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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

  • 2.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Decade of Iontronic Delivery Devices2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 1700360Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to electronic systems, biology rarely uses electrons as the signal to regulate functions, but rather ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conjugated polymers and polyelectrolytes, these materials have emerged as an excellent tool for translating signals between these two realms, hence the field of organic bioelectronics. Since organic bioelectronics relies on the electron-mediated transport and compensation of ions (or the ion-mediated transport and compensation of electrons), a great deal of effort has been devoted to the development of so-called "iontronic" components to effect precise substance delivery/transport, that is, components where ions are the dominant charge carrier and where ionic-electronic coupling defines device functionality. This effort has resulted in a range of technologies including ionic resistors, diodes, transistors, and basic logic circuits for the precisely controlled transport and delivery of biologically active chemicals. This Research News article presents a brief overview of some of these "ion pumping" technologies, how they have evolved over the last decade, and a discussion of applications in vitro, in vivo, and in plantae.

  • 3.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miniaturized Ionic Polarization Diodes for Neurotransmitter Release at Synaptic Speeds2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current neural interfaces rely on electrical stimulation pulses to affect neural tissue. The development of a chemical delivery technology, which can stimulate neural tissue with the bodys own set of signaling molecules, would provide a new level of sophistication in neural interfaces. Such technology should ideally provide highly local chemical delivery points that operate at synaptic speed, something that is yet to be accomplished. Here, the development of a miniaturized ionic polarization diode that exhibits many of the desirable properties for a chemical neural interface technology is reported. The ionic diode shows proper diode rectification and the current switches from off to on in 50 mu s at physiologically relevant electrolyte concentrations. A device model is developed to explain the characteristics of the ionic diode in more detail. In combination with experimental data, the model predicts that the ionic polarization diode has a delivery delay of 5 ms to reach physiologically relevant neurotransmitter concentrations at subcellular spatial resolution. The model further predicts that delays of amp;lt;1 ms can be reached by further miniaturization of the diode geometry. Altogether, the results show that ionic polarization diodes are a promising building block for the next generation of chemical neural interfaces.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-22 14:26
  • 4.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte for Improved Selectivity and Processability of lontronic Systems2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 30247-30252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-demand local release of biomolecules enables fine-tuned stimulation for the next generation of neuromodulation therapies. Such chemical stimulation is achievable using iontronic devices based on microfabricated, highly selective ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Current limitations in processability and performance of thin film LEMs hamper future developments of this technology. Here we address this limitation by developing a cationic IEM with excellent processability and ionic selectivity: poly(4-styrenesulfonic acidco-maleic acid) (PSS-co-MA) cross-linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This enables new design opportunities and provides enhanced compatibility with in vitro cell studies. PSSA-co-MA/PEG is shown to out-perform the cation selectivity of the previously used iontronic material.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

  • 6.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, D
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Dyreklev, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Norberg, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Nordlinder, S
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Ersman, PA
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, G
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hederén, J
    DU Radio, Ericsson AB, SE-583 30, Linköping, Sweden..
    Hentzell, H
    Swedish ICT Research, Box 1151, SE-164 26, Kista, Sweden..
    Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch.2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics have been developed according to an orthodox doctrine advocating "all-printed, "all-organic and "ultra-low-cost primarily targeting various e-paper applications. In order to harvest from the great opportunities afforded with organic electronics potentially operating as communication and sensor outposts within existing and future complex communication infrastructures, high-quality computing and communication protocols must be integrated with the organic electronics. Here, we debate and scrutinize the twinning of the signal-processing capability of traditional integrated silicon chips with organic electronics and sensors, and to use our body as a natural local network with our bare hand as the browser of the physical world. The resulting platform provides a body network, i.e., a personalized web, composed of e-label sensors, bioelectronics, and mobile devices that together make it possible to monitor and record both our ambience and health-status parameters, supported by the ubiquitous mobile network and the resources of the "cloud".

  • 7.
    Bernacka Wojcik, Iwona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huerta, Miriam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implantable Organic Electronic Ion Pump Enables ABA Hormone Delivery for Control of Stomata in an Intact Tobacco Plant2019In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 15, no 43, article id 1902189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control of biological processes with bioelectronic devices holds promise for sophisticated regulation of physiology, for gaining fundamental understanding of biological systems, providing new therapeutic solutions, and digitally mediating adaptations of organisms to external factors. The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides a unique means for electronically-controlled, flow-free delivery of ions, and biomolecules at cellular scale. Here, a miniaturized OEIP device based on glass capillary fibers (c-OEIP) is implanted in a biological organism. The capillary form factor at the sub-100 mu m scale of the device enables it to be implanted in soft tissue, while its hyperbranched polyelectrolyte channel and addressing protocol allows efficient delivery of a large aromatic molecule. In the first example of an implantable bioelectronic device in plants, the c-OEIP readily penetrates the leaf of an intact tobacco plant with no significant wound response (evaluated up to 24 h) and effectively delivers the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) into the leaf apoplast. OEIP-mediated delivery of ABA, the phytohormone that regulates plants tolerance to stress, induces closure of stomata, the microscopic pores in leafs epidermis that play a vital role in photosynthesis and transpiration. Efficient and localized ABA delivery reveals previously unreported kinetics of ABA-induced signal propagation.

  • 8.
    Bernard, Christophe
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Université, INS, Marseille, France; Inserm, UMR_S 1106, Marseille, France.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malliaras, George G
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France.
    Organic Bioelectronics for Interfacing with the Brain2016In: The WSPC Reference on Organic Electronics: Organic Semiconductors: Volume 2: Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Applications / [ed] Seth R Marder, Jean-Luc Bredas, World Scientific, 2016, p. 345-368Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how the brain works represents probably the most important fundamental endeavor of humankind and holds the key for the development of new technologies that can help improve the lives of people suffering from neurological conditions such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. Over the past decade, the use of organic electronic devices to interface with the biological world has received a great deal of attention and bloomed into a field now called “organic bioelectronics”. One of the key differences of organic from traditional electronic materials is their capacity to exchange ions with electrolytes. We discuss how this property can be leveraged to design new types of devices that interface with the brain.Read 

  • 9.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Casalini, Stefano
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Marasso, Simone L.
    Politecn Torino, Italy; IMEM CNR, Italy.
    Cocuzza, Matteo
    Politecn Torino, Italy; IMEM CNR, Italy.
    Perrone, Denis
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Pirri, Candido F.
    Politecn Torino, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zerbetto, Francesco
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Biorecognition in Organic Field Effect Transistors Biosensors: The Role of the Density of States of the Organic Semiconductor2016In: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0003-2700, Vol. 88, no 24, p. 12330-12338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorecognition is a central event in biological processes in the living systems that is also widely exploited in technological and health applications. We demonstrate that the Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) is an ultrasensitive and specific device that allows us to quantitatively assess the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition between a human antibody and its antigen, namely, the inflammatory cytokine TNF alpha at the solid/liquid interface. The EGOFET biosensor exhibits a superexponential response at TNF alpha concentration below 1 nM with a minimum detection level of 100 pM. The sensitivity of the device depends on the analyte concentration, reaching a maximum in the range of clinically relevant TNF alpha concentrations when the EGOFET is operated in the subthreshold regime. At concentrations greater than 1 nM the response scales linearly with the concentration. The sensitivity and the dynamic range are both modulated by the gate voltage. These results are explained by establishing the correlation between the sensitivity and the density of states (DOS) of the organic semiconductor. Then, the superexponential response arises from the energy-dependence of the tail of the DOS of the HOMO level. From the gate voltage-dependent response, we extract the binding constant, as well as the changes of the surface charge and the effective capacitance accompanying biorecognition at the electrode surface. Finally, we demonstrate the detection of TNF alpha in human-plasma derived samples as an example for point-of-care application.

  • 10.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Univ Ferrara, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    DAgata, Roberta
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bianchini, Elena
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Casalini, Stefano
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spoto, Giuseppe
    Univ Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    EGOFET Peptide Aptasensor for Label-Free Detection of Inflammatory Cytokines in Complex Fluids2018In: ADVANCED BIOSYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 1700072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic transistors are rapidly emerging as ultrahigh sensitive label-free biosensors suited for point-of-care or in-field deployed applications. Most organic biosensors reported to date are based on immunorecognition between the relevant biomarkers and the immobilized antibodies, whose use is hindered by large dimensions, poor control of sequence, and relative instability. Here, an electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor (EGOFET) biosensor where the recognition units are surface immobilized peptide aptamers (Affimer proteins) instead of antibodies is reported. Peptide aptasensor for the detection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) with a 1 x 10(-12) M limit of detection is demonstrated. Ultralow sensitivity is met even in complex solutions such as cell culture media containing 10% serum, demonstrating the remarkable ligand specificity of the device. The device performances, together with the simple one-step immobilization strategy of the recognition moieties and the low operational voltages, all prompt EGOFET peptide aptasensors as candidates for early diagnostics and monitoring at the point-of-care.

  • 11.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theuer, Lorenz
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors2018In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of urea is of the utmost importance not only in medical diagnosis, where it serves as a potential indicator of kidney and liver disfunction, but also in food safety and environmental control. Here, we describe a urea biosensor based on urease entrapped in a crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, deposited onto a fully printed PEDOT:PSS-based organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The device response is based on the modulation of the channel conductivity by the ionic species produced upon urea hydrolysis catalyzed by the entrapped urease. The biosensor shows excellent reproducibility, a limit of detection as low as 1 mu M and a response time of a few minutes. The fabrication of the OECTs by screen-printing on flexible substrates ensures a significant reduction in manufacturing time and costs. The low dimensionality and operational voltages (0.5 V or below) of these devices contribute to make these enzymatic OECT-based biosensors as appealing candidates for high-throughput monitoring of urea levels at the point-of-care or in the field.

  • 12.
    Campana, Alessandra
    et al.
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Bologna, Italy .
    Cramer, Tobias
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    CNR-ISMN, Bologna, Italy; University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy .
    Electrocardiographic recording with conformable organic electrochemical transistor fabricated on resorbable bioscaffold2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 3874-3878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors are fabricated on a poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) substrate. Fast and sensitive performance of the transistors allows recording of the electrocardiogram. The result paves the way for new types of bioelectronic interfaces with reduced invasiveness due to bioresorption and soft mechanical properties.

  • 13.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 022001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield amp;gt;90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+,K+,Cl-) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the iontronics toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 14.
    Derek, Vedran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micropatterning of organic electronic materials using a facile aqueous photolithographic process2018In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 105116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterning organic semiconductors via traditional solution-based microfabrication techniques is precluded by undesired interactions between processing solvents and the organic material. Herein we show how to avoid these problems easily and introduce a simple lift-off method to pattern organic semiconductors. Positive tone resist is deposited on the substrate, followed by conventional exposure and development. After deposition of the organic semiconductor layer, the remaining photoresist is subjected to a flood exposure, rendering it developable. Lift-off is then performed using the same aqueous developer as before. We find that the aqueous developers do not compromise the integrity of the organic layer or alter its electronic performance. We utilize this technique to pattern four different organic electronic materials: epindo-lidione (EPI), a luminescent semiconductor, p-n photovoltaic bilayers of metal-free phthalocyanine and N, N-dimethyltetracarboxylic diimide, and finally the archetypical conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The result of our efforts is a facile method making use of well-established techniques that can be added to the toolbox of research and industrial scientists developing organic electronics technology. (c) 2018 Author(s).

  • 15.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berto, Marcello
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; University of Ferrara, Italy.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bianchini, Elena
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Label-free detection of interleukin-6 using electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors2017In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 05F401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines are small proteins that play fundamental roles in inflammatory processes in the human body. In particular, interleukin (IL)-6 is a multifunctional cytokine, whose increased levels are associated with infection, cancer, and inflammation. The quantification of IL-6 is therefore of primary importance in early stages of inflammation and in chronic diseases, but standard techniques are expensive, time-consuming, and usually rely on fluorescent or radioactive labels. Organic electronic devices and, in particular, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been proposed in the recent years as novel platforms for label-free protein detection, exploiting as sensing unit surface-immobilized antibodies or aptamers. Here, the authors report two electrolyte-gated OFETs biosensors for IL-6 detection, featuring monoclonal antibodies and peptide aptamers adsorbed at the gate. Both strategies yield biosensors that can work on a wide range of IL-6 concentrations and exhibit a remarkable limit of detection of 1 pM. Eventually, electrolyte gated OFETs responses have been used to extract and compare the binding thermodynamics between the sensing moiety, immobilized at the gate electrode, and IL-6. (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

  • 16.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

  • 17.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 38, p. 6950-6960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated.

  • 18.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Interfaces in organic electronics2019In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

  • 19.
    Franco Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlopoulou, Eleni
    Bordeaux INP, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, LCPO UMR 5629, 33600 Pessac, France.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morphology of a self-doped conducting oligomer for green energy applications2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 13717-13724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently synthesized self-doped conducting oligomer, salt of bis[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]3thiophene butyric acid, ETE-S, is a novel promising material for green energy applications. Recently, it has been demonstrated that it can polymerize in vivo, in plant systems, leading to a formation of long-range conducting wires, charge storage and supercapacitive behaviour of living plants. Here we investigate the morphology of ETE-S combining the experimental characterisation using Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The GIWAXS measurements reveal a formation of small crystallites consisting of π–π stacked oligomers (with the staking distance 3.5 Å) that are further organized in h00 lamellae. These experimental results are confirmed by MD calculations, where we calculated the X-ray diffraction pattern and the radial distribution function for the distance between ETE-S chains. Our MD simulations also demonstrate the formation of the percolative paths for charge carriers that extend throughout the whole structure, despite the fact that the oligomers are short (6–9 rings) and crystallites are thin along the π–π stacking direction, consisting of only two or three π–π stacked oligomers. The existence of the percolative paths explains the previously observed high conductivity in in vivo polymerized ETE-S. We also explored the geometrical conformation of ETE-S oligomers and the bending of their aliphatic chains as a function of the oligomer lengths.

  • 20.
    Gabrielsson, Erik O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

  • 21.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biocompatible Circuits for Human–Machine Interfacing2018In: Green Materials for Electronics / [ed] Mihai Irimia-Vladu, Eric D. Głowacki, Niyazi Sariciftci, Siegfried Bauer, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018, p. 91-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional electronic devices have evolved from the first transistors introduced in the 1940s to integrated circuits and today's modern (CMOS) computer chips fabricated on silicon wafers using photolithography. This chapter reviews such iontronic devices for signal translation and their application in bioelectronics. It begins with a brief description of the ion transport mechanisms that lay the conceptual groundwork for this type of iontronic devices. The chapter presents various iontronic devices aimed at bioelectronic applications. It outlines the future possible developments of iontronics for human-machine interfacing. The physical interface between electronic devices and biological tissues is of particular interest, as this interface bridges the gap between artificial, humanmade technologies and biological "circuits". Ion-conducting diodes and transistors can be used to build circuits for modulation of ion flow, with the possibility of mimicking the dynamic and nonlinear processes occurring in the body.

  • 22.
    Geller, Michael
    et al.
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Dennis, William
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Markel, Vadim
    Washington University, St. Louis, USA.
    Patton, Kelly
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Simon, Daniel
    University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.
    Yang, Ho-Soon
    Argonne National Laboratory, USA.
    Theory of electron–phonon dynamics in insulating nanoparticles2002In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 316-317, p. 430-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the rich vibrational dynamics of nanometer-scale semiconducting and insulating crystals as probed by localized electronic impurity states, with an emphasis on nanoparticles that are only weakly coupled to their environment. Two principal regimes of electron--phonon dynamics are distinguished, and a brief survey of vibrational-mode broadening mechanisms is presented. Recent work on the effects of mechanical interaction with the environment is discussed.

  • 23.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

  • 24.
    Gomez, Eliot
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Acoustic Waves to Drive Plant Transpiration.2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 45864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging fields of research in electronic plants (e-plants) and agro-nanotechnology seek to create more advanced control of plants and their products. Electronic/nanotechnology plant systems strive to seamlessly monitor, harvest, or deliver chemical signals to sense or regulate plant physiology in a controlled manner. Since the plant vascular system (xylem/phloem) is the primary pathway used to transport water, nutrients, and chemical signals-as well as the primary vehicle for current e-plant and phtyo-nanotechnology work-we seek to directly control fluid transport in plants using external energy. Surface acoustic waves generated from piezoelectric substrates were directly coupled into rose leaves, thereby causing water to rapidly evaporate in a highly localized manner only at the site in contact with the actuator. From fluorescent imaging, we find that the technique reliably delivers up to 6x more water/solute to the site actuated by acoustic energy as compared to normal plant transpiration rates and 2x more than heat-assisted evaporation. The technique of increasing natural plant transpiration through acoustic energy could be used to deliver biomolecules, agrochemicals, or future electronic materials at high spatiotemporal resolution to targeted areas in the plant; providing better interaction with plant physiology or to realize more sophisticated cyborg systems.

  • 25.
    Iandolo, Donata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ravichandran, Akhilandeshwari
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wen, Feng
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Chan, Jerry K Y
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Teoh, Swee-Hin
    School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development and Characterization of Organic Electronic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering2016In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 1505-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bones have been shown to exhibit piezoelectric properties, generating electrical potential upon mechanical deformation and responding to electrical stimulation with the generation of mechanical stress. Thus, the effects of electrical stimulation on bone tissue engineering have been extensively studied. However, in bone regeneration applications, only few studies have focused on the use of electroactive 3D biodegradable scaffolds at the interphase with stem cells. Here a method is described to combine the bone regeneration capabilities of 3D-printed macroporous medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with the electrical and electrochemical capabilities of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). PCL scaffolds have been highly effective in vivo as bone regeneration grafts, and PEDOT is a leading material in the field of organic bioelectronics, due to its stability, conformability, and biocompatibility. A protocol is reported for scaffolds functionalization with PEDOT, using vapor-phase polymerization, resulting in a conformal conducting layer. Scaffolds' porosity and mechanical stability, important for in vivo bone regeneration applications, are retained. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells proliferation is assessed on the functionalized scaffolds, showing the cytocompatibility of the polymeric coating. Altogether, these results show the feasibility of the proposed approach to obtain electroactive scaffolds for electrical stimulation of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  • 26.
    Ismailova, Esma
    et al.
    Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Cramer, Tobias
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Special Issue on "Electronic Textiles"2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1800195Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue on electronic textiles was planned together with Wiley and the European Materials Research Society (E‐MRS) by the organizers of Symposium J “Electronic textiles” at the E‐MRS Spring 2017 meeting in Strasbourg, France. Advanced Materials Technologies is new to the Advanced Materials series at Wiley and focuses specifically on “advanced device design, fabrication and integration, as well as new technologies based on novel materials”. We thus see the journal as an ideal venue for this special issue on this emerging field....

  • 27.
    Jakesova, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 4, article id eaav5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical control of the electrophysiology of single cells can be a powerful tool for biomedical research and technology. Here, we report organic electrolytic photocapacitors (OEPCs), devices that function as extracellular capacitive electrodes for stimulating cells. OEPCs consist of transparent conductor layers covered with a donor-acceptor bilayer of organic photoconductors. This device produces an open-circuit voltage in a physiological solution of 330 mV upon illumination using light in a tissue transparency window of 630 to 660 nm. We have performed electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, finding rapid (time constants, 50 mu s to 5 ms) photoinduced transient changes in the range of 20 to 110 mV. We measure photoinduced opening of potassium channels, conclusively proving that the OEPC effectively depolarizes the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate that the OEPC can be a versatile nongenetic technique for optical manipulation of electrophysiology and currently represents one of the simplest and most stable and efficient optical stimulation solutions.

  • 28.
    Jakešová, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Đerek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics2019In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an emerging bioelectronic technology for on-demand and local delivery of pharmacologically active species, especially targeting alkali ions, and neurotransmitters. While electrical control is advantageous for providing precise spatial, temporal, and quantitative delivery, traditionally, it necessitates wiring. This complicates implantation. Herein, we demonstrate integration of an OEIP with a photovoltaic driver on a flexible carrier, which can be addressed by red light within the tissue transparency window. Organic thin-film bilayer photovoltaic pixels are arranged in series and/or vertical tandem to provide the 2.5–4.5 V necessary for operating the high-resistance electrophoretic ion pumps. We demonstrate light-stimulated transport of cations, ranging in size from protons to acetylcholine. The device, laminated on top of the skin, can easily be driven with a red LED emitting through a 1.5-cm-thick finger. The end result of our work is a thin and flexible integrated wireless device platform.

  • 29.
    Janson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Ionic Capacitor for Integrated Iontronic Circuits2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics, in combination with custom polyelectrolytes, enables solid- and hydrogel-state circuit components using ionic charges in place of the electrons of traditional electronics. This growing field of iontronics leverages anion- and cation-exchange membranes as analogs to n-type and p-type semiconductors, and conjugated polymer electrodes as ion-to-electron converters. To date, the iontronics toolbox includes ionic resistors, ionic diodes, ionic transistors, and analog and digital circuits comprised thereof. Here, an ionic capacitor based on mixed electron-ion conductors is demonstrated. The ionic capacitor resembles the structure of a conventional electrochemical capacitor that is inverted, with an electronically conducting core and two electrolyte ionic conductors. The device is first verified as a capacitor, and then demonstrated as a smoothing element in an iontronic diode bridge circuit driving an organic electronic ion pump (ionic resistor). The ionic capacitor complements the existing iontronics toolbox, enabling more complex and functional ionic circuits, and will thus have implications in a variety of mixed electron-ion conduction technologies.

  • 30.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release2016In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 2, no 11, article id e1601340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters. However, this technology, the organic electronic ion pump, has been limited to a single delivery point, or several simultaneously addressed outlets, with switch-on speeds of seconds. We report on a vertical neurotransmitter delivery device, configured as an array with individually controlled delivery points and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. This is achieved by supplementing lateral electrophoresis with a control electrode and an ion diode at each delivery point to allow addressing and limit leakage. By delivering local pulses of neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal dynamics approaching synaptic function, the high-speed delivery array promises unprecedented access to neural signaling and a path toward biochemically regulated neural prostheses.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inal, Sahika
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France .
    Uguz, Ilke
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France .
    Williamson, Adam
    Aix Marseille Université, INS, Marseille, France; Inserm, UMR_S 1106, Marseille, France.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille Université, INS, Marseille, France; Inserm, UMR_S 1106, Marseille, France.
    Rivnay, Jonathan
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France .
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bernard, Christophe
    Aix Marseille Université, INS, Marseille, France; Inserm, UMR_S 1106, Marseille, France.
    Malliaras, George G
    Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, Gardanne, France .
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 34, p. 9440-9445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local control of neuronal activity is central to many therapeutic strategies aiming to treat neurological disorders. Arguably, the best solution would make use of endogenous highly localized and specialized regulatory mechanisms of neuronal activity, and an ideal therapeutic technology should sense activity and deliver endogenous molecules at the same site for the most efficient feedback regulation. Here, we address this challenge with an organic electronic multifunctional device that is capable of chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site, at the single-cell scale. Conducting polymer electrodes recorded epileptiform discharges induced in mouse hippocampal preparation. The inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was then actively delivered through the recording electrodes via organic electronic ion pump technology. GABA delivery stopped epileptiform activity, recorded simultaneously and colocally. This multifunctional “neural pixel” creates a range of opportunities, including implantable therapeutic devices with automated feedback, where locally recorded signals regulate local release of specific therapeutic agents.

  • 32.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Zhiyang
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, SE-601 17 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Meyerson, Björn A.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linderoth, Bengt
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Therapy using implanted organic bioelectronics2015In: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 4, article id e1500039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many drugs provide their therapeutic action only at specific sites in the body, but are administered in ways that cause the drug’s spread throughout the organism. This can lead to serious side effects. Local delivery from an implanted device may avoid these issues, especially if the delivery rate can be tuned according to the need of the patient. We turned to electronically and ionically conducting polymers to design a device that could be implanted and used for local electrically controlled delivery of therapeutics. The conducting polymers in our device allow electronic pulses to be transduced into biological signals, in the form of ionic and molecular fluxes, which provide a way of interfacing biology with electronics. Devices based on conducting polymers and polyelectrolytes have been demonstrated in controlled substance delivery to neural tissue, biosensing, and neural recording and stimulation. While providing proof of principle of bioelectronic integration, such demonstrations have been performed in vitro or in anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of an implantable organic electronic delivery device for the treatment of neuropathic pain in an animal model. Devices were implanted onto the spinal cord of rats, and 2 days after implantation, local delivery of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was initiated. Highly localized delivery resulted in a significant decrease in pain response with low dosage and no observable side effects. This demonstration of organic bioelectronics-based therapy in awake animals illustrates a viable alternative to existing pain treatments, paving the way for future implantable bioelectronic therapeutics. Keywords

  • 33.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minh-Chau Pham; Noel, Vincent
    University of Paris Diderot, France .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detection of Glutamate and Acetylcholine with Organic Electrochemical Transistors Based on Conducting Polymer/Platinum Nanoparticle Composites2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 32, p. 5658-5664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to open a new scope for organic electrochemical transistors based on PEDOT:PSS, a material blend known for its stability and reliability. These devices can leverage molecular electrocatalysis by incorporating small amounts of nano-catalyst during the transistor manufacturing (spin coating). This methodology is very simple to implement using the know-how of nanochemistry and results in efficient enzymatic activity transduction, in this case utilizing choline oxidase and glutamate oxidase.

  • 34.
    Méhes, Gábor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes2020In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, article id 1900100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  • 35.
    Poxson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bonisoli, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; St Anna Sch Adv Studies, Italy.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 14200-14207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) are versatile tools for electrophoretic delivery of substances with high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, OEIPs and similar iontronic components have been fabricated using thin-film techniques and often rely on laborious, multistep photolithographic processes. OEIPs have been demonstrated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings for controlling biological systems, but the thin-film form factor and limited repertoire of polyelectrolyte materials and device fabrication techniques unnecessarily constrain the possibilities for miniaturization and extremely localized substance delivery, e.g., the greater range of pharmaceutical compounds, on the scale of a single cell. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new OEIP form factor based on capillary fibers that include hyperbranched polyglycerols (dPGs) as the selective electrophoretic membrane. The dPGs enable electrophoretic channels with a high concentration of fixed charges and well-controlled cross-linking and can be realized using a simple one-pot fluidic manufacturing protocol. Selective electrophoretic transport of cations and anions of various sizes is demonstrated, including large substances that are difficult to transport with other OEIP technologies. We present a method for tailoring and characterizing the electrophoretic channels fixed charge concentration in the operational state. Subsequently, we compare the experimental performance of these capillary OEIPs to a computational model and explain unexpected features in the ionic current for the transport and delivery of larger, lower-mobility ionic compounds. From this model, we are able to elucidate several operational and design principles relevant to miniaturized electrophoretic drug delivery technologies in general. Overall, the compactness of the capillary OEIP enables electrophoretic delivery devices with probelike geometries, suitable for a variety of ionic compounds, paving the way for less-invasive implantation into biological systems and for healthcare applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-27 15:15
  • 36.
    Poxson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Alkattan, Aziz Yousif Aziz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Anna
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Doyle, Siamsa M.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Robert, Stéphanie
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljung, Karin
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Grebe, Markus
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Plant Physiology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Golm, Germany.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Regulating plant physiology with organic electronics.2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 18, p. 4597-4602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology. Here, we report the employment of OEIPs for the delivery of the plant hormone auxin to induce differential concentration gradients and modulate plant physiology. We fabricated OEIP devices based on a synthesized dendritic polyelectrolyte that enables electrophoretic transport of aromatic substances. Delivery of auxin to transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vivo was monitored in real time via dynamic fluorescent auxin-response reporters and induced physiological responses in roots. Our results provide a starting point for technologies enabling direct, rapid, and dynamic electronic interaction with the biochemical regulation systems of plants.

  • 37.
    Schulte, E C
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Afanasev, A
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Amarian, M
    INFN/Sanita, Roma, Italy.
    Aniol, K
    California State University, Los Angeles, USA.
    Becher, S
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Benslama, K
    University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Bimbot, L
    Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay, France.
    Bosted, P
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Brash, E
    University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Calarco, J
    University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.
    Chai, Z
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Chang, C
    University of Maryland, College Park, USA.
    Chang, T
    University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Chen, J P
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Choi, S
    Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Chudakov, E
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Churchwell, S
    Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Crovelli, D
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Dieterich, S
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Dumalski, S
    University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Dutta, D
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Epstein, M
    California State University, Los Angeles, USA.
    Fissum, K
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Fox, B
    University of Colorado, Boulder, USA.
    Frullani, S
    INFN/Sanita, Roma, Italy.
    Gao, H
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Gao, J
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.
    Garibaldi, F
    INFN/Sanita, Roma, Italy.
    Gayou, O
    College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
    Gilman, R
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Glamazdin, A
    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine.
    Glashausser, C
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Gomez, J
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Gorbenko, V
    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine.
    Hansen, J O
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Holt, R J
    Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA.
    Hovdebo, J
    University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada .
    Huber, G M
    University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada .
    De Jager, C W
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Jiang, X
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Jones, C
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.
    Jones, M K
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.
    Kelly, J
    University of Maryland, College Park, USA.
    Kinney, E
    University of Colorado, Boulder, USA.
    Kooijman, E
    Kent State University, Ohio, USA.
    Kumbartzki, G
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Kuss, M
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    LeRose, J
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Liang, M
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Lindgren, R
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.
    Liyanage, N
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Malov, S
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Margaziotis, D
    California State University, Los Angeles, USA.
    Markowitz, D
    Florida International University, Miami, USA.
    McCormick, K
    DAPNIA, Saclay, France.
    Meekins, D
    Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.
    Meziani, Z E
    Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Michaels, R
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Mitchell, J
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Morand, L
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Perdrisat, C
    College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
    Pomatsalyuk, R
    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine.
    Punjabi, V
    Norfolk State University, Virginia, USA.
    Radyushkin, A
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Ransome, R
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Roche, R
    Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.
    Rvachev, M
    American University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
    Saha, A
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Sarty, A
    Florida State University, Tallahassee, USA.
    Simon, Daniel
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Strauch, S
    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA.
    Suleiman, R
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Todor, L
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.
    Ulmer, P
    Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.
    Urciuoli, G M
    INFN/Sanita, Roma, Italy.
    Wijesooriya, K
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Wojtsekhowski, B
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia, USA.
    Xiong, F
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    Xu, W
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
    High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction2002In: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics, ISSN 0556-2813, E-ISSN 1089-490X, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 042201-1-042201-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Eγ = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results.

  • 38.
    Seitanidou, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Franco-Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    pH Dependence of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Iontronic Transport2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 121, no 30, p. 7284-7289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) has been developed as an “iontronic” tool for delivery of biological signaling compounds. OEIPs rely on electrophoretically “pumping” charged compounds, either at neutral or shifted pH, through an ion-selective channel. Significant shifts in pH lead to an abundance of H+ or OH–, which are delivered along with the intended substance. While this method has been used to transport various neurotransmitters, the role of pH has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the role of pH on OEIP transport efficiency using the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as the model cationic delivery substance. GABA transport is evaluated at various pHs using electrical and chemical characterization and compared to molecular dynamics simulations, all of which agree that pH 3 is ideal for GABA transport. These results demonstrate a useful method for optimizing transport of other substances and thus broadening OEIP applications.

  • 39.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomgran, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pushpamithran, Giggil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulating Inflammation in Monocytes Using Capillary Fiber Organic Electronic Ion Pumps2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 8, no 19, article id 1900813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) delivers ions and drugs from a source, through a charge selective membrane, to a target upon an electric bias. Miniaturization of this technology is crucial and will provide several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. To miniaturize OEIPs, new configurations have been developed based on glass capillary fibers filled with an anion exchange membrane (AEM). Fiber capillary OEIPs can be easily implanted in proximity to targeted cells and tissues. Herein, the efficacy of such a fiber capillary OEIP for modulation of inflammation in human monocytes is demonstrated. The devices are located on inflammatory monocytes and local delivery of salicylic acid (SA) is initiated. Highly localized SA delivery results in a significant decrease in cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6) levels after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The findings-the first use of such capillary OEIPs in mammalian cells or systems-demonstrate the utility of the technology for optimizing transport and delivery of different therapeutic substances at low concentrations, with the benefit of local and controlled administration that limits the adverse effect of oral/systemic drug delivery.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-10 13:45
  • 40.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices2019In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

  • 41.
    Simon, Daniel
    University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.
    Multistability, Ionic Doping, and Charge Dynamics in Electrosynthesized Polypyrrole, Polymer-Nanoparticle Blend Nonvolatile Memory, and Fixed p-i-n Junction Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of factors make semiconducting polymers a fascinating alternative for both device development and new areas of fundamental research. Among these are solution processability, low cost, flexibility, and the strong dependence of conduction on the presence of charge compensating ions. With the lack of a complete fundamental understanding of the materials, and the growing demand for novel solutions to semiconductor device design, research in the field can take many, often multifaceted, routes.

    Due to ion-mediated conduction and versatility of fabrication, conducting polymers can provide a route to the study of neural signaling. In the first of three research topics presented, junctions of polypyrrole electropolymerized on microelectrode arrays are demonstrated. Individual junctions, when synthesized in a three-electrode configuration, exhibit current switching behavior analogous to neural weighting. Junctions copolymerized with thiophene exhibit current rectification and the nonlinear current-voltage behavior requisite for complex neural systems. Applications to larger networks, and eventual use in analysis of signaling, are discussed.

    In the second research topic, nonvolatile resistive memory consisting of gold nanoparticles embedded in a polymer film is examined using admittance spectroscopy. The frequency dependence of the devices indicates space-charge-limited transport in the high-conductivity "on" state, and similar transport in the lower-conductivity "off" state. Furthermore, a larger dc capacitance of the on state indicates that a greater amount of filling of midgap trap levels introduced by the nanoparticles increases conductivity, leading to the memory effect. Implications on the question as to whether or not the on state is the result of percolation pathways is discussed.

    The third and final research topic is a presentation of enhanced efficiency of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) by means of forming a doping self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the cathode-polymer interface. The addition of the SAM causes a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Photovoltaic analysis indicates that the SAM increases both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Current versus voltage data are presented which indicate that the SAM does not simply introduce an interfacial dipole layer, but rather provides a fixed doping region, and thus a more stable p-i-n structure.

  • 42.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Carter, Sue A.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Electrosynthetically patterned conducting polymer films for investigation of neural signaling2006In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 124, p. 204709-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ion-mediated conduction and versatility of device fabrication of conducting polymers provide a route to the study of neural signaling. Patterned junctions of conducting polypyrrole have been electropolymerized on commercially available microelectrode arrays, with typical dimensions 200  µm between electrodes, each electrode being 30  µm in diameter. Tetrabutylammonium perchlorate or sodium p-toluenesulfonate were used as electrolyte/counterion in the organic solvent. Individual polypyrrole junctions, when synthesized and connected in a three-electrode configuration, exhibit current-switching behavior analogous to neural weighting. Junctions copolymerized with thiophene exhibit current rectification and the nonlinear current-voltage behavior requisite for complex neural systems (i.e., the activation function).

  • 43.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Geller, Micheal
    University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
    Electron-phonon dynamics in an ensemble of nearly isolated nanoparticles2001In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 64, p. 115412-1-115412-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the electron population dynamics in an ensemble of nearly isolated insulating nanoparticles, each nanoparticle modeled as an electronic two-level system coupled to a single vibrational mode. We find that at short times the ensemble-averaged excited-state population oscillates but has a decaying envelope. At long times, the oscillations become purely sinusoidal about a “plateau” population, with a frequency determined by the electron-phonon interaction strength and with an envelope that decays algebraically as t-1/2. We use this theory to predict electron-phonon dynamics in an ensemble of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles.

  • 44.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Griffo, Michael
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    DiPietro, R. A.
    IBM Research Division, San Jose, California.
    Swanson, S. A.
    IBM Research Division, San Jose, California.
    Carter, Sue
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Admittance spectroscopy of polymer-nanoparticle non-volatile memory devices2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, p. 133510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonvolatile resistive memory consisting of gold nanoparticles embedded in the conducting polymer poly(4-n-hexylphenyldiphenylamine) examined using admittance spectroscopy. The frequency dependence of the devices indicates space-charge-limited transport in the high-conductivity "on" state, as well as evidence for similar transport in the lower-conductivity "off" state. Furthermore, the larger dc capacitance of the on state indicates that a greater amount of filling of the midgap nanoparticle trap levels increases the overall device conductivity, leading to the memory effect.

  • 45.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, K
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Kurup, Sinduh
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för Neurovetenskap.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Organic Electronic Ion Pump to Regulate Intracellular Signaling at High Spatiotemporal Resolution2009In: Transducers 2009: The 15th international conference on Solid-State Sensor, Actuators and Microsystems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1790-1793Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current technologies for cell stimulation suffer from a variety of drawbacks. Indeed, precise, localized, and minimally disruptive machine-to-cell interfacing is difficult to achieve. Here we present the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP), a polymer-based delivery system exhibiting high spatial, temporal, and dosage precision. Based on electrophoretic transport of positively charged species, the OEIP can deliver - with high precision - an array of biologically relevant substances without fluid flow, thus eliminating convective disturbance of the target system's environment. We discuss our results to date, including oscillatory delivery profiles and stimulation of neuronal cells in vitro, as well as our ongoing work.

  • 46.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Organic Electronics toward Artificial Neurons2009In: BIOforum Europe, ISSN 1611-597X, Vol. 11-12, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When nerve cells are exposed to chemical stimuli, an electric potential is triggered. Migrating along the axon, the signal reaches the synapse, where it is converted into the release of neurotransmitters. This mode of cell-to-cell communication inspired us to develop an artificial nerve cell based on conducting polymers. Its use for precise stimulation of nerve cells in vivo illustrates its potential as an implantable device for automated correction of malfunctioning signaling pathways in pathophysiological conditions.

  • 47.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    LARSSON, Karin C.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    BERGGREN, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    RICHTER-DAHLFORS, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Precise Neurotransmitter-Mediated Communication with Neurons In Vitro and In Vivo Using Organic Electronics2010In: Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1880-9863, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts to interface human-made systems with neural systems are commonly based on direct electrical stimulation or exogenous drug delivery. Few techniques have attempted to mimic neurons' own combination of electronic and chemical signaling with endogenous substances. We demonstrate below the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP), a technology which aims to accomplish just that: electronically controlled delivery of ions, neurotransmitters and other bio-substances. Based on electrophoretic migration through an organic electronic system, delivery is diffusive and non-convective, that is, without fluid flow. Various experiments involving OEIP technology are reviewed, culminating in its use, in an encapsulated form, to modulate sensory function in a living animal. As a first step towards an “artificial neuron”, this technology has significant potential for both neural system interfacing and in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

  • 48.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Karin C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Burstrom, Gustav
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Galter, Dagmar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    An organic electronic biomimetic neuron enables auto-regulated neuromodulation2015In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 71, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current therapies for neurological disorders are based on traditional medication and electric stimulation. Here, we present an organic electronic biomimetic neuron, with the capacity to precisely intervene with the underlying malfunctioning signalling pathway using endogenous substances. The fundamental function of neurons, defined as chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transduction, is achieved by connecting enzyme-based amperometric biosensors and organic electronic ion pumps. Selective biosensors transduce chemical signals into an electric current, which regulates electrophoretic delivery of chemical substances without necessitating liquid flow. Biosensors detected neurotransmitters in physiologically relevant ranges of 5-80 mu M, showing linear response above 20 mu m with approx. 0.1 nA/mu M slope. When exceeding defined threshold concentrations, biosensor output signals, connected via custom hardware/software, activated local or distant neurotransmitter delivery from the organic electronic ion pump. Changes of 20 mu M glutamate or acetylcholine triggered diffusive delivery of acetylcholine, which activated cells via receptor-mediated signalling. This was observed in real-time by single-cell ratiometric Ca2+ imaging. The results demonstrate the potential of the organic electronic biomimetic neuron in therapies involving long-range neuronal signalling by mimicking the function of projection neurons. Alternatively, conversion of glutamate-induced descending neuromuscular signals into acetylcholine-mediated muscular activation signals may be obtained, applicable for bridging injured sites and active prosthetics. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Simon, Daniel
    et al.
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Stanislowski, David
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Carter, Sue
    University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Fixed p-i-n junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells based on charged self-assembled monolayers2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, p. 103508-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report on enhanced efficiency of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) by means of forming a n-doping self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the cathode-polymer interface. The addition of the SAM, a silane-based salt with structural similarity to the commonly used LEC n-dopant tetra-n-butylammonium, caused a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Photovoltaic analysis indicates that the SAM increases both the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. Current versus voltage data are presented which indicate that the SAM does not simply introduce an interfacial dipole layer, but rather provides a fixed doping region, and thus a more stable p-i-n structure.

  • 50.
    Simon, Daniel T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic Bioelectronics: Bridging the Signaling Gap between Biology and Technology2016In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 116, no 21, p. 13009-13041Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronics surrounding us in our daily lives rely almost exclusively on electrons as the dominant charge carrier. In stark contrast, biological systems rarely use electrons but rather use ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conducting and semiconducting organic polymers and small molecules, these materials have emerged in recent decades as excellent tools for translating signals between these two realms and, therefore, providing a means to effectively interface biology with conventional electronics-thus, the field of organic bioelectronics. Today, organic bioelectronics defines a generic platform with unprecedented biological recording and regulation tools and is maturing toward applications ranging from life sciences to the clinic. In this Review, we introduce the field, from its early breakthroughs to its current results and future challenges.

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