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  • 1.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring polarization features in light reflection from beetles with structural colors2015In: Proc. SPIE  9429, Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication 2015, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9429, p. 942909-1-942909-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mueller matrix of a sample can be used to determine the polarization of  reflected light  for  incident light with arbitrary polarization. The polarization can be quantified  in terms of ellipticity, polarization azimuth and degree of polarization. We apply spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at multiple angles of incidence  to study the cuticle of beetles and derive  polarization features for incident unpolarized light.  In particular we address chiral phenomena in scarab beetles,  the origin of their structural colors and the observed high degree of circular polarization is discussed. Results from beetles in the Scarabaeidae subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae are presented including specimens with broad-band silver- or gold-like colors with metallic shine as well as specimens with narrow-band green or red reflectors. The variation of polarization with angle of incidence and occurrence of both left-handed and right-handed polarization from a single species are presented. We also use Mueller-matrix spectra in electromagnetic modeling and show how to determine structural parameters including cuticle layer thicknesses and optical properties. Interference oscillations in the observed spectra are due to allowed optical modes and we show how to develop a structural model of a cuticle based on this effect. Sum decomposition of  Mueller matrices measured on a depolarizing cuticle of a beetle is briefly discussed.

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  • 2.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring optics of beetle cuticles with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2014In: Materials Today, ISSN 1369-7021, E-ISSN 1873-4103, Vol. 1S, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence is applied to beetle cuticles using a small (50 -100 μm) spot size. It is demonstrated how ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light can be derived from a Mueller matrix providing a detailed insight into reflection properties. Results from Cetonia aurata, Chrysina argenteola and Cotinis mutabilis are presented. The use of Mueller matrices in regression analysis to extract structural and optical parameters of cuticles is briefly described and applied to cuticle data from Cetonia aurata whereby the pitch of the twisted layered structure in the cuticle is determined as well as the refractive indices of the epicuticle and the exocuticle.

  • 3.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Arreola-Jardón, Gerardo
    Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Karlsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio
    Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Optical properties of CuCdTeO thin films sputtered from CdTe-CuO composite targets2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 706-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective complex dielectric function (ε) of Cu and O containing CdTe thin films is reported in the spectral range of 0.05 to 6 eV. The films were fabricated by rf sputtering from targets comprised by a mixture of CdTe and CuO powders with nominal Cu and O concentrations in the range of 2–10 at.%. Low concentration levels improved the crystalline quality of the films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were used to determine ε. The critical point energies E1, E11, and E2 of CdTe are red-shifted with the incorporation of Cu and O. Also, an absorption band is developed in the infrared range which is associated with a mixture of CdTe and low resistivity phases Cu2 − xTe according to an effective medium analysis. The elemental distribution of the films was mapped by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  • 4.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Graded circular Bragg reflectors: a semi-analytical retrieval of approximate pitch profiles from Mueller-matrix data2019In: Journal of Optics, ISSN 2040-8978, E-ISSN 2040-8986, Vol. 21, no 12, article id 125401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graded pitch profiles are found in structurally chiral materials like cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) and in the cuticle of some scarab beetles. In most cases, the pitch profile is determined from electron microscopy techniques. Recently, it was shown that approximate pitch profiles in the cuticle of scarab beetles can be retrieved through an analysis of the spectral dependence of maxima and minima in normalized Mueller-matrix data. The analysis relies on basic concepts of interference in thin films, properties of optical modes in chiral systems, and the condition for circular Bragg reflection. In this work, the consistency of the procedure is demonstrated by analysis of normalized Mueller matrices of circular Bragg reflectors calculated for three predefined pitch profiles with (1) a stepwise decrease, (2) a stepwise increase and, (3) an exponential increase. The procedure does not require knowledge of the full Mueller matrix and can be used for non-destructive analysis of pitch in CLC, beetle cuticle and similar structures.

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  • 5.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mueller-matrix modeling of the architecture in the cuticle of the beetle Chrysina resplendens2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, ISSN 2166-2746, E-ISSN 2166-2754, Vol. 37, no 6, article id 062904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular Bragg reflectors have the ability of reflecting the cohanded circular-polarization mode of the inherent helicoidal structures. Cuticles of some plants and beetles are examples of natural circular Bragg reflectors. In many cases, the period or pitch of the helicoidal structure shows spatial variation across the cuticle (pitch profile). Among scarab beetles, the special architecture in the cuticle of the Chrysina resplendens comprising a birefringent layer sandwiched between two helicoidal layers reflects both right- and left-handed circular-polarization states. In this work, the modeling of Mueller-matrix data is applied to investigate polarization properties of this exceptional structure by using pitch profile and optical functions reported in the literature. Reflectance spectra for circular-polarization states are explained in terms of the phase shift introduced by the birefringent layer in a phasor plot. The azimuth-dependent polarization properties are investigated at oblique incidence for unpolarized light. (c) 2019 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 6.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CINVESTAV, Mexico.
    Munoz-Pineda, Eloy
    CINVESTAV, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pitch profile across the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis determined by analysis of Mueller matrix measurements2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 12, article id 181096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicoidal structures of lamellae of nanofibrils constitute the cuticle of some scarab beetle; with iridescent metallic-like shine reflecting left-handed polarized light. The spectral and polarization properties of the reflected light depend on the pitch of the helicoidal structures, dispersion of effective refractive indices and thicknesses of layers in the cuticle. By modelling the outer exocuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis as a stack of continuously twisted biaxial slices of transparent materials, we extract optical and structural parameters by nonlinear regression analysis of variable-angle Mueller-matrix spectroscopic data. Inhomogeneities in the beetle cuticle produce depolarization with non-uniformity in cuticle thickness as the dominant effect. The pitch across the cuticle of C. mutabilis decreased with depth in a two-level profile from 380 to 335 nm and from 390 to 361 nm in greenish and reddish specimens, respectively, whereas in a yellowish specimen, the pitch decreased with depth in a three-level profile from 388 to 326 nm.

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  • 7.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-Querétaro, Mexico.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Cinvestav-Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evidence for a dispersion relation of optical modes in the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis2014In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 2484-2496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable angle Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the properties of light reflected from the exoskeleton (cuticle) of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis. For unpolarized incident light, the ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light reveal a lefthanded helical structure in the beetle cuticle. Analysis of the spectral position of the maxima and minima in the interference oscillations of the Mueller-matrix elements provides evidence for a dispersion relation similar to that of optical modes in chiral nematic liquid crystals calculated within a two-wave approximation. Additionally, a structural model for the cuticle of C. mutabilis is derived from the properties of the optical modes for nonattenuated propagation or selective reflection.

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  • 8.
    Mendoza, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Tejeda-Galan, Tania
    Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Dominguez-Gomez, Amos B.
    Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Araceli Mauricio-Sanchez, Reina
    Cinvestav Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linear Birefringent Films of Cellulose Nanocrystals Produced by Dip-Coating2019In: NANOMATERIALS, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent films of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are prepared by dip-coating on glass substrates from aqueous suspensions of hydrolyzed filter paper. Dragging forces acting during films deposition promote a preferential alignment of the rod-shaped CNC. Films that are 2.8 and 6.0 mu m in thickness show retardance effects, as evidenced by placing them between a linearly polarized light source and a linear polarizer sheet in the extinction configuration. Transmission Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements at normal incidence as a function of sample rotation were used to characterize polarization properties. A differential decomposition of the Mueller matrix reveals linear birefringence as the unique polarization parameter. These results show a promising way for obtaining CNC birefringent films by a simple and controllable method.

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  • 9.
    Mendoza-Galvan, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huang, Yi-Fan
    National Taipei University of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taipei University of Technology.
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    National Taiwan University.
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis of silicon nanotips obtained by electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching2009In: APPLIED OPTICS, ISSN 0003-6935, Vol. 48, no 26, p. 4996-5004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanotips fabricated by electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of silicon wafers are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The structure of the nanotips is composed of columns 100-140 nm wide and spaced by about 200 nm. Ellipsometry data covering a wide spectral range from the midinfrared to the visible are described by modeling the nanotip layer as a graded uniaxial film using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The ellipsometry data in the infrared range reveal two absorption bands at 754 and 955 cm(-1), which cannot be resolved with transmittance measurements. These bands indicate that the etching process is accompanied with formation of carbonaceous SiC and CHn species that largely modify the composition of the original crystalline silicon material affecting the optical response of the nanotips. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America

  • 10.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Ribeiro, S.J.L.
    LaMF—UNESP Instituto de Química, Araraquara, Brazil.
    Vieira Dos Santos, M.
    LaMF—UNESP Instituto de Química, Araraquara, Brazil.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry study of nanocrystalline cellulose free-standing chiral films2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The astonishing colors exhibited by many birds, insects and other creatures have inspired the development of materials and structures for optical biomimetics. Particularly, aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals self-assembly in a chiral nematic liquid crystalline phase producing nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) chiral films after slow evaporation [1] that mimic the left-handed helicoidal arrangement of chitin-protein fibrils found in some beetle cuticles. Owing to the helical structure, left-handed polarized light is selectively reflected from beetle cuticles and NCC chiral films at normal incidence in a spectral band centered at wavelength l0=nL where n is the in-plane average refractive index and L the helix pitch.

    In this work we report the normalized Mueller matrix (M) of NCC free-standing chiral films measured with a dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) in the wavelength (l) range  250-1000 nm. Measurements performed on NCC films in reflection at angles of incidence (q) between 20 and 75° are shown in the contour map in Fig. 1 and display the same structure as those found in M of beetle cuticles [2]. At q=20° the band of selective reflection of left-handed polarized light (m41=m14<0) is centered at 520 nm. However, NCC chiral films are characterized by a mosaic-like texture as can be observed in the optical microscopy image inserted on the right panel of Fig. 1. The multidomain texture indicates both random helix direction and pitch distribution. Therefore, measurements in different places show selective reflection bands with different spectral characteristics. On the other hand, the transmission of right-handed polarized light (m41=m14>0) is confirmed from measurements at normal incidence, as observed in the right panel of Fig. 1. Other properties of the transmitted light like degree of polarization, ellipticity, and azimuth are determined for incident unpolarized as well as for different polarizations of incident light. Also, circular dichroism and optical rotation of NCC chiral films are evaluated.

    References

    [1] J. A. Kelly et al, Acc. Chem. Res. 47 (2014) 1088−1096.

    [2] E. Muñoz-Pineda et al, Thin Solid Films (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2013.11.144

  • 11.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Querétaro, Mexico.
    Symmetries and relationships between elements of the Mueller matrix spectra of the cuticle of the beetle Cotinis mutabilis2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, p. 660-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of light reflected from the cuticle of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis are studied using variable angle Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Reflection of left-handed polarized light is demonstrated. Large amplitude interference oscillations in the elements of the normalized Mueller matrix (M) reveal highly transparent materials comprising the beetle cuticle. Off-diagonal elements in M obey simple symmetry relationships due to the constraint in the cross-polarized reflection coefficients between p and s polarizations of chiral systems, rps = − rsp. Based on the latter constraint and further interrelationships experimentally investigated, the number of independent elements in M resulted in only six. Reciprocity is probed from measurements performed in opposite sample orientations and the effects on M due to sample rotation by 90° are discussed. The results suggest relatively large areas in the cuticle of C. mutabilis with a helicoidal structure comprised of fibrils with a well-defined orientation.

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