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  • 1.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Critical factors for viable business models for urban consolidation centres2017In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 64, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Although urban consolidation centres (UCC) worldwide have improved urban freight distribution and reduced externalities, other UCC initiatives have not materialised due to problems such as for example, business model limitations. All the same, researchers have rarely described business model components relevant to city logistics. In response, the purpose of this article is to analyse critical factors for viable business models of city logistics initiatives involving UCCs. Following an extensive literature review and multiple-case study of five initiatives with UCCs, we identified seven critical factors of viable city logistics business models: the ability to scale up and down the UCC solution; an ability to continuously develop and adapt to a dynamic environment; the important entrepreneurial role of the initiator as well; the acknowledgment of society; ability to innovate new services; logistics and supply chain management competence; and the ability to take full advantage of advanced IT. All seven factors describe continuously redeveloped business models seeking to seize new and unexpected opportunities, yet also indicate that city logistics systems require local authorities and municipalities to act as initiators, enablers, and customers. The models also underscore differences between purely commercial and purely municipal city logistics initiatives.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hybrid steering cultures in the governance of public transport: a successful way to meet demands?2013In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns steering aspects in the governance context of public transport. Various theoretical views of steering have been presented over the years, and it has been argued that a multiple-principal context often leads to fragmented steering. The paper aims to identify steering culture models found among principals operating in the same public transport context, and to explain how a successful procurement outcome is possible, despite the hybrid of steering cultures. The paper is based on an empirical analysis of a Swedish county's planning process that resulted in a very successful procurement outcome that met high environmental and safety standards at a relatively low cost. This procurement was seen as a triumph by principals. The findings presents the existence of various steering cultures among the principals, leading to the conclusion that a “metagovernor,” in this case the PTA, is central to achieving successful outcomes. The metagovernor designed the planning process and formulated a procurement document that satisfied the principals. In this process, the metagovernor negotiated separately with each principal, focusing on the particular characteristics of each principal.

  • 3.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increased public transport usage: The effects of implementing a welfare maximizing policy2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costs and increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losing side in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if a different policy could result in higher public transport usage and improved social welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transport usage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then used in order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfare maximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport is not efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. In 2011, public transport fares should have been lower in 20 of 21 counties and the supply of vehicle kilometres should have been higher in 17 of 21 counties. Implementing a welfare maximizing policy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 17.2% in 2011 and by an average of 6.7% for the period 1986-2011.

  • 4.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Putting our money to good use: Can we attract more passengers without increasing subsidies?2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 256-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the policy of Swedish public transport authorities, determining whether the number of trips on local public transport could have been increased without increasing subsidies. Based on annual data from Swedish counties, the evaluation found that between 1986 and 2001 public transport fares exceeded the passenger-maximising fare most of the time in all but two counties, the average deviation being 1–215%. Evaluating the alternative, passenger-maximising policy, including both fare and service changes for 2001, demonstrated that demand for local public transport in Swedish counties could have been increased by 0–178% without increasing subsidies. Aggregated, this represents a 2.3% increase in the number of trips on local public transport in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The efficiency of public transport operations: An evaluation using stochastic frontier analysis2013In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of public transport operations undertaken in Swedish counties by the Public Transport Authorities (PTA), taking into account the substantial differences in operating conditions between counties. The analysis will be performed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with annual data from 1986 to 2009 for 26 Swedish counties. The analysis shows how the efficiency of the individual counties has changed over time. The results are used to provide a ranking (in terms of efficiency) of the Swedish public transport authorities that can provide a basis for benchmarking. It is concluded that the efficiency of the public transport providers in all counties fell during the observed time period. Defining cost efficiency as the ratio of minimum cost to observed cost, the overall (average) cost efficiency for the industry fell from 85.7% in the eighties to 60.4% for the period from 2000 to 2009. Possible explanations for the development include increased emphasis on route density as well as higher environmental and safety requirements.

  • 6.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public transport in towns: Inevitably on the decline?2008In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the post war development of public transport demand in the town of Linköping is explained using time series analysis. It is found that the dramatic increase in public transport demand between 1946 and 1983, at least in part, can be explained by the rapid increase in female labour force participation and the expansion of the city’s outer areas. After that, female labour force participation decreased slightly and the town expansion has stopped. Without these positive forces to counterbalance the rising levels of car ownership public transport demand has fallen by 71%. The effects of a policy change, including peak-load pricing, straighter bus routes, smaller bus size and staggered school hours, is analysed. It is found that the proposed package would increase public transport travel by 42 % compared to present policy.

  • 7.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuing environmental quality in actual travel time savings - The Haningeleden road project in Stockholm2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on the environment are rarely valued in planning infrastructure for different modes of transport. This can detract from optimal planning and fair competition, which might be better served by valuing environmental quality changes through actual travel time savings. New transport infrastructure often creates both positive and negative effects for the same groups of users, although to different degrees for different individuals. This paper illustrates a proposed methodology to investigate the effect of a planned transport infrastructure investment through a survey of potential users of the Haningeleden road project in Stockholm. Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 2400 persons living in the affected area in May and June 2013, including detailed questions about their travel patterns and visiting frequencies, and whether, after reading a description of the proposed change, they would be in favour of the proposed change. The negative encroachment costs and the positive relief from traffic in other areas were estimated in travel time savings.

  • 8.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Public transport policy for central-city travel in the light of recent experiences of congestion charging2008In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excellent public transport which makes the private car a minority mode of central-city travel is a necessary condition for a political process towards the introduction of congestion charges. However, the charging system costs in London and Stockholm have proved to be unexpectedly high. Therefore, before these costs come down to an affordable level, zero-fares for central-city travel and stricter parking policy would be a first-best combination in many cities, always provided that the public transport is really competitive. A bold venture in public transport development is consequently the top priority irrespective of the transport pricing policy direction. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden; K2 Swedish Knowledge Ctr Publ Transport, Sweden.
    Camen, Carolina
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 69, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camen amp; Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 10.
    Walters, J.
    et al.
    Department of Transport and Supply Chain Management, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Risk and reward in public transportation contracting2008In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workshop discusses and documents a number of countries' experiences regarding risk and reward in the delivery of public transport and determines the way in which competitive pressures actually work (or not) to deliver efficient and effective services. Papers are grouped into three main themes, i.e., public versus private management, negotiated versus competitively tendered contracts, and measures to improve performance. This chapter begins with a brief overview of each of the eight papers. This is followed by a section that out the discussions that emanated from the papers. Finally, the main policy and research recommendations are presented. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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