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  • 1.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Askendal, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Thompson, Dan W
    Department of electrical engineering University of Nebraska.
    Tiwald, T
    Woollam, John A.
    Department of electrical engineering University of Nebraska.
    Infrared ellipsometry studies of temperature effects on multilayers of ANTI-human serum albumin and its antigen2005In: E-MRS,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2012In: AES 2012, Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry

     

    H. Arwin*, T. Berlind, J. Birch, L. Fernandez Del Rio, J. Gustafson, J. Landin,

    R. Magnusson, C. Åkerlind, and K. Järrendahl

    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden

    *corresponding author: han@ifm.liu.se

     

    Abstract- Many scarab beetles exhibit structural colors and complex polarization phenomena in reflection. These effects are characterized with spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry in our work. The polarization ellipse of reflected light as well as the degree of polarization is presented including variations with angle of incidence and wavelength. Emphasis is on beetles showing chiral effects and structural modeling of cuticle nanostructure is discussed.

     

    Background Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens [1]. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of the cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found [2,3]. The ellipticity varies with wavelength and viewing angle but can be close to +1 or -1 (right or left circular polarization, respectively) and in addition these beetles may exhibit beautiful structural colors. The polarization and color effects are generated in the outer part of the exoskeleton, the cuticle. These natural photonic structures are often multifunctional and play important roles for survival of beetles, e.g. for hiding from or scaring predators, for intraspecies communication, etc. [4]. However, such structures may find use in many commercial applications and a major motivation for detailed studies of natural photonic structures is that they inspire to biomimetic applications [5,6].

    Approach Our objective is to use spectral Mueller-matrix data on scarab beetles to parameterize reflection properties in terms of polarization parameters and degree of polarization. The studied beetles all are phytophagous and include species from the Cetoniinae subfamily (e.g. Cetonia aurata and Coptomia laevis,), the Rutelinae subfamily (e.g. Chrysina argenteola and Chrysina resplendens) and the Melolonthinae subfamily (Cyphochilus insulanus). Furthermore, structural modeling is presented on Cetonia aurata and a few more beetles to demonstrate that structural parameters can be extracted by advanced modeling of Mueller-matrix data.

    Experimental A dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used to record all 16 Mueller-matrix elements mij (i,j=1..4) in the spectral range 300 – 900 nm at angles of incidence in the range 20-70º. The elements are normalized to m11 and thus have values between -1 and +1. All measurements are performed on the scutellum (a small triangular part on the dorsal side of the beetles) with focusing optics resulting in a spot size of the order of 50-100 mm. The software CompleteEASE (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used for analysis.

    Results and discussion As an example, Fig. 1 shows contour plots of Mueller-matrix data measured on Cetonia aurata. This beetle has a metallic shine and if illuminated with unpolarized white light it reflects left-handed polarized green light as revealed by the non-zero Mueller-matrix elements m14 and m41 in the green spectral region for angles of incidence below about 45º. This is clearly seen in the graph to the right in Fig. 1 which shows a spectrum for Mueller-matrix element m41at 20º as well as fitted model data. A model based on a twisted lamella structure, also called Bouligand structure, is used to model the chiral nanostructure [4]. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent model fit is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive index of the birefringent lamellas and the pitch. The model also includes a dielectric surface layer.

     

     

     

    Fig.1. Left: Mueller-matrix data on Cetonia aurata. Each contour plot shows mij, where i and j correspond to the row and column, respectively. m11 =1 and is not shown but is replaced with a photo of the beetle. Right: Experimental and model-generated Mueller-matrix element m41at an angle of incidence of 20º.

     

    From the Mueller-matrix data one can also determine so called derived parameters including azimuth and ellipticity of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. The variations of these parameters with angle of incidence are presented for a selection of scarab beetles. Examples of both left-handed and right-handed polarization effects are shown and the importance of degree of polarization will be discussed.

    Concluding remarks Mueller-matrix spectra at oblique incidence are very rich in information about reflection properties and allows parameterization of polarization parameters of the reflected light. Both left-handed and right-handed reflected light is found in scarab beetles. Mueller-matrix data can also be used for a detailed modeling of the nanostructure of the cuticle of beetles.

    AcknowledgementsFinancial support was obtained from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and the Swedish Research Council. The Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, the National Museum of Natural Science in Madrid, the Berlin Museum of Natural History and the Natural History Museum in London are acknowledged for loan of beetles.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Michelson, A. A. “On Metallic Colouring in Birds and Insects,” Phil. Mag., 21, 554-567, 1911.
    2. Goldstein, D. H. “Polarization properties of Scarabaeidae,” Appl. Opt., 45, 7944-7950, 2006.
    3. Hodgkinson, I., Lowrey, S., Bourke, L., Parker, A. and McCall, M. W. “Mueller-matrix characterization of beetle cuticle polarized and unpolarized reflections from representative architectures,” Appl. Opt., 49, 4558-4567, 2010.
    4. Vukusic, P. and Sambles, J. R. “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature, 424, 852-855, 2003.
    5. Lenau, T. and Barfoed, M. “Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells - A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,” Adv. Eng. Mat., 10, 299-314. 2008.
    6. Parker, A. R. and Townley, H. E “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nature Nanotech., 2, 347-351, 2007.
  • 3.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johs, Blaine
    JA Woollam Co Inc, NE USA .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cuticle structure of the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata analyzed by regression analysis of Mueller-matrix ellipsometric data2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 19, p. 22645-22656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically and near-circular polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found. In addition, brilliant colors with metallic shine are observed. The polarization and color effects are generated in the beetle exoskeleton, the so-called cuticle. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that structural parameters and materials optical functions of these photonic structures can be extracted by advanced modeling of spectral multi-angle Mueller-matrix data recorded from beetle cuticles. A dual-rotating compensator ellipsometer is used to record normalized Mueller-matrix data in the spectral range 400 – 800 nm at angles of incidence in the range 25–75°. Analysis of data measured on the scarab beetle Cetonia aurata are presented in detail. The model used in the analysis mimics a chiral nanostructure and is based on a twisted layered structure. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent fit between experimental and model data is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive indices of the cuticle layers and structural parameters of the chiral structure.

  • 4.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carbon Nitride: Characterization and Protein Interactions2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns synthesis and characterization of carbon-based materials and theinvestigation of the possible use, of a selection of these materials, in biomedicalapplications. Protein adsorption and blood plasma tests were used for this purposeutilizing a surface sensitive technique called spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    The materials were synthesized by physical vapor deposition and characterizedregarding microstructure, mechanical properties and optical properties. The ternaries BC-N and Si-C-N as well as carbon and carbon nitrides (CNx) of different microstructureshave been examined. In the B-C-N work, the intention was to investigate the possibilityto combine the two materials CNx and BN, interesting on their own regarding highhardness and extreme elasticity, to produce a material with even better properties.Theoretical calculations were performed to elucidate the different element substitutionsand defect arrangements in the basal planes promoting curvature in the fullerene-likemicrostructure. The Si-C-N ternary was investigated with the consideration of finding away to control the surface energy for certain applications. Amorphous carbon and threemicrostructures of CNx were analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the UV-VIS-NIRand IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of thematerial.

    In the second part of this work focus was held on studies of macromolecularinteractions on silicon, carbon and CNx film surfaces using ellipsometry. One purposewas to find relevance (or not) for these materials in biological environments. Materials for bone replacement used today, e.g. stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys andtitanium alloys suffer from corrosion in body fluids, generation of wear particles inarticulating systems, infections and blood coagulation and cellular damage leading toimpaired functionality and ultimately to implant failure. Artificial heart valves made ofpyrolytic carbon are used today, with friction and wear problems. Thus, there is still aneed to improve biomaterials. The aim of the fourth paper was to investigate theinteraction between carbon-based materials and proteins. Therefore, amorphous carbon(a-C), amorphous (a), graphitic (g) and fullerene-like (FL) CNx thin films were exposedto human serum albumin and blood plasma and the amount of protein was measured insitu using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Surface located and accessible proteins after blood plasma incubations were eventually identified through incubations in antibody solutions.

    Antibody exposures gave indications of surface response to blood coagulation,complement activation and clotting. The a-C and FL-CNx films might according to theresults have a future in soft tissue applications due to the low immuno-activity, whereasthe g-CNx film possibly might be a candidate for bone replacement applications.

    "Layered" structures of fibrinogen, a fibrous but soft protein involved in manyprocesses in our body, were grown in situ and dynamically monitored by ellipsometry inorder to understand the adsorption process and molecule arrangement onto a siliconsurface.

    In the last paper of this thesis, the effects of ion concentration and proteinconcentration on the refractive index of water-based solutions used in in situ ellipsometrymeasurements were demonstrated and spectral refractive index data for water solutionswith different ionic strengths and protein concentrations have been provided.

    List of papers
    1. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and wetting behaviorof Si-C-N thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure, mechanical properties, and wetting behaviorof Si-C-N thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering
    2001 (English)In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 141, no 2-3, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon–carbon–nitride (Si–C–N) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering of C and Si targets in a mixed Ar/N2 discharge. Films were grown to a thickness of more than 0.5 μm on graphite and Si(001) substrates held at a negative floating potential of −35 V, and substrate temperature between 100 and 700°C. The total pressure was constant at 0.4 Pa (3 mtorr), and the nitrogen fraction in the gas mixture was varied between 0 and 100%. As-deposited films were analyzed with respect to composition, state of chemical bonding, microstructure, mechanical properties, and wetting behavior by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and contact angle measurements, respectively. Depending on the deposition condition, ternary SixCyNz films within the composition range 1≤x≤34 at.%, 34≤y≤81 at.%, and 16.5≤z≤42 at.% were prepared with a textured, amorphous-to-graphite-like microstructure. For Si–C–N films with low Si content, C---C, C---N and Si---C bonds were present. At higher Si content, N preferentially bonds to Si, while less C---N bonds were observed. Films containing more than 12 at.% of Si contained widely dispersed crystallites, 2–20 nm in diameter. Incorporation of a few at.% Si resulted in a dramatic reduction of the film surface energy compared to pure CN films. The measured contact angles using distilled water and glycerol liquids were for some films comparable with those on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Teflon® surface. The hardness of Si–C–N films could be varied over the range 9–28 GPa.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2001
    Keywords
    Silicon-carbon-nitride thin films; Magnetron sputtering; Properties
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19703 (URN)10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01236-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
    2. Fullerene-like B C N thin films a computational andexperimental study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fullerene-like B C N thin films a computational andexperimental study
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Materials Science and Engineering B, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 242-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio calculations show that the energy cost for incorporating lattice defects such as pentagons and heptagons is significantly reduced for BCN compared to BN, thus promoting bending of basal planes in these compounds. Boron–carbon–nitride (Bsingle bondCsingle bondN) thin films with a fullerene-like (FL) microstructure were then deposited by dual cathode magnetron sputtering from C and B4C targets. Up to 1 μm thick films were grown at a total gas pressure of 3 mTorr (0.4 Pa) in varying Ar/N2 ratios, and substrate temperatures between 225 and 350 °C. Compositional and microstructural studies were performed using RBS, SEM and HREM, respectively. Depending on the deposition condition, ternary BxCyNz films with fullerene-like microstructure could be prepared in agreement with the calculations within the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 53, 15 ≤ y ≤ 62, and 24 ≤ z ≤ 50 at.%. Fullerene-like structures also tend to form at lower temperatures in the case of BCN compared to CN. Nanoindentation measurements show that all BxCyNz films exhibited a highly elastic response independent of elemental composition. In addition, the calculations suggest a driving force for C and BN phase separation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2004
    Keywords
    Ab initio calculations; Fullerene-like materials; BCN compounds; Thin films Reactive magnetron sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19704 (URN)10.1016/j.mseb.2004.08.013 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2018-05-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 24, p. 6652-6658Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto silicon (001) wafers under controlled conditions to achieve amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like microstructures. As-deposited films are analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV–VIS–NIR and IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of the material. Additional characterization is performed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Between eight and eleven resonances are observed and modeled in the ellipsometrically determined optical spectra of the films. The largest or the second largest resonance for all films is a feature associated with C–N or C–C modes. This feature is generally associated with sp3 C–N or sp3 C–C bonds, which for the nitrogen-containing films instead should be identified as a three-fold or two-fold sp2 hybridization of N, either substituted in a graphite site or in a pyridine-like configuration, respectively. The π→πlow asterisk electronic transition associated with sp2 C bonds in carbon films and with sp2 N bonds (as N bonded in pyridine-like manner) in CNx films is also present, but not as strong. Another feature present in all CNx films is a resonance associated with nitrile often observed in carbon nitrides. Additional resonances are identified and discussed and moreover, several new, unidentified resonances are observed in the ellipsometric spectra.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Carbon nitride; Amorphous carbon; Spectroscopic ellipsometry; Spectral decomposition; Fullerene-like; Structural properties; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Transmission electron microscopy
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19705 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.065 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Torun Berlind, Andrej Furland, Zs. Czigany, Jörg Neidhardt, Lars Hultman and Hans Arwin, Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films, 2009, Thin Solid Films, (517), 24, 6652-6658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.065 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Protein adsorption on thin films of carbon and carbon nitride monitored with in situ ellipsometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein adsorption on thin films of carbon and carbon nitride monitored with in situ ellipsometry
    2011 (English)In: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, ISSN 1742-7061, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1369-1378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin filmswere deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and optically characterized withspectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were exposed to human serum albumin and theadsorption was monitored in situ using dynamic ellipsometry. From the ellipsometric data theadsorbed amount of proteins was quantified in terms of surface mass density using de Feijter'smodel. The results indicated larger adsorption of proteins onto the amorphous films comparedto the films with a more ordered microstructure. Complementary studies with labeled HSAusing radioimmunoassay showed up to 6 times higher protein adsorption compared to theellipsometry measurement which partly might be explained by differences in surfaceroughness (from 0.3 to 13 nm) among the films. The elutability of adsorbed labeled HSAusing unlabeled HSA and sodium dodecyl sulphate was low compared to a silicon reference.In addition, the four types of films were incubated in blood plasma followed by antifibrinogen,anti-HMWK or anti-C3c revealing the materials response to complement andcontact activation. Three of the films indicated immunoactivity, whereas the amorphouscarbon showed less immunoactivity compared to a titanium reference. All films showedindications of a stronger ability to initiate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, compared tothe reference. Finally, the surfaces bone bonding ability was investigated by examination oftheir ability to form calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals in a simulated body fluid, with a-CNxdepositing most CaP after 21 days of incubation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V. Amsterdam, 2011
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19706 (URN)10.1016/j.actbio.2010.10.024 (DOI)000287643900049 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Torun Berlind, Pentti Tengvall, Lars Hultman and Hans Arwin, Protein adsorption on thin films of carbon and carbon nitride monitored with in situ ellipsometry, 2011, ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, (7), 3, 1369-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2010.10.024 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V. Amsterdam http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
    5. Formation and cross-linking of fibrinogen layers monitored with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation and cross-linking of fibrinogen layers monitored with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry
    2010 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 410-417Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thick matrices of fibrinogen with incorporation of a matrix metalloproteinaseinhibitor were covalently bonded on functionalized silicon surfaces using an ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succinimide affinity ligand couplingchemistry. The growth of the structure was followed in situ using dynamic ellipsometryand characterized at steady-state with spectroscopic ellipsometry. The growth wascompared with earlier work on ex situ growth of fibrinogen layers studied by singlewavelength ellipsometry. It is found that in situ growth and ex situ growth yield differentstructural properties of the formed protein matrix. Fibrinogen matrices with thicknessesup to 58 nm and surface mass densities of 1.6 μg/cm2 have been produced.

    Keywords
    Fibrinogen, ellipsometry, coupling chemistry, protein adsorption
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19707 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.09.013 (DOI)000276921900004 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Torun Berlind, Michal Poksinski, Pentti Tengvall and Hans Arwin, Formation and cross-linking of fibrinogen layers monitored with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2010, (75), 2, 410-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.09.013 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Effects of ion concentration on refractive indices offluids measured by the minimum deviation technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ion concentration on refractive indices offluids measured by the minimum deviation technique
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1249-1252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The prism minimum deviation technique has been used to measure the fluid dependence of refractive indices. Fluids with varying ion concentration (0 to 1.0 M) and varying protein concentration (0.01-10 mg/ml) have been examined and the measurements show that these parameters influence the refractive index values. Also it is shown by simulations that it is important to take the change of refractive index of the fluid into account when evaluating insitu protein adsorption measurements.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2008
    Keywords
    07.60.Fs, 78.20.Ci, 87.14.E-
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19708 (URN)10.1002/pssc.200777897 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure and properties of Si-C-N and B-C-N thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride-based materials, grown by magnetron sputtering have been studied concerning microstructure and mechanical properties. Carbon nitride was alloyed with Si or B, and grown as a constituent in a layered structure. Si-C-N thin films have been deposited by reactive co-sputtering of C and Si targets and the composition, microstructure, mechanical response, as well as wetting behavior have been examined. The microstructure of these films showed to be amorphous-to-graphite-like for binary SiC and ternary SiCN with low Si content. For ternaries with "high" Si content a nanostructured material was observed, containing 2-20 nm-sized crystallites in an amorphous matrix. A small addition of Si have shown to affect the wettability of CNx, displaying contact angle values similar to what has been reported for Si-doped DLC. High hardness but less elasticity as compared to CNx has been noticed. B-C-N thin films were grown by reactive magnetron co-sputtering at low substrate-temperature. The microstructure and indentation response of these films have been studied. A large area of the B-C-N compositional diagram was covered by reactive co-sputtering of graphite and B4C-targets. The B-C-N films were shown to exhibit fullerene-like microstructure, regardless of composition. The films showed high elasticity, comparable to what has been reported for CNx films grown under similar conditions. CN0.33/BN:C multilayers have been grown by sequential magnetron sputtering. The films exhibited a fullerene-like microstructure, consisting of curved and cross-linked basal planes, which were found to be continuous over the interfaces of the layers. Multilayers of CN0.33/BN:C reached improved values of displacement and elastic recovery compared to what was found for single-layer CN0.33 and BN:C films grown under comparable conditions.

  • 6.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furland, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 24, p. 6652-6658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride (CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto silicon (001) wafers under controlled conditions to achieve amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like microstructures. As-deposited films are analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV–VIS–NIR and IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of the material. Additional characterization is performed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Between eight and eleven resonances are observed and modeled in the ellipsometrically determined optical spectra of the films. The largest or the second largest resonance for all films is a feature associated with C–N or C–C modes. This feature is generally associated with sp3 C–N or sp3 C–C bonds, which for the nitrogen-containing films instead should be identified as a three-fold or two-fold sp2 hybridization of N, either substituted in a graphite site or in a pyridine-like configuration, respectively. The π→πlow asterisk electronic transition associated with sp2 C bonds in carbon films and with sp2 N bonds (as N bonded in pyridine-like manner) in CNx films is also present, but not as strong. Another feature present in all CNx films is a resonance associated with nitrile often observed in carbon nitrides. Additional resonances are identified and discussed and moreover, several new, unidentified resonances are observed in the ellipsometric spectra.

  • 7.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, 104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
    Johansson, Mats P.
    Thin Film Electronics AB, A°gatan 29, S-582 22 Link¨oping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microstructure, mechanical properties, and wetting behaviorof Si-C-N thin films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering2001In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 141, no 2-3, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon–carbon–nitride (Si–C–N) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering of C and Si targets in a mixed Ar/N2 discharge. Films were grown to a thickness of more than 0.5 μm on graphite and Si(001) substrates held at a negative floating potential of −35 V, and substrate temperature between 100 and 700°C. The total pressure was constant at 0.4 Pa (3 mtorr), and the nitrogen fraction in the gas mixture was varied between 0 and 100%. As-deposited films were analyzed with respect to composition, state of chemical bonding, microstructure, mechanical properties, and wetting behavior by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and contact angle measurements, respectively. Depending on the deposition condition, ternary SixCyNz films within the composition range 1≤x≤34 at.%, 34≤y≤81 at.%, and 16.5≤z≤42 at.% were prepared with a textured, amorphous-to-graphite-like microstructure. For Si–C–N films with low Si content, C---C, C---N and Si---C bonds were present. At higher Si content, N preferentially bonds to Si, while less C---N bonds were observed. Films containing more than 12 at.% of Si contained widely dispersed crystallites, 2–20 nm in diameter. Incorporation of a few at.% Si resulted in a dramatic reduction of the film surface energy compared to pure CN films. The measured contact angles using distilled water and glycerol liquids were for some films comparable with those on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Teflon® surface. The hardness of Si–C–N films could be varied over the range 9–28 GPa.

  • 8.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Adsorption of human serum albumin on carbon nitride films studied with in-situ ellipsometry2005In: American Vacuum Society 52 Int Symposium and Exhibition,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Bioadsorption studies on carbon nitride films using in-situ ellipsometry2005In: E-MRS spring meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Poksinski, Michal
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Protein Adsorption on Carbon Nitride Films Studied with in situ Ellipsometry2007In: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007, p. 246-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poksinski, Michal
    Roxen IS AB, S-581 05 Linköping, Sweden.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Formation and cross-linking of fibrinogen layers monitored with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry2010In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 410-417Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick matrices of fibrinogen with incorporation of a matrix metalloproteinaseinhibitor were covalently bonded on functionalized silicon surfaces using an ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succinimide affinity ligand couplingchemistry. The growth of the structure was followed in situ using dynamic ellipsometryand characterized at steady-state with spectroscopic ellipsometry. The growth wascompared with earlier work on ex situ growth of fibrinogen layers studied by singlewavelength ellipsometry. It is found that in situ growth and ex situ growth yield differentstructural properties of the formed protein matrix. Fibrinogen matrices with thicknessesup to 58 nm and surface mass densities of 1.6 μg/cm2 have been produced.

  • 12.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pribi, G. K.
    J. A. Woollam Co Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Thompson, D.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Woollam, J. O.
    J. A. Woollam Co Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of ion concentration on refractive indices offluids measured by the minimum deviation technique2008In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1249-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prism minimum deviation technique has been used to measure the fluid dependence of refractive indices. Fluids with varying ion concentration (0 to 1.0 M) and varying protein concentration (0.01-10 mg/ml) have been examined and the measurements show that these parameters influence the refractive index values. Also it is shown by simulations that it is important to take the change of refractive index of the fluid into account when evaluating insitu protein adsorption measurements.

  • 13.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Pribil, G.
    Thompson, D.
    Woollam, J.A.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Effects of Ion Concentration on Refractive Indices of Fluids Measured by the Minimum Deviation Technique2006In: Optikdagen 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 14.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Pribil, G.K.
    J.A. Woollam Co, USA.
    Thompson, Daniel W.
    Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Center for Materials Research and Analysis University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
    Woollam, John A.
    J.A. Woollam Co, USA.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Effects of Ion Concentration on Refractive Indices of Fluids Measured by the Minimum Deviation Technique2007In: 4th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007, p. 141-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Berlind, Torun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Surgical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Protein adsorption on thin films of carbon and carbon nitride monitored with in situ ellipsometry2011In: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, ISSN 1742-7061, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1369-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin filmswere deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and optically characterized withspectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were exposed to human serum albumin and theadsorption was monitored in situ using dynamic ellipsometry. From the ellipsometric data theadsorbed amount of proteins was quantified in terms of surface mass density using de Feijter'smodel. The results indicated larger adsorption of proteins onto the amorphous films comparedto the films with a more ordered microstructure. Complementary studies with labeled HSAusing radioimmunoassay showed up to 6 times higher protein adsorption compared to theellipsometry measurement which partly might be explained by differences in surfaceroughness (from 0.3 to 13 nm) among the films. The elutability of adsorbed labeled HSAusing unlabeled HSA and sodium dodecyl sulphate was low compared to a silicon reference.In addition, the four types of films were incubated in blood plasma followed by antifibrinogen,anti-HMWK or anti-C3c revealing the materials response to complement andcontact activation. Three of the films indicated immunoactivity, whereas the amorphouscarbon showed less immunoactivity compared to a titanium reference. All films showedindications of a stronger ability to initiate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, compared tothe reference. Finally, the surfaces bone bonding ability was investigated by examination oftheir ability to form calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals in a simulated body fluid, with a-CNxdepositing most CaP after 21 days of incubation.

  • 16. Broitman, E.
    et al.
    Hellgren, N.
    Wanstrand, O.
    Wänstrand, O., Department of Materials Science, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, M.P.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Sjostrom, H.
    Sjöström, H., Sjöstrom Coating Consulting, KarlGustavsgatan 21A, SE-411 20 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundgren, J.-E.
    Office of the President, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, M.
    Department of Materials Science, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Mechanical and tribological properties of CNx films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering2001In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 248, no 1-2, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hardness, elasticity, wear rate and friction coefficient of carbon nitride (CNx) films of defined microstructure and composition are presented. CNx films were deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering from a C target in N2/Ar plasma. Films were grown on Si (001), Ni, and HSS substrates to thickness of ~0.5 µm at a total pressure of 3 mTorr with the N2 fraction varied from 0 to 1, and the substrate temperature Ts, varied from ambient to 350°C. The mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings were evaluated by nanoindentation and dry ball-on-disk test. For CNx (0 = x = 0.35) films deposited below 200°C (amorphous structure), the elastic recovery and hardness do not change significantly with increasing N concentration, however, the friction coefficient increases from 0.19 to 0.45, while the coating wear rate is low. For CNx (0 = x = 0.15) films grown at Ts = 350°C, where a transition from a graphite-like to a "fullerene-like" phase occurs, a dramatic increase in hardness and elasticity is observed. Furthermore, the rms surface roughness decreases from 15.0 to 0.4 nm. For 0.15 = x = 0.20, CNx films deposited at Ts = 350°C (fullerene-like phase) exhibit a smooth surface, high hardness and elasticity (~90% recovery), and a coefficient of friction against hard steel of ~0.25. For all substrates, film friction coefficient tends to increase as the nitrogen content in the film is increased. Results also indicate the formation of a transfer layer which improves the tribological properties of the films. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Engstrom, C.
    et al.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Ivanov, I.P.
    Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, 2401 East 86th Street, Bloomington, MN 55425, United States.
    Kirkpatrick, S.R.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Rohde, S.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Mat. Res. and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 255 WSEC, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656, United States.
    Design, plasma studies, and ion assisted thin film growth in an unbalanced dual target magnetron sputtering system with a solenoid coil2000In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An original design and solution to the problem of magnetic field interactions in a vacuum chamber between two unbalanced magnetron sputtering sources and a solenoid coil serving to increase plasma density in near substrate position, is presented. By changing the solenoid coil current strength and direction, plasma growth conditions in an argon discharge and Ti-magnetron cathodes were found to vary in a broad region. Langmuir probe analysis shows that an increase in the coil current from 0 to 6 A caused plasma and substrate floating potentials to change from -7 to -30 V and from +1 to -10 V, respectively, as well as increasing the ion densities to a biased substrate from 0.2 to 5.2 mA cm-2 for each of the magnetrons. By using a ferro-powder magnetic field model, as well as finite element method analysis, we demonstrate the interference of the three magnetic fields - those of the two magnetrons and the solenoid coil. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure and morphology of Ti-films grown under different ion bombardment conditions. At low Ar-ion-to-Ti-atom arrival rate ratios, Jion/Jn to approximately 1.5, at the substrate, variations of the ion energy, Eion, from 8 to 70 eV has only a minor effect on the microstructure and film preferred crystallographic orientation, resulting in an open/porous structure with defect-rich grains. At a higher Jion/Jn value of approximately 20, films with a well-defined dense structure were deposited at ion energies of 80 eV. The increase in ion flux also resulted in changes of the Ti film preferred orientation, from an (0 0 0 2) preferred orientation to a mixture of (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1¯ 1) orientations.

  • 18.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Intel Corporation, Portland Technology Development, RA3-301, 5200 NE Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, OR 97124, USA.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fullerene-like B C N thin films a computational andexperimental study2004In: Materials Science and Engineering B, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 242-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio calculations show that the energy cost for incorporating lattice defects such as pentagons and heptagons is significantly reduced for BCN compared to BN, thus promoting bending of basal planes in these compounds. Boron–carbon–nitride (Bsingle bondCsingle bondN) thin films with a fullerene-like (FL) microstructure were then deposited by dual cathode magnetron sputtering from C and B4C targets. Up to 1 μm thick films were grown at a total gas pressure of 3 mTorr (0.4 Pa) in varying Ar/N2 ratios, and substrate temperatures between 225 and 350 °C. Compositional and microstructural studies were performed using RBS, SEM and HREM, respectively. Depending on the deposition condition, ternary BxCyNz films with fullerene-like microstructure could be prepared in agreement with the calculations within the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 53, 15 ≤ y ≤ 62, and 24 ≤ z ≤ 50 at.%. Fullerene-like structures also tend to form at lower temperatures in the case of BCN compared to CN. Nanoindentation measurements show that all BxCyNz films exhibited a highly elastic response independent of elemental composition. In addition, the calculations suggest a driving force for C and BN phase separation.

  • 19. Johansson, M P
    et al.
    Hellgren, N.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Broitman, E.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Sundgren, J.-E.
    Growth of CNx/BN: C multilayer films by magnetron sputtering2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 360, no 1-2, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric CNx/BN:C multilayer thin films, with nominal compositional modulation periods of ? = 2.5, 5, and 9 nm were deposited by unbalanced dual cathode magnetron sputtering from C (graphite) and B4C targets in an Ar/N2 (60/40) discharge. The multilayers and single-layer of the constituent CNx and BN:C compounds were grown to a total thickness of 0.5 µm onto Si(001) substrates held at 225°C and a negative floating potential of approx. 30 V (Ei = 24 eV). Layer characterizations were performed by TEM, X-ray reflectivity, RBS, and nanoindentation measurements. Results show that CN0.33 and BN:C (35, 50, and 15 at.% of B, N, and C, respectively) layers were prepared at the above conditions. It is suggested that all films exhibit a three-dimensional interlocked structure with a cylindrical texture in the film growth direction. The structure was continuous over relatively well defined and smooth CNx/BN:C interfaces. All coatings exhibit extreme elasticity with elastic recoveries as high as 85-90% (10 mN maximum load) attributed to the observed structure. However, the multilayers were stiffer and more elastic compared to that of the single-layers and thus shows promise for improved protective properties.

  • 20.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafson, Johan L.I.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization of Light Reflected from Chiral Structures - Calculations Compared with Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry Measurements on Natural and Synthetic Samples2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mueller matrix elements mij representing the polarization response from a nanostructured materialis determined by the constituent materials optical properties and the superstructure. Here, we investigate how chiral structures in form of helicoidally stacked uniaxial layers determine mij as a functionof polarization state, wavelength, incidence angle and azimuthal angle of the incoming light. The studied parameters include the layer materials ordinary/extraordinary optical properties, Euler angle values, and layer thickness as well as the thickness and pitch of the helicoidal superstructure. Sub- and superstructure inhomogeneity is also introduced. From the Fresnel-based calculations, mij aswell as the degree of polarization, ellipticity and azimuth of the polarization ellipse are obtained and presented as contour and trace plots to give a complete view of the polarization behavior. The results from the calculations are compared with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of both natural and synthesized helicoidal structures. The measurements were performed with a dualrotating compensator system (RC2, J.A. Woollam Co., Inc.) for wavelengths in the range from 245 to 1000 nm and incident angles from 20 to 75°. For some measurements the azimuthal angle of the incident light was varied. The investigated natural chiral structures were exoskeletons from several beetles in the scarab subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae. As predicted from the calculations it isobserved that the reflection from these beetles can have a high degree of polarization and high ellipticity (near-circular polarization). Both left- and right-polarization was observed. The synthesized structures are helicoidal nanorods of Al1−xInxN grown on sapphire substrates with metal-nitride seedlayers using UHV magnetron sputtering. Due to an internal composition gradient (a variation of x) in the crystalline structure, the nanorods will tilt away from the substrate normal. Helicoidal structures can thus be obtained by rotating the substrate around its normal during deposition. Samples with different pitch and layer thickness with right-handed as well as left-handed chirality were grown. Also for these structures both left and right near-circular polarized light is observed. By combining calculations, ellipsometry measurements and scanning electron microscopy characterization we get agood input to build layered models of the natural and synthetic samples. After regression fitting agood agreement between calculated and measured optical data were obtained.

  • 21.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grehk, Mikael
    Sandvik Materials Technology; Sandviken, Sweden.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Applied Materials Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Evaluation of silicon nitride as a wear resistant and resorbable alternative for total hip joint replacement2012In: Biomatter, ISSN 2159-2527, E-ISSN 2159-2535, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the failures of total joint replacements are related to tribology, i.e., wear of the cup, head and liner. Accumulation of wear particles at the implants can be linked to osteolysis which leads to bone loss and in the end aseptic implant loosening. Therefore it is highly desirable to reduce the generation of wear particles from the implant surfaces.

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) has shown to be biocompatible and have a low wear rate when sliding against itself and is therefore a good candidate as a hip joint material. Furthermore, wear particles of Si3N4 are predicted to slowly dissolve in polar liquids and they therefore have the potential to be resorbed in vivo, potentially reducing the risk for aseptic loosening.

    In this study, it was shown that α-Si3N4-powder dissolves in PBS. Adsorption of blood plasma indicated a good acceptance of Si3N4 in the body with relatively low immune response. Si3N4 sliding against Si3N4 showed low wear rates both in bovine serum and PBS compared with the other tested wear couples. Tribofilms were built up on the Si3N4 surfaces both in PBS and in bovine serum, controlling the friction and wear characteristics.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tkachenko, S
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobson, S
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engqvist, H
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Persson, C
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements2013In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 25, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10–15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places higher demands on the longevity of the implants. A wear resistant configuration with wear particles that resorb in vivo can potentially increase the lifetime of an implant. In this study, silicon nitride (SixNy) and silicon carbon nitride (SixCyNz) coatings were produced for this purpose using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings are intended for hard bearing surfaces on implants. Hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings were evaluated by nanoindentation, cohesive, and adhesive properties were assessed by micro-scratching and the tribological performance was investigated in a ball-on-disc setup run in a serum solution. The majority of the SixNy coatings showed a hardness close to that of sintered silicon nitride (∼18 GPa), and an elastic modulus close to that of cobalt chromium (∼200 GPa). Furthermore, all except one of the SixNy coatings offered a wear resistance similar to that of bulk silicon nitride and significantly higher than that of cobalt chromium. In contrast, the SixCyNz coatings did not show as high level of wear resistance.

  • 23.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Structure and composition of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for joint replacements2013In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 235, no 25, p. 827-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiNx and SiCxNy coatings were fabricated with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings microstructure, growth pattern, surface morphology, composition, and bonding structure were investigated by AFM, SEM, GIXRD, TEM, EDS as well as XPS, and related to the deposition parameters target powers and substrate temperature. Cross-sections of SiCxNy coatings showed either dense and laminar, or columnar structures. These coatings varied in roughness (Ra between 0.2 and 3.8 nm) and contained up to 35 at.% C. All coatings were substoichiometric (with an N/Si ratio from 0.27 to 0.65) and contained incorporated particles (so called droplets). The SiNx coatings, in particular those deposited at the lower power on the silicon target, demonstrated a dense microstructure and low surface roughness (Ra between 0.2 and 0.3 nm). They were dominated by an (X-ray) amorphous structure and consisted mainly of Si–N bonds. The usefulness of these coatings is discussed for bearing surfaces for hip joint arthroplasty in order to prolong their life-time. The long-term aim is to obtain a coating that reduces wear and metal ion release, that is biocompatible, and with wear debris that can dissolve in vivo.

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