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  • 1.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rittrich, Dirk
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrical resistivity of Tin+1ACn (A = Si, Ge, Sn, n = 1–3) thin films2007In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 2279-2287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the electrical resistivity of (0001)-oriented Tin+1ACn (A = Si, Ge, Sn, n = 1–3) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Al2O3(0001) substrates at temperatures ranging from 500 to 950 °C. Four-point-probe measurements show that all films are good conductors with resistivity values of ∼21–51 μΩ cm for Ti–Si–C films, ∼15–50 μΩ cm for Ti–Ge–C films, and ∼46 μΩ cm for Ti2SnC. We find a general trend of decreasing resistivity with decreasing n for the Ti–Si–C and Ti–Ge–C systems due to the increased metallicity obtained with increasing density of A-element layers. We also show that crystalline quality and competitive growth of impurity phases affect the measured resistivity values. The effect of a given impurity phase largely depends on its location in the sample. Specifically, a TiCx layer in the center of the film constricts the current flow and results in an increased measured resistivity value. However, TiCx transition or seed layers at the substrate–film interface as well as surface segregation of Ge and Ti5Ge3Cx (for Ti–Ge–C) have only little effect on the measured resistivity values. For the Ti–Sn–C system, the resistivity is mainly influenced by the segregation of metallic Sn, yielding a wide spread in the measured values ranging from 20–46 μΩ cm, in the order of increased film purity.

  • 2. Engstrom, C
    et al.
    Madan, A
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Nastasi, M
    Northwestern Univ, Advanced Coating Technol Grp, Evanston, IL 60201 USA Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Calif Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Barnett, SA
    Northwestern Univ, Advanced Coating Technol Grp, Evanston, IL 60201 USA Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Calif Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    High-temperature stability of epitaxial, non-isostructural Mo/NbN superlattices2000In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 554-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of 1000 degrees C vacuum annealing on the structure and hardness of epitaxial Mo/NbN superlattice thin films was studied. The intensity of superlattice satellite peaks, measured by x-ray diffraction, decreased during annealing while new peaks corresponding to a MoNbN ternary phase appeared. The results are consistent with the Mo-Nb-N phase diagram, which shows no mutual solubility between Mo, NbN, and MoNbN. Even after 3-h anneals and a loss of most of the superlattice peak intensity, the room-temperature hardness was the same as for as-deposited superlattices, The retained hardness suggests that a residual nanocomposite structure is retained even after the formation of the ternary structure.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Sjölen, Jacob
    Seco Tools AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ti-Si-C-N Thin Films Grown by Reactive Arc Evaporation from Ti3SiC2 Cathodes2011In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 26, p. 874-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-Si-C-N thin films were deposited onto WC-Co substrates by industrial scale arc evaporation from Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes in N2 gas. Microstructure and hardness were found to be highly dependent on the wide range of film compositions attained, comprising up to 12 at.% Si and 16 at.% C. Nonreactive deposition yielded films consisting of understoichiometric TiCx, Ti and silicide phases with high (27 GPa) hardness. At a nitrogen pressure of 0.25-0.5 Pa, below that required for N saturation, superhard, 45-50 GPa, (Ti,Si)(C,N) films with a nanocrystalline feathered structure were formed. Films grown above 2 Pa displayed crystalline phases of more pronounced nitride character, but with C and Si segregated to grain boundaries to form weak grain boundary phases. In abundance of N, the combined presence of Si and C disturb cubic phase growth severely and compromises the mechanical strength of the films.

  • 4.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mikhaylushkin, Arkady
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gullikson, Eric M.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kressing, U.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of O and N impurities on the nanostructural evolution during growth of Cr/Sc multilayers2009In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 79-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal multilayers are prime candidates for high reflectivity soft x-ray multilayer mirrors. In particular, Cr/Sc multilayers in the amorphous state have proven to give the highest reflectivity in the water window. We have investigated the influence of impurities N and O as residual gas elements on the growth, structure, and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayers deposited in high vacuum conditions by a dual cathode direct current magnetron sputter deposition. Multilayer structures with the modulation periods in the range of 0.9–4.5 nm and Cr layer to bilayer thickness ratios in the range of 0.17–0.83 were deposited with an intentionally raised base pressure (pB), ranging from 2 × 10-7 to 2 × 10-5 Torr. Compositional depth profiles were obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, while the structural investigations of the multilayers were carried out using hard x-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy. By investigating stacked multilayers, i.e., several multilayers with different designs of the modulation periods, stacked on top of each other in the samples, we have been able to conclude that both N and O are incorporated preferentially in the interior of the Sc layers. At pB = 2 × 10-6 Torr, typically <3 at.% of N and <1.5 at.% of O was found, which did not influence the amorphous nanostructure of the layers. Multilayers deposited with a high pB ~2 × 10-5 Torr, a N content as high as ~37 at.% was measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. These multilayers mainly consist of understoichiometric face-centered cubic CrN x /ScN y nanocrystalline layers, which could be grown as thin at 0.3 nm and is explained by a stabilizing effect on the ScN y layers during growth. It is also shown that by adding a background pressure of as little as 5 × 10-6 Torr of pure N2 the soft x-ray reflectivity (? = 3.11 nm) can be enhanced by more than 100% by N incorporation into the multilayer structures, whereas pure O2 at the same background pressure had no effect.

  • 5.
    Hellgren, N
    et al.
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Lin, N
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Broitman, E
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Serin, V
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Grillo, SE
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Twesten, R
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Petrov, I
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Colliex, C
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Sundgren, JE
    Univ Illinois, Frederick Seitz Mat Res Lab, Ctr Microanal Mat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ctr Elaborat Mat Etud Struct, Ctr Rech Sci, F-31055 Toulouse, France Univ Paris 11, Phys Solides Lab, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Thermal stability of carbon nitride thin films2001In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 3188-3201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of carbon nitride films, deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering in N-2 discharge, was studied for postdeposition annealing temperatures T-A up to 1000 degreesC. Films were grown at temperatures of 100 degreesC (amorphous structure) and 350 and 550 degreesC (fullerenelike structure) and were analyzed with respect to thickness, composition, microstructure, bonding structure, and mechanical properties as a function of T-A and annealing time. All properties investigated were found to be stable for annealing up to 300 degreesC for long times (> 48 h). For higher T-A, nitrogen is lost from the films and graphitization takes place. At T-A = 500 degreesC the graphitization process takes up to 48 h while at T-A = 900 degreesC it takes less than 2 min. A comparison on the evolution of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Raman spectra during annealing shows that for T-A > 800 degreesC, preferentially pyridinelike N and -C equivalent toN is lost from the films, mainly in the form of molecular N-2 and C2N2, while N substituted in graphite is preserved the longest in the structure. Films deposited at the higher temperature exhibit better thermal stability, but annealing at temperatures a few hundred degrees Celsius above the deposition temperature for long times is always detrimental for the mechanical properties of the films.

  • 6.
    Högberg, H
    et al.
    Ångström Lab Uppsala university.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Malm, J-O
    National Center of HREM Lunds university.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Jansson, U
    Ångström lab Uppsala university.
    Growth, structure and mechanical properties of transition metal carbide superlattices2001In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 1301-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Johansson, MP
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Jansson, U
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Inorgan Chem, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Deposition of epitaxial transition metal carbide films and superlattices by simultaneous direct current metal magnetron sputtering and C-60 evaporation2001In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 633-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin epitaxial TiC and VC films and superlattices have been deposited on MgO(001) by simultaneous sputtering of the metals and evaporation of C-60. It was found that epitaxial growth conditions for TiC could be maintained down to a temperature of 100 degreesC, while the epitaxial growth of VC required 200 degreesC, Epitaxial VC films were completely relaxed at all growth temperatures, while a change from a relaxed to a strained growth behavior was observed for TiC films. The structural quality of the TiC films was better than for the VC films. A general observation was that a plasma-assisted deposition process yields films with a higher quality and allows epitaxial growth at lower temperatures than for a pure coevaporation process.

  • 8.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Epitaxial Ti2GeC, Ti3GeC2, and Ti4GeC3 MAX-phase thin films grown by magnetron sputtering2005In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 779-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have grown single-crystal thin films of Ti2GeC and Ti3GeC2 and a new phase Ti4GeC3, as well as two new intergrown MAX-structures, Ti5Ge2C3 and Ti7Ge2C5. Epitaxial films were grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates at 1000 °C using direct current magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction shows that Ti–Ge–C MAX-phases require higher deposition temperatures in a narrower window than their Ti–Si–C correspondences do, while there are similarities in phase distribution. Nanoindentation reveals a Young’s modulus of 300 GPa, lower than that of Ti3SiC2. Four-point probe measurements yield resistivity values of 50–200 μΩcm. The lowest value is obtained for phase-pure Ti3GeC2(0001) films.

  • 9.
    Israr Qadir, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jamil Rana, Sadaf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cathodoluminescence characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by chemical solution and of its conversion to ellipsoidal morphology2014In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 29, no 20, p. 2425-2431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile and reproducible low-temperature (80 degrees C) solution route has been introduced to synthesize ZnO ellipsoids on silicon substrate without any pretreatment of the substrate or organic/inorganic additives. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy are performed to analyze the structural evolution, the single crystalline nature, and growth orientation at different stages of the synthetic process. The sequential formation mechanisms of heterogeneous nucleation in primary and secondary crystal growth behaviors have been discussed in detail. The presented results reveal that the morphology of micro/nanostructures with desired features can be optimized. The optical properties of grown structures at different stages were investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL). The monochromatic CL images were recorded to examine the UV and visible band emission contributions from the different positions of the intermediate and final structures of the individual ZnO ellipsoid. Significant enhancement in the defect level emission intensity at the central position of the structure reveals that the quality of the material improves as the reaction time is extended.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Leif I
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Properties of epitaxial graphene grown on C-face SiC compared to Si-face2014In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 426-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial graphene of uniform thickness prepared on SiC is of great interest for various applications. On the Si-face, large area uniformity has been achieved, and there is a general consensus about the graphene properties. A similar uniformity has yet not been demonstrated on the C-face where the graphene has been claimed to be fundamentally different. A rotational disorder between adjacent graphene layers has been reported and suggested to explain why multilayer C-face graphene show the pi-band characteristic of monolayer graphene. Utilizing low energy electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron electron microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigated the properties of C-face graphene prepared by sublimation growth. We observe the formation of micrometer-sized crystallographic grains of multilayer graphene and no rotational disorder between adjacent layers within a grain. Adjacent grains are in general found to have different azimuthal orientations. Effects on C-face graphene by hydrogen treatment and Na exposure were also investigated and are reported. Why multilayer C-face graphene exhibits single layer electronic properties is still a puzzle, however.

  • 11.
    Jönsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the metal/polymer contacts involving aluminum and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonic acid) derivatives2003In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1219-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contact formed between aluminum and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS) derivatives was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The aluminum/PEDOT-PSS contact contains an interfacial layer formed by chemical reactions between aluminum and mainly poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSH). These chemical interactions were studied with the help of model systems (PSSH, benzenesulfonic acid, and sodium benzenesulfonate). The preferred reaction site of aluminum is the SO3 and SO3H+ groups of the PSS chains, giving rise to C-S-Al(-O) and C-O-Al species. The resulting contact formed consists of an insulating aluminum/PSS layer and a thin region of partially dedoped PEDOT-PSS. There is significant aluminum diffusion into films of the highly conducting form of PEDOT-PSS that have substantially less PSS at the surface. Hence, no (thick) aluminum/PSS layer is formed in this case, though the PEDOT chains close to the aluminum contact will still be partially dedoped as for the aluminum/PEDOT-PSS case.

  • 12.
    Landälv, Ludvig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Rogström, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostach, Daniel
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leiste, Harald
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Ailing, Bjorn
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Theoret Phys, Dept Phys Chem and Biol IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stuber, Michael
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany.
    Schell, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase evolution of radio frequency magnetron sputtered Cr-rich (Cr,Zr)(2)O-3 coatings studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing in air or vacuum2019In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 34, no 22, p. 3735-3746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase evolution of reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coatings has been studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing under air atmosphere and vacuum. The annealing in vacuum shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at similar to 750-800 degrees C, followed by decomposition of the alpha-Cr2O3 structure in conjunction with bcc-Cr formation, starting at similar to 950 degrees C. The resulting coating after annealing to 1140 degrees C is a mixture of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and bcc-Cr. The air-annealed sample shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at similar to 750 degrees C. The resulting coating after annealing to 975 degrees C is a mixture of t-ZrO2 and alpha-Cr2O3 (with dissolved Zr). The microstructure coarsened slightly during annealing, but the mechanical properties are maintained, with no detectable bcc-Cr formation. A larger t-ZrO2 fraction compared with alpha-Cr2O3 is observed in the vacuum-annealed coating compared with the air-annealed coating at 975 degrees C. The results indicate that the studied pseudo-binary oxide is more stable in air atmosphere than in vacuum.

  • 13.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An introduction to thin film processing using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2012In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 780-792Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a promising sputtering-based ionized physical vapor deposition technique and is already making its way to industrial applications. The major difference between HiPIMS and conventional magnetron sputtering processes is the mode of operation. In HiPIMS the power is applied to the magnetron (target) in unipolar pulses at a low duty factor (andlt;10%) and low frequency (andlt;10 kHz) leading to peak target power densities of the order of several kilowatts per square centimeter while keeping the average target power density low enough to avoid magnetron overheating and target melting. These conditions result in the generation of a highly dense plasma discharge, where a large fraction of the sputtered material is ionized and thereby providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this review, the features distinguishing HiPIMS from other deposition methods will be addressed in detail along with how they influence the deposition conditions, such as the plasma parameters and the sputtered material, as well as the resulting thin film properties, such as microstructure, phase formation, and chemical composition. General trends will be established in conjunction to industrially relevant material systems to present this emerging technology to the interested reader.

  • 14.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films2016In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 232-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered thin films of Al/Cu/Fe have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and annealed into the quasicrystalline or approximant phases, for Al2O3 or Si substrates, respectively. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties; hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, have been measured using a triboindenter and analytical methods. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, <0.1 MPa/m½, was however inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. The friction coefficients were measured in a range of 0.10-0.14 for the quasicrystalline and approximant thin films.

  • 15.
    Rogström, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Tooling AB, 126 80 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almer, J.
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase transformations in nanocomposite ZrAlN thin films during annealing2012In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 27, no 13, p. 1716-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposite Zr0.52Al0.48N1.11 thin films consisting of crystalline grains surrounded by an amorphous matrix were deposited using cathodic arc evaporation. The structure evolution after annealing of the films was studied using high-energy x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were characterized by nanoindentation on as-deposited and annealed films. After annealing in temperatures of 1050-1400 C nucleation and grain growth of cubic ZrN takes place in the film. This increases the hardness, which reaches a maximum while parts of the film remain amorphous. Grain growth of the hexagonal AlN phase occurs above 1400 C.

  • 16.
    Salaneck, William R
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Hybrid interfaces of conjugate polymers: Band edge alignment studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy2004In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1917-1923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control of hybrid interfaces in polymer-based electronic devices may be enabling in many applications. The engineering of hybrid interface involves (requires) an understanding of the electronic structure of materials - one organic and one inorganic - that form the two halves of hybrid interfaces, as well as the electronic and chemical consequences of the coupling of the two. Although much literature exists describing the interfaces between vapor-deposited organic molecules and model molecules for polymers on the surfaces of clean metals in ultrahigh vacuum, few studies have been reported on spin-coated, semiconducting polymer films on realistic substrates. Spin coating in an inert atmosphere (or even air) is a central part of the process of the fabrication of polymer-based light-emitting devices and other modern polymer-based electronic components. Here, work on the electronic structure of semiconducting (conjugated) polymer films spin-coated onto selected inorganic substrates, carried out using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, is reviewed and summarized to generate a generalized picture of the hybrid interfaces formed under realistic device fabrication conditions. © 2004 Materials Research Society.

  • 17.
    Shen, Zhijian
    et al.
    Dept. of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygren, Mats
    Dept. Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Effects of phase equilibrium on the oxidation behavior of rare-earth-doped α-sialon ceramics1999In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1462-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of rare-earth-(RE)doped α-sialons (RExSi12-4.5xAl4.5xO1.5xN16-1.5x, with X = 0.4 for RE = Nd, Sm, Yb, and x = 0.48 for RE = Y) were prepared and heat-treated in air at 1350 oC for 66-727 h (3-30 days), and the variation in composition and structure with time of the formed oxide scales and matrix materials were investigated. In the oxide scales of the Nd-, Sm-, and Y-containing samples a liquid was formed, apparently in (quasi-)equilibrium with the crystalline phases cristobalite and mullite, while only crystalline Yb2Si2O7, cristobalite, and mullite were observed in the Yb sample. Apparently, the liquid plays an important role in the oxidation process. In the depleted zone, located between the scale and the matrix, the liquid attacks the matrix phases, and a process takes place in which the originally formed phases dissolve and repricipitate as more oxygen-rich phases. In the Nd- and Sm-doped systems, where the α-sialon phase is inherently metastable at 1350 oC, an extensive αβ-sialon transformation takes place, creating still more liquid. As a consequence, the oxidation resistance of α-sialons containing Nd and Sm is much lower than those containing Y and, in particular, Yb.

  • 18. Söderberg, Hans
    et al.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterization of TiN/SiN(001) superlattice films2007In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 3255-3264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the layer structure and composition in recently discovered TiN/SiN(001) superlattices deposited by dual-reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reflection, diffraction, and reciprocal-space mapping shows the formation of high-quality superlattices with coherently strained cubic TiN and SiN layers for SiN thickness below 7–10 Å. For increasing SiN layer thicknesses, a transformation from epitaxial to amorphous SiNx (x ? 1) occurs during growth. Elastic recoil detection analysis revealed an increase in nitrogen and argon content in SiNx layers during the phase transformation. The oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen contents in the multilayers were around the detection limit (~0.1 at.%) with no indication of segregation to the layer interfaces. Nanoindentation experiments confirmed superlattice hardening in the films. The highest hardness of 40.4 ± 0.8 GPa was obtained for 20-Å TiN with 5-Å-thick SiN(001) interlayers, compared to monolithic TiN at 20.2 ± 0.9 GPa.

  • 19.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Model for electron-beam-induced crystallization of amorphous Me-Si-C (Me = Nb or Zr) thin films2014In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 29, no 23, p. 2854-2862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for in-situ studies of electronbeam-induced crystallization behavior in thin films of amorphous transition metal silicon carbides based on Zr (group 4 element) and Nb (group 5). Higher silicon content stabilized the amorphous structure while no effects of carbon were detected. Films with Nb start to crystallize at lower electron doses than Zr-containing ones. During the crystallization equiaxed MeC grains are formed in all samples with larger grains for Zr (~5nm) compared to Nb (~2nm). Eventually the sample stabilizes and the crystallization process stops. A model is presented where the metal carbide grains nucleate and grow while Si segregates into the remaining amorphous matrix. At a certain Si concentration in the matrix the graingrowth stops.

  • 20.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Olafsson, S
    Madsen, LD
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Swedish Def Res Agcy, FOI, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Dept Condensed Matter Phys, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudner, S
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Grishin, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Swedish Def Res Agcy, FOI, SE-58111 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Dept Condensed Matter Phys, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Growth and characterization of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films on polycrystalline Pt80Ir20 substrates2002In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1183-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Na0.5K0.5NbO3 thin films have been deposited onto textured polycrystalline Pt80Ir20 substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Films were grown in off- and on-axis positions relative to the target at growth temperatures of 500-700 degreesC and sputtering pressures of 1-7 Pa. The deposited films were found to be textured, displaying a mixture of two orientations (001) and (101). Films grown on-axis showed a prefered (001) orientation, while the off-axis films had a (101) orientation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the films was dependent on the substrate position and sputtering pressure. The low-frequency (10 kHz) dielectric constants of the films were found to be in the range of approximately 490-590. Hydrostatic piezoelectric measurements showed that the films were piezoelectric in the as-deposited form with a constant up to 14.5 pC/N.

  • 21.
    Wang, Yandong
    et al.
    Key Lab for Anisotropy & Texture of Mater., Northeastern Univ., Shenyang, China.
    Cong, D Y
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zetterström, P
    The Studsvik Neutron Research Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Zhang, Z F
    Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Inst of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhao, X
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Zuo, L
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Textures and compressive properties of ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys Ni48Mg25Ga22Co5 prepared by isothermal forging process2006In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Wang, Y.D.
    et al.
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China.
    Cong, D.Y.
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zetterstrom, P.
    Zetterström, P., The Studsvik Neutron Research Laboratory (NFL), Uppsala University, S-61182 Nyköping, Sweden.
    Zhang, Z.F.
    Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese of Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.
    Zhao, X.
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China.
    Zuo, L.
    School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China.
    Textures and compressive properties of ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 prepared by isothermal forging process2006In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 691-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni48Mn25 Ga22CO5 was prepared by the induction melting and isothermal forging process. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the isothermal forging. The deformation texture was studied by the neutron diffraction technique. The main texture components consist of (110) [11¯2] and (001) [100], which suggested that in-plane plastic flow anisotropy should be expected in the as-forged condition. The uniaxial compression fracture strain in the forged alloy reaches over 9.5%. The final room-temperature fracture of the polycrystalline Ni48Mn25Ga22CO5 is controlled mainly by intergranular mode. © 2006 Materials Research Society.

  • 23.
    Willmann, Herbert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Mayrhofer, Paul H
    Montanauniv Leoben, Dept Phys Met & Mat Testing, Christian Doppler Lab Adv Hard Coatings, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Mitterer , Christian
    Montanauniv Leoben, Dept Phys Met & Mat Testing, Christian Doppler Lab Adv Hard Coatings, A-8700 Leoben, Austria.
    Hardness evolution of Al-Cr-N coatings under thermal load2008In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2880-2885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructure and hardness evolution of arc-evaporated single-phase Cubic Al0.56Cr0.44N and Al0.68Cr0.32N coatings have been investigated after thermal treatment in Ar atmosphere. Based on a combination of differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction studies, We Can Conclude that Al0.56Cr0.44N undergoes only small structural changes without any decomposition for annealing temperatures T-a <= 900 degrees C. Consequently, the hardness decreases only marginally from the as-deposited value of 30.0 +/- 1.1 GPa to 29.4 +/- 0.9 GPa with T-a increasing to 900 degrees C, respectively. The film with higher Al content (Al0.68Cr0.32N) exhibits formation of hexagonal (h) AlN at T-a >= 700 degrees C, which occurs preferably at grain boundaries as identified by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Hence, the hardness increases from the as-deposited value of 30.1 +/- 1.3 GPa to 31.6 +/- 1.4 GPa with T-a = 725 degrees C. At higher temperatures, where the size and volume fraction of the h-AlN phase increases, the hardness decreases to 27.5 +/- 1.0 GPa with T-a = 900 degrees C.

  • 24.
    Yashar, PC
    et al.
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL 60208 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Northwestern Univ, Adv Coatings Technol Grp, Evanston, IL 60201 USA.
    Barnett, SA
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL 60208 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Northwestern Univ, Adv Coatings Technol Grp, Evanston, IL 60201 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Sproul, WD
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Evanston, IL 60208 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Northwestern Univ, Adv Coatings Technol Grp, Evanston, IL 60201 USA.
    Deposition and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Y2O3/ZrO2 superlattices1999In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 3614-3622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycrystalline Y2O3/ZrO2 superlattice thin films were deposited using opposed-cathode reactive magnetron sputtering. Pulsed direct-current power was used to eliminate arcing on the metallic targets. Radio-frequency power was applied to the substrates to achieve ion bombardment of the growing film. In order to reproducibly deposit at high rates in Ar-O-2 mixtures, the Y target voltage was used to indirectly feedback-control the O-2 partial pressure. Deposition rates as high as similar to 70% of the pure metal rates were achieved, typically 3.5 mu m/h. Superlattices with periods ranging from 2.6 to 95 nm were deposited. Y2O3 layer thicknesses were either 75% or 50% of the superlattice period. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies showed well-defined superlattice layers. The ZrO2 layers exhibited the high-temperature cubic-fluorite structure, which was epitaxially stabilized by the cubic Y2O3 layers, for thicknesses less than or equal to 7 nm. The equilibrium monoclinic structure was observed for thicker ZrO2 layers. Nanoindentation hardnesses ranged from 11.1 to 14.5 GPa with little dependence on period. The hardness results are discussed in terms of current superlattice hardening theories.

  • 25.
    Zangooie, S
    et al.
    Univ Nebraska, Ctr Microelect & Opt Mat Res, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA Univ Nebraska, Dept Elect Engn, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Lab Appl Opt, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Woollam, JA
    Univ Nebraska, Ctr Microelect & Opt Mat Res, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA Univ Nebraska, Dept Elect Engn, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Lab Appl Opt, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Self-organization in porous 6H-SiC2000In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1860-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pores in porous 6H-SiC were found to propagate first nearly parallel with the basal plane and gradually change direction and align with the c axis. As a consequence, well-defined columnar pores were formed. It was shown that the rate of change of propagation directions was influenced by the etching parameters, such as hydrofluoric acid concentration and current density. Larger currents resulted in formation of larger pores. Pore sizes were found to increase with depth due to a decrease of the acid concentration. In addition, due to chemical etching effects, larger pore sizes were obtained close to the sample surface.

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