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  • 1.
    Boiso, Samuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zackrisson, Anna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsen Falk, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Kugelberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägg, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    ABCB1 gene polymorphisms are associated with suicide in forensic autopsies2013In: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, ISSN 1744-6872, E-ISSN 1744-6880, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 463-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Polymorphisms in ABCB1 have the ability to affect both the function and the expression of the transporter protein P-glycoprotein and may lead to an altered response for many drugs including some antidepressants and antipsychotics.Objective The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the ABCB1 polymorphisms 1199Gandgt;A, 1236Candgt;T, 2677Gandgt;T/A, and 3435Candgt;T in deaths by suicide.Patients and methods A total of 998 consecutive Swedish forensic autopsies performed in 2008 in individuals 18 years of age or older, where femoral blood was available and a toxicological screening had been performed, were investigated. Genotypes were assessed with pyrosequencing and information on the cause and manner of each death was obtained from the forensic pathology and toxicology databases.Results There was a significantly higher frequency of the T allele at positions 1236, 2677, and 3435 among the suicide cases compared with the nonsuicide cases.Conclusion Our result from forensic cases suggests that ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk for completed suicides. The biological mechanisms involved and the clinical implications for these findings are largely unknown and need to be examined further.

  • 2.
    Christensen, Mette M H
    et al.
    University of So Denmark.
    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte
    Odense University Hospital.
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nielsen, Flemming
    University of So Denmark.
    Damkier, Per
    Odense University Hospital.
    Beck-Nielsen, Henning
    Odense University Hospital.
    Brosen, Kim
    University of So Denmark.
    The pharmacogenetics of metformin and its impact on plasma metformin steady-state levels and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c2011In: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, ISSN 1744-6872, E-ISSN 1744-6880, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 837-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic variations in OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE 2, and PMAT on the trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin and hemoglobin A1c (Hb1Ac). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod The South Danish Diabetes Study was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. One hundred and fifty-nine patients received 1 g of metformin, twice daily continuously, and 415 repeated plasma metformin measurements were obtained after 3, 6, and 9 months of treatment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults The mean trough steady-state metformin plasma concentration was estimated to be 576 ng/ml (range, 54-4133 ng/ml, rho = 0.55) and correlated to the number of reduced function alleles in OCT1 (none, one or two: 642, 542, 397 ng/ml; P = 0.001). The absolute decrease in Hb1Ac both initially and long term was also correlated to the number of reduced function alleles in OCT1 resulting in diminished pharmacodynamic effect of metformin after 6 and 24 months. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion In a large cohort of type 2 diabetics, we either confirm or show for the first time: (a) an enormous 80-fold) variability in trough steady-state metformin plasma concentration, (b) OCT1 activity affects metformin steady-state pharmacokinetics, and (c) OCT1 genotype has a bearing on HbA1c during metformin treatment.

  • 3.
    Lindqvist Appell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Berg, Jonathan
    City Hospital, England .
    Duley, John
    University of Queensland, Australia .
    Evans, William E.
    St Jude Childrens Research Hospital, TN USA .
    Kennedy, Martin A:
    University of Otago, New Zealand .
    Lennard, Lynne
    University of Sheffield, England .
    Marinaki, Tony
    Guys and St Thomas Hospital, England .
    McLeod, Howard L.
    University of N Carolina, NC USA .
    Relling, Mary V.
    St Jude Childrens Research Hospital, TN USA .
    Schaeffeler, Elke
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute Clin Pharmacol, Germany .
    Schwab, Matthias
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute Clin Pharmacol, Germany .
    Weinshilboum, Richard
    Mayo Clin, MN USA .
    Yeoh, Allen E J
    National University of Singapore, Singapore .
    McDonagh, Ellen M.
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Hebert, Joan M.
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Klein, Teri E.
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Coulthard, Sally A.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Nomenclature for alleles of the thiopurine methyltransferase gene2013In: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, ISSN 1744-6872, E-ISSN 1744-6880, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 242-248Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drug-metabolizing enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) has become one of the best examples of pharmacogenomics to be translated into routine clinical practice. TPMT metabolizes the thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, and azathioprine, drugs that are widely used for treatment of acute leukemias, inflammatory bowel diseases, and other disorders of immune regulation. Since the discovery of genetic polymorphisms in the TPMT gene, many sequence variants that cause a decreased enzyme activity have been identified and characterized. Increasingly, to optimize dose, pretreatment determination of TPMT status before commencing thiopurine therapy is now routine in many countries. Novel TPMT sequence variants are currently numbered sequentially using PubMed as a source of information; however, this has caused some problems as exemplified by two instances in which authors articles appeared on PubMed at the same time, resulting in the same allele numbers given to different polymorphisms. Hence, there is an urgent need to establish an order and consensus to the numbering of known and novel TPMT sequence variants. To address this problem, a TPMT nomenclature committee was formed in 2010, to define the nomenclature and numbering of novel variants for the TPMT gene. A website (http://www.imh.liu.se/tpmtalleles) serves as a platform for this work. Researchers are encouraged to submit novel TPMT alleles to the committee for designation and reservation of unique allele numbers. The committee has decided to renumber two alleles: nucleotide position 106 (Gandgt;A) from TPMT*24 to TPMT*30 and position 611 (Tandgt;C, rs79901429) from TPMT*28 to TPMT*31. Nomenclature for all other known alleles remains unchanged. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 23: 242-248

  • 4.
    Skoglund, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Boiso, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vikingsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Green, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCG2 increase the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cell line2014In: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, ISSN 1744-6872, E-ISSN 1744-6880, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia are substrates for the efflux transport protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Variations in ABCG2 activity might influence pharmacokinetics and therapeutic outcome of TKIs. The role of ABCG2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TKI treatment is not clear and functional in-vitro studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of ABCG2 SNPs for transport and efficacy of TKIs [imatinib, N-desmethyl imatinib (CGP74588), dasatinib, nilotinib, and bosutinib].Materials and methodsABCG2 SNPs 34Ggreater thanA, 421Cgreater thanA, 623Tgreater thanC, 886Ggreater thanC, 1574Tgreater thanG, and 1582Ggreater thanA were constructed from ABCG2 wild-type cDNA and transduced to K562 cells by retroviral gene transfer. Variant ABCG2 expression in cell membranes was evaluated and the effects of ABCG2 SNPs on transport and efficacy of TKIs were measured as the ability of ABCG2 variants to protect against TKI cytotoxicity.ResultsWild-type ABCG2 had a protective effect against the cytotoxicity of all investigated compounds except bosutinib. It was found that ABCG2 expression provided better protection against CGP74588 than its parent compound, imatinib. ABCG2 421Cgreater thanA, 623Tgreater thanC, 886Ggreater thanC, and 1574Tgreater thanG reduced cell membrane expression of ABCG2 and the protective effect of ABCG2 against imatinib, CGP74588, dasatinib, and nilotinib cytotoxicity.ConclusionThese findings show that the ABCG2 SNPs 421Cgreater thanA, 623Tgreater thanC, 886Ggreater thanC, and 1574Tgreater thanG increase the efficacy of investigated TKIs, indicating a reduced transport function that might influence TKI pharmacokinetics in vivo. Furthermore, the active imatinib metabolite CGP74588 is influenced by ABCG2 expression to a greater extent than the parent compound.

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