducting a stakeholder centered analysis is that we, by visualizing the stakeholder groups' differences, are better prepared to meet and combine different needs related to a planned e-service. Thus, we argue that a stakeholder centered analysis of expectations and opinions concerning the e-service help to develop e-services possible to succeed in offering both external service and internal efficiency.

  • 22.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public e-services from inside: a case study on technology's influence on work conditions in a government agency2013In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 455-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of citizens' increased use of public e-services for agency employees' work situation.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to accomplish the purpose of the paper the authors focus on the way in which the increased use of public e-services also implies internal process and routine changes in public administration. The authors analyze work conditions for case officers at a government agency in Sweden by applying occupational ideal types to identify the specific work conditions in the studied case. The case study is based on qualitative data collected with a back office perspective.

    Findings – The findings indicate a new hybrid organization where the increased use of e-services challenges earlier demands for competence. The transformation of e-government has implications for job codification, rule observation, job specification, and interaction with the general public.

    Originality/value – The paper extends the knowledge on how the increased use of public e-services affects back-office work conditions, with an increased high level of complexity in work content, but with low level of work autonomy. It argues that studying back-office work conditions is an important management issue in public administration research as well as practice.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013In: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 237-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 24.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Citizens’ Attitudes towards Electronic Identification in a Public E-service Context: An Essential Perspective in the eID Development Process2012In: Electronic Government: 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, Kristiansand, Norway, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Hans J. Scholl, Marijn Janssen, Maria A. Wimmer, Carl Erik Moe, Leif Skiftenes Flak, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 260-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2012, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in September 2012. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from more then 80 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on foundations; adoption and diffusion; open government and transformation; infrastructure and technology; evaluation; and citizen perspective, social inclusion, and social media. 

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Young citizens' attitudes towards electronic identification: A neglected perspective in an on-going development and implementation process2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from an empirical study of young Swedish university students’ attitudes towards electronic identification (eID). Three focus groups were conducted with students, as a main target group, who were asked to use a public e-service at the Swedish Board for Study Support which demanded secure electronic identification. After having conducted the assigned tasks the students’ attitudes were discussed in the focus group. Our findings show that usability and security are two main themes that the respondents found to be important in order to trust eID and e-services. This example of how citizens’ attitudes towards electronic identification can be explored in focus groups is related to the on-going national development process of a new eID solution on a strategic and artifact level. In this process no citizens are participating or involved so far. We conclude the article by discussing what might be the consequences of neglecting citizens’ attitudes in this kind of development and implementation processes.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analyzing best practice and critical success factors in a health information system case: Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?2011In: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems - ECIS 2011 / [ed] Tuunainen V, Nandhakumar J, Rossi M, Soliman W, European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) and Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2011, p. 2157-2168Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses critical success factors (CSF) and best practice in relation to IT implementation in the health sector. We have studied a University Hospital’s implementation of a health information system (HIS) and particularly one clinic which implementation process was described as very successful compared to other units at this hospital. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs and best practice solutions can explain this successful case. We do this in order to explore if CSFs and best practice offer any shortcuts to successful IT implementation. By understanding the reasons behind this case’s success we can identify if CSFs and best practice potentially can explain the success, or if there are other explanations in this case. Based on our findings we discuss and question the sometimes overestimated belief in CSFs and best practice as shortcuts to success performance. An important contribution from this study is that situational and contextual factors are very critical to understand and acknowledge during HIS implementations.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Are there any shortcuts to successful IT implementation?: A study of critical success factors and best practice in healthcare2011In: The 8th Scandinavian Workshop on E-government (SWEG’11), Tampere, Finland, 7-8 February 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Information Systems Higher Education: Lessons Learned from an Inter-organizational R&D Project2011In: Information Systems Education Journal (ISEDJ), ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on lessons learned from developing information systems (IS) higher education in an inter-organizational (IO) network focusing possibilities and challenges. Developing higher education is one area among others where organizing joint efforts in networks are possible. An IO R&D project is described and analyzed in this paper. The overall research design is qualitative and interpretive. The research is based on a case study of the project and the network collaboration between four Swedish universities as participants. Theoretical concepts that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) helped us to describe and to analyze interaction in the IO network together with the characterization of context, content and process related to the development work. The IO network in this paper is classified as a joint problem solver; a functional network. Findings in the paper address several possibilities and challenges related to higher education development in IO networks. Findings highlight e.g. the need to involve active teachers and researchers, to manage distributed teams, to be aware of the critical and sensitive matter of opening up the “black box” of courses using critical friends, and the time and effort needed for anchoring projects and changes at the participating universities.

  • 29.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring the Characteristics of Information Systems Maintenance: Defining Focus and Content through Objects2011In: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: Second Scandinavian Conference, on Information Systems, SCIS 2011, Turku, Finland, August 16-19, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Salmela H, Sell A, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 112-123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of information systems (IS) maintenance within an IT and organizational setting. We discuss the characteristics of maintenance objects’ focus and content. Our results are based on qualitative case studies. In this paper a case study of a Swedish Bank is used to illustrate our discussion. Our findings show that maintenance objects can be defined by processes and/or functions or products and/or services within an organizational setting. This is done in order to increase a business perspective in maintenance management and to clarify roles of responsibility for organizational changes required from new IT capabilities. According to our findings maintenance objects can contain business solutions and IT solutions. This implies that business beneficial maintenance is supported by close cooperation between actors from the organizational setting and the IT organization. The result of the paper is a characterization of IS maintenance through definition of maintenance objects’ focus and content.

  • 30.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Practitioners’ motives as a key issue in organizing practice research collaboration2011In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 133-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practice Research has evolved as a fruitful research paradigm in Information Systems (IS). In practice research case studies and other forms of intervention in local practices are central. Such studies require cooperation with practitioners. A researcher’s motives for conducting case studies are primarily to collect and analyze data for research purposes. A practice researcher also aims to develop scientific contributions of practical value. This article elaborates on the practitioners’ motives for participating in practice research using the case of a knowledge initiative (KI) concerning IS maintenance and evolution as an empirical example. KI has been arranged as a professional community in which practitioners (as KI members) and researchers have worked together to develop knowledge. By analyzing patterns of the KI members’ statements and engagements, we identify some tentative motives for practitioners to participate in practice research. The results show that their main motives are to influence research, increase their competence, being a part of a social community, and solve specific problems. With this in mind we are able to arrange for practice research cooperation that meets both researchers’ and practitioners’ motives. The article is concluded with key issues for organizing successful practice research collaboration

  • 31.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Practitioners’ Motives for Participating in Practice Research: Experiences from a knowledge initiative in IS maintenance and evolution2011In: International and Inter-disciplinary Workshop on Practice Research, June 8, 2011, Helsinki, Finland, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Samdesign av e-tjänster: SamMET metodramverk2011Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Information Systems Education in a Network: Lessons Learned from a R&D Project2010In: 2010 ISECON Proceedings: v27 n1372, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on lessons learned from developing information systems (IS) higher education in an inter-organizational (IO) network focusing possibilities and challenges. Developing higher education is one area among others where organizing joint efforts in networks are possible. An IO R&D project is described and analyzed in this paper. The overall research design is qualitative and interpretive. The research is based on a case study of the project and the network collaboration between four Swedish universities as participants as such. Theoretical concepts that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties) helped us to describe and to analyze interaction in the IO network together with the characterization of context, content and process related to the development work. The IO network in this paper is classified as a joint problem solver; a functional network. Findings in the paper address several possibilities and challenges related to higher education development in IO networks. Findings highlight e.g. the need to involve active teachers and researchers, to manage distributed teams, to be aware of the critical and sensitive matter of opening up the “black box” of courses using critical friends, and the time and effort needed for anchoring projects and changes at the participating universities.

  • 34.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring the importance of citizen participation and involvement in e-government projects: Practice, incentives, and organization2010In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 299-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate if, and in that case, how and what the e-government field can learn from user participation concepts and theories in general IS research. We aim to contribute with further understanding of the importance of citizen participation and involvement within the e-government research body of knowledge and when developing public e-services in practice.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the article is made from a comparative, qualitative case study of two e-government projects. Three analysis themes are induced from the literature review; practice of participation, incentives for participation, and organization of participation. These themes are guiding the comparative analysis of our data with a concurrent openness to interpretations from the field.

    Findings – The main results in this article are that the e-government field can get inspiration and learn from methods and approaches in traditional IS projects concerning user participation, but in e-government we also need methods to handle the challenges that arise when designing public e-services for large, heterogeneous user groups. Citizen engagement cannot be seen as a separate challenge in e-government, but rather as an integrated part of the process of organizing, managing, and performing e-government projects. Our analysis themes of participation generated from literature; practice, incentives and organization can be used in order to highlight, analyze, and discuss main issues regarding the challenges of citizen participation within e-government. This is an important implication based on our study that contributes both to theory on and practice of e-government.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from this study concern that many e-government projects have a public e-service as one outcome and an internal e-administration system as another outcome. A dominating internal, agency perspective in such projects might imply that citizens as the user group of the e-service are only seen as passive receivers of the outcome – not as active participants in the development. By applying the analysis themes, proposed in this article, citizens as active participants can be thoroughly discussed when initiating (or evaluating) an e-government project.

    Originality/value – This article addresses challenges regarding citizen participation in e-government development projects. User participation is well-researched within the IS discipline, but the e-government setting implies new challenges, that are not explored enough.

  • 35.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Four Tactics of Establishing and Preserving Data Stability2010In: Journal of Information, Information Technology and Organization (JIITO), ISSN 1557-1327, Vol. 5, p. 67-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on core ideas behind an information centric approach concerning stability in databases. We investigate if and how data stability is obtained when an information centric approach is implemented in practice. The results of our two case studies reveal four tactics focusing on actions conducted in order to obtain and maintain stability in databases: (1) change avoidance, (2) anticipated generalization, (3) constructive standardization, and (4) expansion to new application areas. Based on our empirical findings, we argue that data stability is a result of social construction in organizations rather than just an effect of structured information systems planning. The contributions in this paper can be used to explain IS design effects in organizations and analyze organizational situations from a data stability perspective.

  • 36.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How to Use the Potential of Learning Outcomes in IS Courses: Listening to the Voices of Students2010In: 2010 ISECON Proceedings: v27 n1327, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how students view the role and meaning of learning outcomes. We have conducted a focus group with students who attended the course “Enterprise (ERP) systems and organizing” within an IS bachelor program in Sweden. Our study shows that students, as a course’s main stakeholder group, regard the multi-functionality of learning outcomes. What they still miss is knowledge about the role and meaning of learning outcomes as control instruments for the entire educational process. When teachers formulate learning outcomes in a transparent and clear way, students will be able to use them actively prior to courses, during courses and after courses. In order to better use the potential of learning outcomes in practice, we need to find ways of not just formulating learning outcomes in a standardized manner, but also practicing them in our courses. When this learning outcome model has been accepted and applied in teachers’ course activities, not just their syllabus writing, we have possibilities to use the full potential of learning outcomes.

  • 37.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational Information Systems and Interaction in Public vs. Private Sector: Comparing Two Cases2010In: Electronic Government: 9th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 29 - September 2, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Wimmer, M.A., Chappelet, J-L., Janssen, M., Scholl, H., Berlin: Springer , 2010, p. 38-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares inter-organizational (IO) interaction and inter-organizational information systems (IOS) in public and private sector. The purpose of the paper is to explore differences and similarities between e-government and e-business focusing IOS and interaction. This is done in order to facilitate learning between the two fields. The point of departure is two case studies performed in private vs. public sectors. A comparative study is made using IO concepts from industrial markets that characterize an IO relationship (continuity, complexity, symmetry, and formality) and concepts that describe dimensions of such relationships (links, bonds, and ties). The results from the comparative study show that there are several similarities concerning interaction in relations between organizations in the two sectors. There are also differences depending on the level of analysis (empirical level vs. analytical level). The study shows the need to be explicit regarding organizational value, end-customer or client/citizen value and the type of objects that are exchanged in the interaction.

  • 38.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    IT systems in Public Administration: A Multi-disciplinary Perspective on Trust2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kundval – dilemman i gränssnittet mellan privata och offentliga organisationer2010In: Samtal pågår… från forskare till politiker och tjänstemän i kommuner / [ed] Friberg T, Thelander S, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2010, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Är det bättre med stora än med små kommuner? Kommer folkrörelsepartierna att bli mer kampanj- och väljarorienterade i framtiden? Hur formas en boendepolitik för det goda åldrandet? Lokala transportstrategier – hur och för vem? Hur påverkas kommunledningars samverkan om gymnasieskolan av att det finns friskolor? Är kulturekonomi framtidens lokala tillväxtmotor?</p><p>Dessa och andra frågor behandlas i denna bok. Den är ett led i Centrum för kommunstrategiska studiers, CKS, arbete med att bygga en dialog – utveckla goda samtal – mellan Linköpings universitet och medlemskommunerna i CKS. Den innehåller fjorton olika artiklar, inlägg, som forskare författat för att förmedla sina resultat, men också för att stärka en dialog med politiker och tjänstemän i kommunerna. Inläggen spänner över många olika ämnen och frågeställningar. De är i vissa fall konkreta och koncisa i andra fall beskrivande och reflekterande. Alla är de av kommunstrategisk karaktär.</p><p>I en kommun fattas en mängd olika politiska beslut kring de mest skiftande ämnen. Det kräver kunskap, reflektion och gedigna beslutsunderlag. Då kan forskares analyser och kunskapsproduktion vara till nytta. För att en fördjupad och samhällsrelevant forskning ska komma till stånd behövs emellertid reaktioner från politiker och tjänstemän. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende. Det kan hanteras genom samtal i vilka forskare, politiker och tjänstemän kan utbyta erfarenheter, tankar och kunskaper. Inläggen i denna bok visar att samtal pågår

  • 40.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Keller, Christina
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Modeller för lärandemål: Välreflekterad bedömning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Towards a Model for Learning Outcomes: Experiences from a Project-Oriented Course2010In: ISECON2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an overall model that can be used by a teacher when working with learning outcomes. The model is presented in the context of a project-oriented course and contains three stages. It describes how a teacher can: (1) create a learning breakdown structure with learning modules; (2) define learning activities including feedback, assessment, and examination activities for the learning module; and (3) develop a learning chart that visualises how the learning should be accomplished. The description of the three stages can also be applied to general steps when developing a Gantt chart with project management tools. The work starts in a course with analysing the learning outcomes in the syllabus and breaking it down into learning modules. A learning activity list is subsequently created, which identifies attributes that are associated with each learning activity. This list also includes activities for feedback, assessment and examination of each learning module. Finally, work begins to create relationships between the learning outcomes and learning activities on a calendar-based time axis, which leads to the development of a learning chart. The experiences discussed and analysed here are based on project-oriented education in the context of an undergraduate course at a Swedish university.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing public e-services for several stakeholders: a multifaceted view of the needs for an e-service2009In: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2009) / [ed] Susan Newell, Edgar A. Whitley, Nancy Pouloudi, Jonathan Wareham, Lars Mathiassen, 2009, p. 2804-2815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how several stakeholders in a public e-service development project consider a future e-service and expected changes in administrative processes and working routines. Our findings indicate a much more multifaceted view than the common win-win situation, with increased quality for citizens and increased efficiency for agencies, which is rhetorically put forth as an effect of public e-service implementation. We have studied a development project resulting in an e-service for handling student anonymity when marking written exams in higher education. In this case we have identified five distinct stakeholder groups related to this e-service; students, teachers, course administrators, exam guards, and the university at an agency level. All of them having certain expectations and fears about the new situation. By presenting this diversity in opinions we add further understanding to the notion of e-services as being more or less beneficial for certain stakeholders.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina
    Department of Information, Technology and Media Mid Sweden University Sweden .
    E-government in Sweden: New Directions: Editorial2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2009, no 2, p. 31-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2008, the Swedish Government launched a new eGovernment action plan which was formulated to serve as “a new basis for IT-based organisational development in public administration”. The main objective in the plan was formulated as “as simple as possible for as many as possible”. The definition of eGovernment used in the action plan is the one agreed upon by many other European countries: “eGovernment is organisational development in public administrations that takes advantage of information and communication technologies (ICT) combined with organisational changes and new skills”. Behind the suggested course of actions there is a rhetoric that Sweden was now entering a new path regarding eGovernment development. Taken together the declarations in the plan made it and the expressed expectations of profound changes in public administration an interesting target for critical review.Having identified the importance in critically discussing and analysing the action plan, the Swedish Researchers Network in eGovernment (www.egov.nu) arranged a network meeting at the national conference for public sector in Sweden June 2008. The theme for the meeting was “Reflections on the Swedish action plan for eGovernment”. Several researchers and practitioners shared and debated their reflections during this meeting. In order to continue this very interesting discussion after the conference, we then invited authors to submit an article on the same theme, i.e. analysing different aspects of the Swedish action plan for eGovernment. This call for papers was directed both to participants at the network meeting and others, who wanted to contribute to this on-going debate. The call was to encourage authors to communicate and share their insights and opinions regarding the action plan in order to provide knowledge to decision-makers and other practitioners.

  • 44.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Learning Outcomes in Use: Project-Oriented Education from a Teacher’s Perspective2009In: In The Proceedings of the Information Systems Education Conference 2009, v 26, Washington DC: §1554, 2009, p. 11-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing e-service development: comparing two e-government case studies2009In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 248-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To contribute to a better understanding of the progress and the success vs. failure in e-government development, based on case studies of two inter-organizational e-service projects.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the paper is made from a) an e-government systems development life-cycle perspective and b) a challenge and success factor perspective. The point of departure is theory and a comparative analysis of two e-government projects.

    Findings – The main results in this paper are 1) a combination of perspectives (in a project stage and analysis grid) that can serve as a support when managing e-service development and 2) a set of identified crucial success factors within an inter-organizational e-government project including project manager skills and position in the agency organization as well as when and how systems maintenance issues are introduced into a project. Existing theory and perspectives are also criticised based on the present study.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from a challenge and success factors perspective in two different e-government projects, and suggestions to revise an e-government development life-cycle in order to perform a better practice in the field. The revised/developed project stage and analysis grid presented in the paper is one way to deal with the challenges related to the management of e-service development in the public sector.

    Originality/value – This paper addresses a number of challenges of complexity and risk that e-government initiatives face. It is not an easy matter to realize such initiatives’ potential. A key research issue for the e-government field, as well as the information systems field in general, is to understand why some projects progress to success while others end in failure. This is the niche for the present paper.

  • 46.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Project-based Learning: - An Emergent Framework for Designing Courses2009In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 7, no 34, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we elaborate on a framework, a set of guidelines, for teachers when designing project based courses. The emergent framework presented in this paper will focus on six themes: (1) overall course design, (2) project task, (3) project group, (4) examination, (5) feedback and (6) course evaluation and improvement and is initially grounded in theory and practice. The framework elaborated in this paper should support teachers' development of a professional autonomy within the norms of a professional group and an active curriculum.

  • 47.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Seven key lessons learned from e-government development: A reflective analysis of an e-government project2009In: Scandinavian Workshop on eGovernment, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a longitudinal case study of an e-government development project is reported. The authors have followed a development project during three years, from its initiation to its end. The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discuss their consequences. The findings are presented as seven key lessons that other e-government projects can learn from. The contributions are, thus, both a reflective analysis of an empirical e-government development example and normative statements about how to conduct successful e-government projects.

  • 48.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Six key lessons for e-government projects2009In: Ongoing Research: General Development Issues and Projects of EGOV 09, 8th International Conference / [ed] Scholl HJ, Janssen M, Traunmüller R and Wimmer M, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2009, p. 93-103Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze a public e-service development project from its initiation to its end and reflect upon the process as well as its results. The purpose of the paper is to develop knowledge about how e-government projects should be managed and performed in order to be successful. We do this by identifying and analyzing important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discussing their consequences. The findings are presented as six key lessons for e-government projects. The novel knowledge contribution is that the lessons combine aspects from established CSFs of IT projects with e-government-focused issues. Together these six lessons can be more useful in e-government projects than previous sets of general CSFs for IT projects.

  • 49.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government2008In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 296-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation and isolated development are main problems that hinder successful e-government. This paper has an inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government. We present a conceptual framework that characterises an inter-organisational relationship and its dimensions. The conceptual framework is used for analysing data from an inter-organisational one-stop government project. When applying the framework we focus on some interesting issues and explain some of the challenges that our interviewees identified. By addressing these inter-organisational aspects we reached further understanding of the problems associated with this case, which can provide added value to discussions of e-government challenges, barriers and problems in general.

  • 50.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Citizen Participation and Involvement in eGovernment Projects: An Emergent Framework2008In: Electronic Government / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Hans J. Scholl, Enrico Ferro, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, , p. 207-218p. 207-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from an action research project where focus groups have been used as an approach for taking citizens’ requirements into account during public e-service development projects. In the paper we use theories from the area of user participation in the information systems (IS) discipline in order to discuss and enhance the specific aspects of citizen participation and involvement in the eGovernment context. The main purpose of this paper is to enrich the eGovernment field in general, and to facilitate the citizen perspective in eGovernment development projects in particular, by using notions from the user participation tradition in the IS discipline. Our empirical findings from performing focus groups are discussed and compared to well-known user participation theories from the IS discipline. This results in an emergent framework for better understanding of citizen participation and involvement in the eGovernment context. The emergent framework consists of a set of questions that can be used in order to put an increased focus on the citizen perspective in future eGovernment development projects.

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