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  • 1.
    Al Haji, Ghazwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fowler, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart traffic calming measures for smart cities - a pre-study2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic calming measures, such as speed bumps and elevated crossing points, are used to reduce speed, to prevent overtaking and generally contribute to a safer traffic situation. However, they might also cause increased response times for rescue vehicles (e.g. ambulances or fire trucks). An alternative to the conventional traffic calming measures is so-called smart traffic calming measures. These can determine when a vehicle approaches, whose journey should not be hindered, and adjust to allow for free passage for this vehicle.

    This report gives an overview of the problem, and some examples of smart  traffic calming measures are discussed. Special focus is put on the wireless communication necessary to detect emergency vehicles. Furthermore, existing challenges and possible solutions for traffic calming measures and the communication needed to make them smart are discussed.

  • 2.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How to very quickly solve a staffing and dispatching problem for fire and rescue services2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Preparedness Measures for Emergency and Disaster Response2013In: Humanitarian and Relief Logistics: Research Issues, Case Studies and Future Trends / [ed] Vasileios Zeimpekis, Soumia Ichoua, Ioannis Minis, Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, p. 59-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative preparedness measures can be used to calculate the level of preparedness for handling disasters or emergencies. They are useful for evaluating plans and preparations, and for comparing areas and organizations with each other. This chapter gives an introduction to the construction and use of such measures, and proposes a general methodology that can be applied when developing them. The methodology is exemplified on two case studies, the first concerning disaster preparedness, and the second daily events. In the first case study, a hurricane disaster risk index is developed to compare the preparedness for handling hurricanes in different counties. The second case study describes the development and validation of a preparedness measure for emergency medical services, which is used to support decisions about ambulance dispatch and relocation.

  • 4.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Solving the flight perturbation problem with meta heuristics2006In: Journal of Heuristics, ISSN 1381-1231, E-ISSN 1572-9397, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When there is a perturbation in a carefully constructed aircraft schedule, e.g. an aircraft breakdown, it is important to minimize the negative consequences of this disturbance. Here, a tabu search and a simulated annealing approach to the flight perturbation problem are presented. The heuristics use a tree-search algorithm to find new schedules for the aircraft, and utilize a path relinking strategy to explore paths between structurally different solutions. The computational results indicate that the solution strategies, especially the tabu search, can be successfully used to solve the flight perturbation problem.

  • 5.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Axelsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Configuration and Planning of the Remote TowerModules in a Remote Tower Center2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many small aerodromes struggle withfinancial difficulties, and a large cost is air traffic control.Remote tower centers, which remotely provide air traffic servicesto aerodromes, can help reduce this cost. Each center maycontain a number of remote tower modules, where each moduleis manned by a controller that can handle one or moreaerodromes. In this paper we present the remote tower centerconcept and develop a model that optimizes the assignment ofairports to the remote tower modules. Computational results fora possible scenario based on real data for Swedish airports arepresented.

  • 6.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Niklas
    Geotelix AB.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Johan
    Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjernström, Richard
    Norrköping Municipality.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Semi-professionals in Emergency Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term semi-professional can be used to denote occupational groups that do not have emergency response as their primary profession but who get additional responsibilities within rescue and response, e.g. by performing a first response or assisting the professional emergency services. In this study, four different groups of possible semi-professional resources are analyzed and compared. Similarities and differences between the four groups are discussed. Factors, important for the successful implementation of a cross-sector collaboration of this kind, are highlighted. The preliminary results show that all four groups have the potential to act as semi-professional resources within emergency response. Interestingly, the basic requirements are the same for all groups, despite different prerequisites.

  • 7.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effektivt sambruk av kommunala resurser för ökad säkerhet och trygghet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av så kallade semiprofessionella resurser i räddningsinsatser har blivit allt vanligare i Sverige. En semiprofessionell är en person som fått utökade arbetsuppgifter inom respons och räddning inom ramen för sitt ordinarie yrke. Det kanske mest kända exemplet är väktare som responderar på den kommunala räddningstjänstens ärenden.

    I det projekt som avrapporteras här, är syftet att undersöka vilka yrkesgrupper som skulle passa bra som semiprofessionella, och vad som krävs för att de effektivt ska kunna utföra de nya arbetsuppgifterna, bland annat i form av utbildning och utrustning. Vidare syftar projektet till att utvärdera vilken samhällsnytta semiprofessionella kan bidra med. Som studieobjekt används Norrköpings kommun, och via en aktionsforskningsinspirerad metodansats är målet att projektresultaten ska kunna bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i kommunen.

    En kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder används för att uppnå syftet. Genom workshops identifieras först fyra potentiella yrkesgrupper (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal, hemtjänstpersonal, förvaltningsentreprenörer och väktare), för vilka detaljerad data erhålls via fokusgruppsintervjuer. En grupp (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal) väljs ut för vidare analys, och ytterligare en workshop genomförs, plus ett experiment i form av en simulerad olycka där semiprofessionella får göra en första insats. En prototyp av ett utlarmningssystem tas fram, inklusive en smartphoneapplikation som de semiprofessionella kan använda för att ta emot och hantera larm. Med hjälp av applikationen utförs ett experiment där historiska larm skickas till potentiella semiprofessionella under två månaders tid, och de får svara på om de kan åka eller inte, samtidigt som deras position noteras. Genom att jämföra deltagarnas uppskattade insatstider med räddningstjänstens historiska, kan möjliga insatstidsförkortningar beräknas. Detta kompletteras med en bedömning av vad de kan bidra med i respektive händelse.

    Bedömningen görs enligt en strukturerad metod av professionell personal från två olika räddningstjänstorganisationer. De beräknade insatstiderna och den skattade förmågan vägs samman till en monetär nytta av den semiprofessionella insatsen.

    Resultatet visar att det finns ett stort antal yrkesgrupper som skulle kunna vara lämpliga att nyttja som semiprofessionella. I rapporten redovisas en lista med 23 grupper som anses ha potential och möjlighet att utföra räddningsinsatser som en del av sitt yrke. Vidare redovisas ett antal utmaningar och möjligheter, baserat på analysen av de fyra utvalda grupperna. En konkret sammanställning har gjorts i form av listor på utbildning och utrustning som krävs för att de effektivt kunna utföra sitt nya uppdrag. Dessa krav är förhållandevis enkla att uppfylla, och handlar om grundläggande utbildning i riskbedömning, brandsläckning och livräddande åtgärder, samt utrustning som tex handbrandsläckare och förbandslåda. Mer utmanande är de organisatoriska förändringar som är nödvändiga för att de semiprofessionella akut ska kunna lämna sina pågående arbetsuppgifter, samt hur utlarmningen ska kunna integreras i de tekniska system som används för professionella räddningsresurser. Vidare visar resultaten att semiprofessionella kan larmas, och förväntas göra nytta på en stor mängd olika typer av händelser, dock främst vid händelser med personskador eller akuta sjukdomsförlopp. Den monetära nyttan av att införa ett fåtal (i snitt 3,4 st) semiprofessionella i Norrköping och Linköpings kommuner beräknades till mellan 600 000 och 2 400 000 kr per år, beroende på hur lång tid det tar för de semiprofessionella ifrån att de får larm tills de påbörjar färden mot händelseplatsen.

    En slutsats från projektet är att semiprofessionella skulle bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i Norrköping kommun, om de används som förstainsatsresurser, som ett komplement till befintlig professionell räddningspersonal.

  • 8.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Granlund, Rego
    SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
    Dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dynamisk planering innebär bland annat att brandmännen delar in sig i mindre grupper än traditionellt. Dessa kan då arbeta förebyggande med utbildning eller placeras strategiskt till exempel i närheten av olycksdrabbade vägsträckor, för att snabbare kunna nå fram till en olycksplats. Då en olycka inträffar larmas de brandmän som snabbast kan nå fram, och det kan vara nödvändigt att larma flera olika grupper.

    En utmaning vid dynamisk planering är att planeringssituationen blir svårare. Det är inte längre självklart vilka brandmän som ska larmas till en viss olycka. Det kan också vara svårt att hitta de bästa placeringarna för brandmän som snabbt ska kunna göra en insats.

    I projektet har vi utvecklat och utvärderat datorbaserade verktyg som kan stödja dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst.

    Bland verktygen finns en beredskapskalkylator med tillhörande visualisering, vilken beräknar beredskapen som en funktion av tiden det tar för de nödvändiga resurserna att nå fram till en viss typ av olycka och sannolikheten för att olyckan ska inträffa i närområdet. Ett annat verktyg kan ge förslag på vilka resurser som bör skickas till en olycksplats för att de ska komma fram så fort som möjligt. Ett tredje verktyg kan ge förslag på hur fordon och personal dynamiskt bör placeras för att beredskapen ska förbättras, dvs. de ska kunna nå fram så fort som möjligt till de platser där det är störst sannolikhet att en olycka kommer att inträffa.

    Verktygen har utvärderats genom två experimentserier. I experimenten testades mänskligt beslutsfattande i en simulerad räddningstjänstmiljö. I den första serien fick personal från olika räddningstjänster prova på dynamisk planering utan hjälp av de datorbaserade verktygen. I den andra serien fick andra räddningstjänster köra samma scenarier, men då ta hjälp av de i projektet utvecklade verktygen.

    Resultaten visar att verktygen kan hjälpa räddningstjänsten med planeringen av beredskapen, men också att det finns risk att detta sker på bekostnad av att planeringen tar något längre tid. En tydlig majoritet av de deltagande räddningstjänstbefälen var positivt inställda till de utvecklade verktygen och tyckte verktyg av detta slag skulle kunna hjälpa dem i det dagliga arbetet.

    Resultaten tydliggör också att olika personer – till och med nära kollegor inom samma räddningstjänst – uppfattar begreppet beredskap på olika sätt. Det visade sig dock att beredskapsvisualiseringen kan bidra till att denna skillnad i uppfattning minskar; i den andra experimentserien, där de hade tillgång till detta verktyg, minskade variationerna i bedömningarna och deltagarnas uppfattningar stämde bättre överens med den beräknade beredskapen.

  • 9.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lokalisering av räddningstjänstresurser i Östergötland2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lokalisering av brandstationer har historiskt sett i många fall baserats på tradition, sunt förnuft och de kommungränser som bestämmer ansvarsområdet för den kommunala räddningstjänsten. Med detta som bakgrund uppdrogs till Linköpings universitet att undersöka hur brand- och räddningsresurserna i Östergötland borde lokaliseras om ingen hänsyn tas till nuvarande kommungränser och organisationer för räddningstjänst.

    I detta projekt utvecklas en matematisk modell för att ta fram underlag för hur brand- och räddningsresurserna i Östergötlands län skall placeras för att minimera insatstiderna till trafik- och brandolyckor inom länet. Modellen minimerar en sammanvägning av tiden det tar för en första enhet att nå en viss olycka, den så kallade förstainsatsen, och tiden det tar för tillräckligt med resurser för att utgöra en full styrka att nå olyckan. Exempel på en full styrka för trafikolyckor är i modellen en släckbil och fem personer. Ett antal olika scenarier konstrueras och en mängd lösningar skapas för att ta fram så bra och generella lokaliseringsförslag som möjligt. I samråd med Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland väljs 10 scenarion ut för närmare analys. Scenarierna skiljer sig åt i sammansättningen av olika värden på parametrar och olika resursegenskaper.

    Det som framförallt visar sig skilja resultatmässigt mellan de optimerade resultaten jämfört med nuläget är andelen olyckor som kan nås inom 10 minuter. Andelen olyckor som kan nås av en förstainsatsenhet inom 10 min ökar från 74 % till 84 % i ett scenario, och andelen olyckor som kan nås av en full styrka ökar i samma scenario från 64 % till 79 %. Medelinsatstiderna för förstainsats och full styrka i samma scenario minskar med drygt 20 %. Vid en reduktion av antalet tillgängliga enheter kan en optimerad lösning ge ett bättre resultat med avseende på täckningsgrad inom 10 minuter och medelinsatstid, samt likvärdigt med avseende på täckningsgrad inom 20 minuter, som dagens läge.

    Lokaliseringen av resurser i de optimerade lösningarna skiljer sig något mellan de olika scenarierna, men tillräckligt många gemensamma komponenter finns för att det ska vara möjligt att dra slutsatser kring vilka platser i länet som, enligt modellen, bör ha en brandresurs i närområdet. I många fall överensstämmer modellens förslag med den nuvarande lokaliseringen, men de förändringar som görs i de optimerade lösningarna skulle ändå kunna bidra till en markant sänkning av den förväntade insatstiden till brand‐ och trafikolyckor i Östergötlands län.

  • 10.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using variable neighborhood search to locate fire and rescue resources for Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ulander, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rego, Granlund
    SICS Swedish ICT, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2562-2567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision support tools for efficient dispatching of fire and rescue resources are developed and evaluated. The tools can give suggestions about which resources to dispatch to new accidents, and help the decision makers in evaluating the current preparedness for handling future accidents. The tools are evaluated using simulation game based experiments, with players from the fire and rescue services. The results indicate that the tools can help the fire and rescue services in identifying the closest resources to new accidents, and to select resources that preserve the preparedness in the area. However, the results also indicate that there is a risk that the tools increase the decision time. 

  • 12.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Munoz, Ander Oquillas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing key performance indicators for airports2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a set of airport key performance indicators, i.e. a set of measures that can be used to monitor and manage an airport, giving indications of the current state of the operations and supporting improvement work. By reviewing previous relevant work, the airport is divided into five activity areas (operations, economy, environmental issues, safety and security, costumer service), and for each area an initial set of indicators is selected. These indicators are then ranked by airport managers in Sweden and Spain, using a questionnaire based survey. Using the ranking as a base, a final set of indicators is constructed with the aim that is should be manageable, easy to interpret and useful for analyzing the entire airport.

  • 13.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nguyen, Ngoc Hien Thi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SIMULATION BASED PREDICTION OF THE NEAR-FUTURE EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES SYSTEM STATE2018In: 2018 WINTER SIMULATION CONFERENCE (WSC), IEEE , 2018, p. 2542-2553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ambulance dispatcher decides which ambulances to allocate to new calls, and how to relocate ambulances in order to maintain a good coverage. Doing this, it is valuable to have information about the future expected response times in different parts of the area of responsibility, as well as the expected number of available ambulances. We present a simulation model that can be used to predict this, and compare the results to a naive forecasting model. The results show that while it is difficult to accurately predict the future system state, the simulation based prediction manages this better than the naive model.

  • 14.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating optimization and simulation to gain more efficient airport logistics2009In: Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009), 2009, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present airport logistics, which is a framework of resource management in the air transportation system. Focus is on the processes supporting turn-around. A detailed simulation model of various processes involved in turn-around is developed, by which the interaction between these processes are analyzed. We show that integrating optimization and simulation is a powerful tool to demonstrate efficiency improvements in airport logistics, using scheduling de-icing trucks as an example. An optimization algorithm for scheduling de-icing trucks is developed and simulations are performed comparing different schedules. The schedule obtained when considering total airport performance in the optimization algorithm gives minimum flight delay and waiting times in the simulations.

  • 15.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A framework for integrated terminal airspace design2019In: Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 0001-9240, Vol. 123, no 1263, p. 567-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Route planning and airspace sectorisation are two central tasks in air traffic management. Traditionally, the routing and sectorisation problems were considered separately, with aircraft trajectories serving as input to the sectorisation problem and, reciprocally, sectors being part of the input to the path finding algorithms. In this paper we propose a simultaneous design of routes and sectors for a transition airspace. We compare two approaches for this integrated design: one based on mixed integer programming, and one Voronoi-based model that separates potential "hotspots" of controller activity resulting from the terminal routes. We apply our two approaches to the design of Stockholm Terminal Maneuvering Area.

  • 16.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Framework for Integrated Terminal Airspace Design2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integer Programming-Based Airspace Sectorization for Terminal Maneuvering Areas with Convex Sectors2019In: Journal of Air Transportation, E-ISSN 2380-9450, Vol. 27, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an airspace sectorization framework for terminal maneuvering areas based on mixed integer programming is presented. It incorporates an airspace complexity representation, as well as various constraints on the sectors’ geometry, for example, the requirement that points demanding increased attention from air traffic controllers should lie in the sector’s interior to allow for enough time to resolve possible conflicts. The method can enforce convex sectors. In contrast to earlier integer/constraint programming approaches, which used synthesis methods with variables per elementary airspace piece that were glued together to form sectors, the integer programming formulation uses a variable per potential edge on the sector boundary. It is also the first step toward an integrated design of routes, the resulting complexity, and a sectorization. This paper presents results for Stockholm Arlanda airport and compares the integer programming results to convex sectorizations obtained by enumerating all possible topologies for a given number of sectors. This yields a proof-of-concept for the application of this highly flexible approach to terminal maneuvering areas.

  • 18.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Socially optimal allocation of ATM resources via truthful market-based mechanisms2012In: Proceedings of the SESAR Innovation Days (2012) / [ed] Schaefer, Dirk, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kaspersson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tåla: Trygghetsskapande åtgärder för landsbygden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2010 gav regeringen i uppdrag till Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) att i ett projekt öka säkerheten på landsbygden genom nya former för räddning och respons. Inom ramen för ovanstående uppdrag, vilket benämns ”Samhällsviktig samverkan i landsbygd” har CARER – Centrum för respons- och räddningssystem – vid Linköpings universitet fått i uppdrag av MSB att inventera vilka behov och resurser för säkerhet och trygghet som existerar på lands- och glesbygd, samt undersöka vilka andra projekt och initiativ som föregått detta, nationellt och internationellt. CARERs projekt, som görs inom ramen för regeringsuppdraget, benämns Trygghetshöjande åtgärder för landsbygden (TÅLA).

    TÅLA har genomförts som fyra sammanhängande delstudier där de två första delstudierna använder kvalitativ metodik, främst intervjuer, och syftar till att skapa en förståelse för den upplevda tryggheten på lands- och glesbygden, samt utröna vad den består i och hur den kan stärkas. Delstudie 3 syftar till att kvantitativt uttrycka behov och resurser för säkerhet och trygghet på landsoch glesbygd genom ett urval av indikatorer. Delstudie 4 syftar till att ge en överblick över tidigare forskning och utveckling på området.

    Några generella slutsatser som kan dras från TÅLA-projektets olika delstudier är att det finns en god medvetenhet hos boende i land- och glesbygd för att det kan ta tid innan hjälp kan fås ifrån de traditionella räddningssystemen (som till exempel polis eller räddningstjänst), ett faktum som också kan bekräftas numerärt. Vissa indikatorer tyder dessutom på att boende på lands- och glesbygden är mer drabbade av olyckor än boende i tätort, vilket ger ett ökat behov av de aktuella resurserna. Detta har lett till att nya typer av lösningar har utvecklats, oftast av de boende, för att bistå vid olyckor, många baserade på självhjälp och frivillighet.

    Tydligt är också att trygghet omfattar mer än bara blåljusverksamheter och stöd från det allmänna. Här inkluderas också behov som el, vatten och möjligheten att handla mat. En stor del av den upplevda tryggheten hos befolkningen kommer från det sociala nätverk som finns i respektive by. Möjligheter till kommunikation är centralt och det är när individen är ensam utan möjlighet till kontakt med omvärlden som den största otryggheten infinner sig.

    Det framkom under projektet flera exempel på samverkan och de som medverkar framhåller vikten av att känna varandra innan insatsen, för att bästa möjliga resultat ska uppnås. Såväl de båda kvalitativa studierna som kunskapsöversikten pekar på att en trolig väg till framgång för en ökad säkerhet och trygghet på landsbygden bygger på att de lokala resurserna och strukturerna nyttjas i samverkan med de traditionella räddningsresurserna. Detta innebär att det bör vara möjligt att stärka dels de boendes möjligheter att hjälpa sig själva och att hjälpa varandra, men också att nyttja organisationer som idag inte tillhör blåljusmyndigheterna för att i samverkan med räddningstjänsten, sjukvården och polisen kunna bistå vid olyckor, akuta sjukdomsförlopp och andra relevanta händelser. Viktigt att beakta i detta sammanhang är då att använda de befintliga strukturer som existerar bland såväl boende som olika organisationer, för att på bästa sätt kunna dra nytta av den lokala kunskap, de resurser och det engagemang som existerar.

  • 20.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decision support tools for ambulance dispatch and relocation2007In: Journal of the Operational Research Society, ISSN 0160-5682, Vol. 58, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the development of decision support tools for dynamic ambulance relocation and automatic ambulance dispatching is described. The ambulance dispatch problem is to choose which ambulance to send to a patient. The dynamic ambulance relocation problem occurs in the operational control of ambulances. The objective is to find new locations for some of the ambulances, to increase the preparedness in the area of responsibility. Preparedness is a way of evaluating the ability to serve potential patients with ambulances now and in the future. Computational tests using a simulation model show that the tools are beneficial in reducing the waiting periods for the patients.

  • 21.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The flight perturbation problem2004In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 91-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airlines spend considerable time, effort and financial resources on planning. It is essential to create a competitive timetable and construct a fleet and a crew schedule that utilizes these resources to the maximum. Unfortunately, it is all too common that an airline is faced with the necessity of reconstructing their schedules due to some unforeseen event, for example an aircraft breakdown or a crew member that is indisposed. In this paper, an application that can help airlines solve the complex problem of reconstructing aircraft schedules is presented. A mixed integer multicommodity flow model with side constraints is developed and further reformulated into a set packing model using the Dantzig—Wolfe decomposition. Cancellations, delays and aircraft swaps are used to resolve the perturbation, and the model ensures that the schedule returns to normal within a certain time. Two column generation schemes for heuristically solving the model are tested on real problem data obtained from a Swedish domestic airline. The computational tests show that the application is capable of presenting high quality solutions in a few seconds and therefore can be used as a dynamic decision support tool by the airlines.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Decision support for operational ambulance control2004In: Management Information Systems: managing information technology in the business enterprise / [ed] James A. O'Brien, New York, NY, USA: WIT Press , 2004, 6, p. 329-338Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decision support tools for dynamic fleet management: applications in airline planning and ambulance logistics2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, decision support tools for dynamic fleet management problems are developed. The operational management tasks include dispatching, supervising and sometimes reconstructing the vehicle schedule. These tasks are often complex, while the time available to complete them is short. Therefore, decision support tools assisting the controller can be of great service.

    Two studies on dynamic fleet management problems are presented. The first concerns airline planning and the problem of how to handle schedule perturbations. The second study is within the field of ambulance logistics, with focus on operational ambulance control.

    For an airline, the flight perturbation problem arises when it is impossible to continue executing the original aircraft schedule, e.g. due to an aircraft breakdown. The flight controller then has to decide whether some flights have to be delayed or cancelled, or perhaps flights have to be reassigned to new aircraft. This is done in order to find an attainable, cost effective solution, where the airline can continue to serve the passengers. In this work, a decision support tool that can repair the aircraft schedule is suggested. The tool is based on a multicommodity network flow model with side constraints. A number of different solution strategies are suggested for the model, including heuristics based on column generation and meta heuristics utilizing path relinking. Computational tests show that several of the solution algorithms find near optimal solutions within a few seconds.

    Ambulance logistics comprises most aspects of managing an efficient ambulance health care. This involves both emergency medical services and patient transportations. Controlling a fleet of ambulances includes deciding which ambulance to dispatch to a call. The controller also has to ensure that most or all parts of the area of responsibility can be reached by an ambulance in a short time. This is referred to as maintaining an adequate level of preparedness in the area. In this work, a way of calculating the preparedness is presented. It is incorporated into a number of decision support tools, including a dispatch tool and a relocation tool. The dispatch tool can suggest which ambulance to assign to a new call. The relocation tool suggests a way of relocating the ambulances, i.e. sending them to new locations, to increase the level of preparedness in the area. A simulation tool is also developed and used to study the effect of dynamically relocating ambulances. Furthermore, it is used to test if new locations for the ambulance stations will affect the waiting periods for the patients. The results show that the decision support tools have a positive effect on the system performance.

    List of papers
    1. The flight perturbation problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The flight perturbation problem
    2004 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 91-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Airlines spend considerable time, effort and financial resources on planning. It is essential to create a competitive timetable and construct a fleet and a crew schedule that utilizes these resources to the maximum. Unfortunately, it is all too common that an airline is faced with the necessity of reconstructing their schedules due to some unforeseen event, for example an aircraft breakdown or a crew member that is indisposed. In this paper, an application that can help airlines solve the complex problem of reconstructing aircraft schedules is presented. A mixed integer multicommodity flow model with side constraints is developed and further reformulated into a set packing model using the Dantzig—Wolfe decomposition. Cancellations, delays and aircraft swaps are used to resolve the perturbation, and the model ensures that the schedule returns to normal within a certain time. Two column generation schemes for heuristically solving the model are tested on real problem data obtained from a Swedish domestic airline. The computational tests show that the application is capable of presenting high quality solutions in a few seconds and therefore can be used as a dynamic decision support tool by the airlines.

    Keywords
    Airline operations; Scheduling; Optimization; Perturbations; Dantzig—Wolfe decomposition
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17061 (URN)10.1080/0308106042000218195 (DOI)
    Note
    This is an electronic version of an article published in:Tobias Andersson Granberg and Peter Värbrand, The flight perturbation problem, 2004, Transportation planning and technology, (27), 2, 91-117.Transportation planning and technology is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0308106042000218195Copyright: Taylor & Francishttp://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.aspAvailable from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Solving the flight perturbation problem with meta heuristics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solving the flight perturbation problem with meta heuristics
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Heuristics, ISSN 1381-1231, E-ISSN 1572-9397, Vol. 12, no 1-2, p. 37-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When there is a perturbation in a carefully constructed aircraft schedule, e.g. an aircraft breakdown, it is important to minimize the negative consequences of this disturbance. Here, a tabu search and a simulated annealing approach to the flight perturbation problem are presented. The heuristics use a tree-search algorithm to find new schedules for the aircraft, and utilize a path relinking strategy to explore paths between structurally different solutions. The computational results indicate that the solution strategies, especially the tabu search, can be successfully used to solve the flight perturbation problem.

    Keywords
    Aircraft recovery - Irregular operations - Operational airline scheduling - Simulated annealing - Tabu search - Path relinking
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17062 (URN)10.1007/s10732-006-4833-4 (DOI)
    Note
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Tobias Andersson Granberg, Solving the flight perturbation problem with meta heuristics, 2006, Journal of Heuristics, (12), 1-2, 37-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10732-006-4833-4 Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2009-03-04 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Decision support for efficient ambulance logistics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision support for efficient ambulance logistics
    2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambulance logistics comprises everything that has to do with managing an efficient ambulance health care, which includes both emergency medical services and patient transportations. In this work, ambulance logistics is defined and discussed using the Swedish public service enterprise SOS Alarm as a basis. A number of ways of improving the ambulance logistic service provided by SOS Alarm is identified. Work that has been performed in two of the nine identified areas is described in more detail. In both of these two areas, the main improvement lies in the development of decision support tools for the ambulance dispatchers. The tools that are developed are a preparedness calculator, an ambulance dispatch tool a relocation tool and a simulation tool.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, 2005. p. 15
    Series
    ITN research report, ISSN 1650-2612 ; 1
    Keywords
    Ambulance logistics, Preparedness, Dispatch, Relocation, Optimization, Simulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85908 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-12-03 Created: 2012-12-03 Last updated: 2012-12-03
    4. Quantifying the preparedness for efficient ambulance logistics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the preparedness for efficient ambulance logistics
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparedness is an important concept in ambulance logistics. It is a way of evaluating the ability to serve potential patients with ambulances in a swift and efficient manner. Here, a way of calculating the preparedness for different parts of a geographical area is presented. The developed measure is calibrated for use in the county of Stockholm in Sweden. Different areas of application for the measure are discussed in strategic, tactical and operational ambulance planning. Specifically, a mathematical model for ambulance station location, based on the preparedness measure, is developed and solved using a simulated annealing heuristic. A new set of locations, obtained from the model, is compared to the existing locations by simulating the ambulance operations. The results show that the new locations have a positive effect on the patient waiting periods.

    Keywords
    Preparedness, Ambulance Logistics, Location Analysis, Optimization, Transportation
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85912 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-12-03 Created: 2012-12-03 Last updated: 2012-12-03
    5. Decision support tools for ambulance dispatch and relocation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision support tools for ambulance dispatch and relocation
    2007 (English)In: Journal of the Operational Research Society, ISSN 0160-5682, Vol. 58, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the development of decision support tools for dynamic ambulance relocation and automatic ambulance dispatching is described. The ambulance dispatch problem is to choose which ambulance to send to a patient. The dynamic ambulance relocation problem occurs in the operational control of ambulances. The objective is to find new locations for some of the ambulances, to increase the preparedness in the area of responsibility. Preparedness is a way of evaluating the ability to serve potential patients with ambulances now and in the future. Computational tests using a simulation model show that the tools are beneficial in reducing the waiting periods for the patients.

    Keywords
    health, logistics, optimisation, simulation, heuristics
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17063 (URN)10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602174 (DOI)
    Note
    This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Journal of the Operational Research Society. The definitive publisher-authenticated version: Tobias Andersson Granberg and Peter Värbrand, Decision support tools for ambulance dispatch and relocation, 2007, Journal of the Operational Research Society, (58), 195-201.is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602174Copyright: Palgrave Macmillanhttp://www.palgrave-journals.com/pal/index.htmlAvailable from: 2009-03-05 Created: 2009-03-04 Last updated: 2013-10-15Bibliographically approved
  • 24.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Effektivt nyttjande av ambulans- och räddningsresurser2006In: Transportforum 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De människor och fordon som ska undsätta oss i ett nödläge bör nyttjas på ett så effektivt sätt som möjligt. Påståendet lär inte motsägas av speciellt många, men att uppfylla det erbjuder en ansenlig utmaning. Projekten OPAL - Optimerad ambulanslogistik och OPERA - Optimal och effektiv resursanvändning vid räddningstjänst, syftar till att hitta sätt att öka effektiviteten i system för ambulanssjukvård respektive räddningstjänst. OPAL är ett samarbete mellan SOS Alarm och Linköpings universitet som pågått sedan början av 2003. Ett resultat ur projektet är utvecklandet av ett antal beslutsstödsverktyg riktade till ambulansdirigenter, det vill säga de personer som i SOS centralen bland annat bestämmer vilka ambulanser som ska betjäna respektive uppdrag. Verktygen, vilka inkluderar en beredskapskalkylator och en modul för resursförslag, är baserade på optimeringsmetoder och implementerade i ett geografiskt informationssystem. I projektet OPERA samarbetar universitetet med Räddningsverket sedan mitten av 2005 för att hitta sätt att mäta, utvärdera och öka effektiviteten i system för räddningsinsatser. Jämfört med ambulanssjukvård kompliceras situationen här av den variation i arbetsuppgifter som ingår i räddningstjänst. Detta medför att resurserna måste vara anpassade för att klara brand och bilolyckor, såväl som arbete på och i vatten och på hög höjd. I båda systemen är en av de största utmaningarna att undersöka vilken nytta en given åtgärd egentligen har, eftersom denna nytta, och därmed effektiviteten i systemen, svårligen låter sig mätas i allmänt använda kvantiteter, som till exempel pengar. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Efficient utilization of public safety resources2006In: 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    OPAL, ett logistikverktyg för planering och dirigering av ambulanser2005In: FLISA2005: 20 konferensen för Föreningen för Ledningsansvariga Inom Svensk Ambulanssjukvård,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Optimizing the ambulance logistic process in Sweden2006In: Hesculaep Second Conference,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 28.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The flight perturbation problem: operational aircraft rescheduling2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When there is a perturbation in a carefully planned flight schedule, e.g. an aircraft breakdown, it is important to minimize the negative consequences of this disturbance. In this thesis, a model and a number of solution strategies for the Flight Perturbation Problem is presented. Based on a connection network, a mixed integer multicommodity flow model with side constraints is developed. Cancellations, delays and aircraft swaps, both within the same fleet and between different aircraft types, are used to take care of the perturbation. The model also assures that the schedule returns to normal within a certain time.

    Six different solution strategies arc used to solve the model; the first based on a Lagrangian relaxation of the mixed integer multicommodity flow model. Four strategies are based on Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and in two of them all feasible points are generated by a tree search algorithm before the master problem is solved, while the other two are column generation based. The last strategy is based on the metaheuristic tabu search.

    The computational tests with real problem data show that the Dantzig-Wolfe based strategies and the tabu search strategy arc very promising, and especially the tabu search strategies could be used in a real problem application that could provide airlines with solutions to complex perturbation problems.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Axelsson, Anders
    Räddningsverket.
    Optimal planning of public safety resources in Sweden2006In: EURO XXI: 21st European Conference on Operational Research,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, the similarities and differences between different public safety resources are discussed, concentrating on ambulance services and fire and rescue services. To provide some background for the discussion, two projects focusing on the construction of decision support tools for emergency services decision makers are described; OPAL - Optimized ambulance logistics and OPERA - Optimized and effective rescue resource allocation.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Häll, Carl Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Användning av GIS i kombination med operationsanalys för effektivare transporter2006In: GeoInfo 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Petersson, S.
    SOS Alarm AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Calculating the preparedness for an efficient ambulance health care2004In: 7th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems,2004, New York, NY, USA: IEEE , 2004, p. 785-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Petersson, S.
    SOS Alarm AB.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Dynamic ambulance relocation for a higher preparedness2004In: 35th Annual Meeting of the Decision Sciences Institute,2004, Atlanta, Georia, USA: Decision Sciences Institute , 2004, p. 3911-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Petersson, S.
    SOS Alarm AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    OPAL - Optimized ambulance logistics2004In: TRISTIN V: 5th Triennial Symposium on Transport Analysis,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Sverker
    SOS Alarm AB, Sweden.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decision support for efficient ambulance logistics2007In: Operational Research for Health Policy: Making Better Decisions: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the European Working Group on Operational Research Applied to Health Services / [ed] Sally Brailsford, Paul Harper, Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang AG , 2007, p. 107-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambulance logistics comprises everything that has to do with managing an efficient ambulance health care, which includes both emergency medical services and patient transportations. In this work, ambulance logistics is defined and discussed using the Swedish public service enterprise SOS Alarm as a basis. A number of ways of improving the ambulance logistic service provided by SOS Alarm are identified, and nine areas of improvement are defined. Two of the nine areas, -Visualisation of the preparedness- and -Decision support for efficient ambulance logistics- are described in more detail. In both of these, the main improvement lays in the development of decision support tools for the ambulance dispatchers. The tools that are developed are a preparedness calculator, an ambulance dispatch suggestion tool, a relocation tool and a simulation tool.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Särdqvist, Stefan
    Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Sweden.
    Planning for effective use of fire and rescue service resources2007In: Interflam 2007 (Vol.2): 11th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2007, p. 1561-1566Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a model has been developed that can support and evaluate decisions on the location of rescue service resources. The main contributions are the possibilities to model multiple events and multiple resources, and foremost providing a method of quantifying the interaction between events and resources. In the model, it is possible to analyse different ways of organising the fire and rescue service, e.g. comparing the effect of small units in multiple locations with a traditional way of organising, where most resources comes from a single fire station. The model can also suggest advantageous locations for the resources.

  • 36.
    Dahlberg, Joen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sedov, Leonid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capacity-Driven Automatic Design of Dynamic Aircraft Arrival Routes2018In: 2018 IEEE/AIAA 37TH DIGITAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (DASC), IEEE , 2018, p. 1194-1202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Mixed-Integer Programming framework for the design of aircraft arrival routes in a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) that guarantee temporal separation of aircraft. The output routes constitute operationally feasible merge trees, and guarantee that the overall traffic pattern in the TMA can be monitored by air traffic controllers; in particular, we ensure that all aircraft on the arrival routes are separated in time and all merge points are spatially separated. We present a proof of concept of our approach, and demonstrate its feasibility by experiments for arrival routes during one hour at Stockholm TMA.

  • 37.
    Forsell, Anders
    et al.
    Carmenta AB.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Faster ambulance transportation and better preparedness by using GIS and advanced optimization2006In: CIMI 2006: Civil and Military Co-operation for crisis management,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambulance dispatchers are key players in any Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system, as they decide which ambulance to send to a patient. They are also responsible for keeping the ambulances favorably positioned, and thus decide if the ambulances need to be relocated to better cover some parts of the area of responsibility. As the call frequency and the fleet size grows, the complexity of these tasks increase exponentially. Therefore, tools that can support the dispatchers in their decisions are vital for the effectiveness of the whole system. In the OPAL project (Optimized Ambulance Logistics), SOS Alarm, Linköping University and Carmenta have collaborated to find new ways of making the ambulance health care in Sweden more effective. One result from the project was a number of optimization-based tools that support calculation and visualization of the preparedness level, finding suitable resources and planning resource relocation. The new tools help the ambulance dispatchers make better decisions faster.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic Planning of Fire and Rescue Services2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss decision support tools used for more efficient planning of fire and rescue services. The methodology considers small and flexible units and includes dynamic utilization of the existing resources. We develop a quantitative measure for preparedness and use it as a basis for decision support. By constantly accounting for the current situation and using intelligent strategies to locate and allocate resources that support good preparedness, response times can be shortened. The tools will be tested using an experimental setup that includes human-in-the-loop simulations, and the results will compare situations that occur when the decision makers have and do not have access to the developed tools.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using variable neighborhood search to locate fire and rescue resources2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Leknes, Hakon
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Skorge Aartun, Eirik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Christiansen, Marielle
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategic ambulance location for heterogeneous regions2017In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 260, no 1, p. 122-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a key function of society. To achieve high quality EMS, planning is of vital importance. An important strategic and tactical problem is the location of ambulance stations and the allocation of ambulances to these stations. This paper presents a new mixed integer model for this problem especially suitable for regions with heterogeneous demand and multiple performance measures. The model decides on the location/allocation of stations/ambulances, calculates the service and arrival rates for each station and the probabilities that a call is served by a particular station. The model is tested on a combined urban and rural area in Norway with multiple performance measures. Compared with the current solution for the area, the best solution from the model has a higher expected performance on each of the performance measures used. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Matinrad, Niki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ennab Vogel, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimal Dispatch of Volunteers to Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii InternationalConference on System Sciences (HICSS), Hawaii, USA, 8th-11th January 2019, University of Hawai'i at Manoa , 2019, p. 4088-4097Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiatives with mobile phone dispatched volunteers to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases, can be found today in some countries, e.g. Sweden, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy. When an OHCA case is reported, an alarm is sent to the registered volunteers’ phones. However, the allocation of which volunteers to send to the automatic external defibrillator (AED) and who to send directly to the patient, is today based on simple rules of thumb. In this paper, we propose a model to optimally select how many and which volunteers to send directly to the patient, and who should pick up and deliver an AED. The results show that the model can help increase the survivability of the patients, compared to simple decision rules.

  • 42.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Airport logistics - A case study of the turn-around process2012In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 20, p. 31-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effects of different optimization objectives when scheduling de-icing services at Stockholm Arlanda airport. The optimized schedule is tested using a simulation model of the turnaround process. The results demonstrate that the schedule taking into account overall airport performance results in less delay than one targeted solely at the performance of the de-icing process.

  • 43.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    A GRASP Heuristic for Scheduling De-icing trucks at Stockholm Arlanda Airport2007In: 6th Eurocontrol Innovative Research Workshop and Exhibition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a fact that the most delays in the Air Transportation System (ATS) today occur at the airport. One reason for this is the large number of actors operating at the airport and the scarcity of communication between them and other parts of the ATS. Airport Logistics is a concept developed to survey all the flows of ehicles, people, material and information, which can be found on and around the airport. The objective is to increase efficiency, where one part is to decrease the delays. As an initial step, the turn-around process is analysed and an optimization model for the planning of de-icing trucks is implemented. The model shows that large savings can be made both by reducing the travelling distances for the trucks and reducing the delays the de-icing process is causing the ATS. However, most important is the advantage of having a plan for how the de-icing trucks should be utilized, something that is missing today.  

  • 44.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Intelligent Air Transportation - A Resource Management Perspective2007In: 14th world congress on intelligent transport systems,2007, Beijing: Ministry of communications , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we look at the air transportation system from a resource management perspective. In particular, we introduce the concept airport logistics, with the general focus of efficiently managing all the logistic activities and processes at, or nearby, an airport. One important goal is to utilize and process the available information for intelligent resource management. Some previous research in the air transportation system area is reviewed and classified into three categories; airline operations, airport operations and air traffic management. A conceptual framework of a decision support system is presented and motivated with a clear emphasis on the airport system.

  • 45.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scheduling de-icing vehicles within airport logistics: a heuristic algorithm and performance evaluation2012In: Journal of the Operational Research Society, ISSN 0160-5682, E-ISSN 1476-9360, Vol. 63, no 8, p. 1116-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most delays in the air transport occur at the airport. A particular reason is the complexity of managing the large number of supporting flows in airport logistics. We consider the optimisation problem of scheduling de-icing vehicles that is one of the key supporting logistic flows in the turn-around process of aircraft. The objective is to minimise the delay of flights due to de-icing, and the travel distance of the de-icing vehicles. We study the complexity of the problem, and develop a solution algorithm using greedy randomised adaptive search. A case study of real-life data from Stockholm Arlanda Airport shows that optimised schedule leads to significantly better performance in comparison to intuitive and simple scheduling strategies. The benefit of optimisation in reducing the waiting time for de-icing is further demonstrated via dynamic simulations.

  • 46.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emergency Response in Rural Areas2013In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, security and safety in rural parts of Sweden are investigated. New ways of organizing for efficient response can be found in the extended collaboration between societal sectors and in the utilization of local social capital. New categories of first responders and their requirements are identified and technical and non-technical solutions as support are proposed. The solutions include e.g. mobile applications and a technical infrastructure making it possible for volunteers to obtain information about events requiring emergency response. Emergency management in rural areas shows several similarities to large-scale crises, e.g. in terms of insufficient infrastructure available and the need to use local resources in the immediate aftermath of the event. Therefore, the results of the study can be transferable to large-scale crises.

  • 47.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axelsson, Anders
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap.
    Emergency response in rural areas: How new ways of organizing and supporting first responders can apply to crisis management2012In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, security and safety in rural parts of Sweden is investigated. New ways of organizing for efficient response can be found in the extended collaboration between societal sectors and in utilizing the local social capital. New categories of first responders and their requirements are identified and we propose non-technical and technical solutions as support. The results’ application to large-scale crises is discussed.

  • 48.
    Prytz, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att hantera framtidens skadeplatser: scenarier och utgångspunkter för kunskapsutveckling runt räddningsinsatser och skadeplatsarbete2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att presentera ett teoretiskt och metodologiskt underlag för att studera framtidens skadeplats. Rapporten är en del av forskningsprogrammet Effektiva räddningsinsatser på Framtidens Skadeplats som finns vid Centrum för Respons och Räddningssystem (CARER) vid Linköpings universitet. Effektiva räddningsinsatser på framtidens skadeplats är ett 5-årigt forskningsprogram som finansieras av Myndigheten för Stöd och Beredskap (MSB). Programmet tar utgångspunkt i den praktiska hanteringen av olyckor och andra akuta händelser och fokuserar även hur denna hantering bör förändras i takt med samhällsutvecklingen och hur man kan utveckla kunskap, metoder, och teknik som leder till effektiva räddningsinsatser. Denna rapport ska ses som en del av programmets första arbetspaket som handlar om kunskapsutveckling och prognostisering runt vilka olyckor som sker var, när, hur, vilka som skadas och vilka konsekvenser/(kaskad)effekter olika typer av händelser får.

    Målet med denna rapport är att skapa ett underlag för kommande aktiviteter inom forskningsprogrammet genom att beskriva olika skadeplatsscenarier med utgångspunkt i ett antal faktorer för att klassificera och strukturera olika typer av skadeplatser. Faktorerna som används utvecklas i denna rapport genom litteraturstudier, och kan summeras i följande fyra, övergripande kategorier: 1) Typ av händelse, 2) omfattning och allvarlighetsgrad, 3) område och utbredning, samt

    4) tidsaspekter. Utifrån faktorerna konstrueras ett antal framtida skadeplatsscenarier. I linje med MSBs tidigare framtidsanalyser syftar dessa inte till att förutspå de vanligaste eller mest troliga framtida skadeplatserna. Snarare är syftet att på ett strukturerat och detaljerat sätt beskriva möjliga framtida skadeplatser som är av särskilt intresse ur ett praktiker- och forskningsperspektiv.

     

    Totalt har 8 scenarier skapats. De är förankrade i de relevanta faktorer som framtagits för klassificering och strukturering och är skalbara och variationsrika i de faktorer de täcker. Tidshorisonten för scenarierna är ca 20 år framåt i tiden. De åtta scenarierna är följande:

    1. Tågolycka i väglöst land och kallt klimat
    2. Brand i hyreshus i socialt oroligt område
    3. Antagonistisk attack mot en utsatt grupp
    4. Mindre trafikolycka i glesbygd
    5. Mindre trafikolycka på tungt trafikerad väg
    6. Dammbrist och översvämning av Luleälven
    7. Fartygsolycka med utsläpp av giftiga ämnen
    8. Drunkning med eftersök

    Dessa scenarier kommer att användas i det fortsatta arbetet med att studera hur man skapar effektiva räddningsinsatser på framtidens skadeplats genom utveckling av organisation, teknik, och metodik.

  • 49.
    Ramsell, Elina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identifying functions for smartphone basedapplications in volunteer emergency response2019In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Zeno Franco, José J. González, José H. Canós, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management , 2019, p. 1044-1056Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency response organisations struggle with resource constraints and thereby faces challenges in providing high-quality public services. Utilising voluntary first responders is one way to address these challenges. There are different types of volunteers who can help at an emergency site, e.g. citizen volunteers or voluntary professionals from other occupations. To successfully engage with and utilise these resources, adequate information and communication technology (ICT) is necessary. In this meta-study, combining and further exploring two previous studies, the aim is to identify, analyse and evaluate suitable functions for smartphone applications that can be used to dispatch and support volunteers. The results show that the functions can be divided into essential ones that are necessary for the response to work at all, and others that might contribute to a more effective response. The study also shows that the same functions can be used for different volunteer groups.

  • 50.
    Ramsell, Elina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integration av frivilliga aktörer i dynamisk resurshantering vid räddningsinsatser2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien fokuserar hur frivilliga kan användas som resurser vid räddningsinsatser i glesbygd och hur frivilliga kan integreras i system för dynamisk allokering och utlarmning av resurser. Studien baseras på och kopplar samman de två projekten Förstärkt Medmänniska och Dynamisk Resurshantering (DRH). Förstärkt Medmänniska finns i Medelpad där räddningstjänsten i Sundsvall utbildat frivilliga i ett antal byar som ligger långt från Sundsvall och därmed är svåra att nå i tid. De frivilliga larmas ut på vissa typer av larm såsom hjärtstopp, trafikolyckor och vissa typer av bränder. Idag sker utlarmning via SMS-listor men tanken är att frivilliga resurser på sikt ska integreras i det beslutstöd för dynamisk resurshantering som utvecklats och används av SOS Alarm och som bygger på GPS positionering och utlarmning av lämplig resurs närmast olycksplatsen.

    Vi följde projektet Förstärkt Medmänniska i drygt 1 år och samlade in data från räddningstjänst, SOS Alarm i Sundsvall och frivilliga i tre byar genom intervjuer, fokusgrupper och en framtidsorienterad Future Workshop. Vi genomförde också ett experiment med stöd av SOS Alarm och DRH där de frivilliga tillsammans med räddningstjänst och ambulans larmades ut på en simulerad trafikolycka och där hälften av de frivilliga larmades via SMS och hälften via RAKEL-terminaler som integrerats med DRH (för jämförelser). Resultatet analyserades med hjälp av ett teoretiskt ramverk som hämtat kunskap från områden som tvärsektoriell samverkan, e-government, implementering av ny teknik, organisations­förändringar och användarcentrerad systemutveckling.

    Det viktigaste resultatet från studien är att konceptet Förstärkt Medmänniska verkar fungera och uppfattas positivt av de involverade. I den utlarmning som sker har alltid flera frivilliga åkt (det är just frivilligt) och når nästan alltid insatsplatsen och kan påbörja insats före räddningstjänst och ambulans (de frivilliga ersätter alltså inte de senare utan påbörjar insats i väntan på de professionella resurserna). De drabbade har också uppfattat stödet från de frivilliga som positivt och något som gett ökad trygghet (ofta känner skadeoffer och frivilliga och andra).

    Det viktigaste erfarenheterna från studien och rekommendationer för kommuner som vill öka samverkan med frivilliga resurser vid räddningsinsatser kan sammanfattas som följer:

    • Det är fundamentalt att tydliggöra uppdraget för alla involverade tidigt i processen, d v s att definiera arbetsuppgifter och ansvar med avseende på händelse, utlarmning, arbetsuppgifter på skadeplats, ansvar, et c. Nya tydliggöranden bör göras allteftersom utvecklingen och samverkan fortskrider, eftersom det är svårt att förutse hela uppdraget innan något faktiskt hänt eller övats.
    • Samverkansformen har större förutsättning att lyckas där det finns eldsjälar och nyckelpersoner närvarande, inte bara hos de frivilliga själva utan även hos de professionella responsorganisationerna.
    • Bygg grundförståelse och tillit genom att etablera förutsättningar för långsiktig samverkan och för att bygga personliga relationer – mellan frivilliga och mellan frivilliga och de professionella
    • Regelverk och det rättsliga skyddet för frivilliga måste ses över och att ett kompletterande försäkringsskydd, t ex genom de kommunala hemförsäkringarna, bör finnas innan samverkan påbörjas.
    • Både initial utbildning av frivilliga och repetition/övningar krävs för att utveckla och upprätthålla samverkansformen.
    • Återkoppling efter varje larm som frivilliga åkt på är fundamentalt både för att utveckla och förbättra samverkansformen och successivt tydliggöra uppdraget, samt för de frivilligas eventuella behov av att bearbeta händelsen.
    • Teknik och IT stöd behöver successivt utvecklas t ex för kommunikation mellan frivilliga på väg till skadeplats och för kommunikation med räddningstjänst och eventuellt SOS alarm både på väg till skadeplatsen och när man väl är där. Förmodligen är det mest realistiska och minst kostsamma alternativet att bygga på mobila applikationer, t ex utlarmning via SMS eller appar, vilket kan kompletteras med vägbeskrivning, mobila checklistor och instruktioner. GPS-funktionalitet i mobiltelefonen är nödvändigt förnavigeringshjälp och i förlängningen för att automatisk utlarmning av de närmaste resurserna ska kunna göras.
    • Frivilliga behöver basal och praktisk utrustning såsom checklistor, reflexvästar, hjärtstartare, bil- och by-kit med första hjälpen material etc. Vem som ska stå för materialet, om det är kommunerna eller de frivilliga själva är en knäckfråga.
    • Att utveckla samverkansformen mellan frivilliga och professionella responsorganisationer bör ske användarcenterat tillsammans med de frivilliga och genom stegvis implementation där man börjar i liten skala, utvärderar erfarenheter och successivt utökar.
    • I systemet för dynamisk resurshantering (DRH) bör frivilliga bör läggas till som en egen resurs och en eller flera förmågor för den nya resurstypen måste definieras. Varje definierad olyckstyp i DRH (enligt räddningsindex) kräver ett visst antal förmågor, och för att en frivillig ska väljas måste de ha en förmåga som krävs av olyckstypen (till exempel ” förstainsatsperson”).
    • En utmaning med frivilliga är deras osäkra tillgänglighet samt det faktum att önskat antal är fler än en. En utlarmningsstrategi för frivilliga måste tas fram baserat på de frivilligas önskemål (att de gärna vill vara fler än en person som åker) och önskat antal på skadeplatsen.. Strategin måste också inkludera möjligheten att frivilliga inte kvitterar eller att de kvitterar och anger att de inte kan åka. Då kan ytterligare resurser behöva larmas ut. 
    • För en framgångsrik integrering krävs att frivilliga kan positioneras och kan kvittera larmen. Givet korrekta positioner kan då systemet föreslå och/eller larma ut resurser i fallande ordning efter förväntad körtid till skadeplatsen.

     

    I ett bredare, svenskt och internationellt sammanhang är involvering av frivilliga och civila medborgare något som ökar, både i räddningsinsatser och i annan verksamhet i den offentliga sektorn – mycket som ett sätt att möta rådande samhällsutmaningar såsom finanskriser och minskade resurser i offentlig sektor, ökade förväntningar från samhällsmedborgare, glesbygdsproblematik, klimatförändringar och naturkatastrofer, terrorism och ökade migrationsströmningar. I ett teoretiskt samanhang brukar man prata om ökade behov av tvärsektoriell samverkan och av en form av ”we-government” där samhällsmedborgare alltmer stöder myndigheter genom att utföra vissa aktiviteter för andra samhällsmedborgare. Detta innebär att de inte bara använder traditionella e-tjänster utan måste integreras i myndigheternas egen teknik och informationssystem, och att samverkan och utveckling därmed blir alltmer komplex. I Sverige har ett flertal kommuner startat upp arbeten som likna Förstärkt Medmänniska. Vi tror därför att denna studie kan vara till nytta, inte minst för praktiker och kommuner som vill utöka sin samverkan med frivilliga vid räddningsinsatser.

    I nästa steg kommer ytterligare datainsamling att göras kring hur DRH tekniskt ska kunna hantera och stödja nyttjandet av resursgruppen frivilliga, vilket förväntas leda till en kravspecifikation för anpassning av systemet. Efter att dessa krav implementerats kommer ett experiment att utföras för att testa och utvärdera den praktiska funktionaliteten.

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