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• 1.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Optimization of the Field Effect Transistor transducer platform for the development of air quality sensors2016In: Proceedings EMRS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
• 2.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Recent progress in silicon carbide field effect gas sensors2020In: Semiconductor gas sensors / [ed] Raivo Jaaniso and Ooi Kiang Tan, Oxford: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2020, 2, p. 309-346Chapter in book (Refereed)

The introduction of silicon carbide as the semiconductor in gas-sensitive field effect devices has disruptively improved this sensor platform extending the operation temperature to more than 600 °C with an increased number of detectable gases. Here, we review recent progress in research and applications, starting with transducer and detection mechanisms, presenting new material combinations as sensing layers for improved selectivity and detection limits down to subparts per billion. We describe how temperature cycled operation combined with advanced data evaluation enables one sensor to act as a sensor array thereby vastly improving selectivity. Field tests require advanced packaging, which is described, and examples of possible applications like selective detection of ammonia for urea injection control in diesel exhausts and toxic volatile organic compounds for indoor air quality monitoring and control are given.

• 3.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
UV-assisted gate bias cycling in gas-sensitive field-effect transistors2018In: Proceedings, ISSN 2504-3900, Vol. 2, no 13, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)

Static and dynamic responses of a silicon carbide field-effect transistor gas sensor have been investigated at two different gate biases in several test gases. Especially the dynamic effects are gas dependent and can be used for gas identification. The addition of ultraviolet light reduces internal electrical relaxation effects, but also introduces new, temperature-dependent effects.

• 4.
Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. 3S GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Low-cost chemical gas sensors for selective formaldehyde quantification at ppb-level in field tests2017Conference paper (Refereed)

Data from a silicon carbide based field-effect transistor were recorded over a period of nine days in a ventilated school room. For enhanced sensitivity and selectivity especially to formaldehyde, porous iridium on pulsed laser deposited tungsten trioxide was used as sensitive layer, in combination with temperature cycled operation and subsequent multivariate data processing techniques. The sensor signal was compared to reference measurements for formaldehyde concentration, CO2 concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The results show a distinct pattern for the reference formaldehyde concentration, arising from the day/night cycle. Taking this into account, the projections of both principal component analysis and partial least squares regression lead to almost the same result concerning correlation to the reference. The sensor shows cross-sensitivity to an unidentified component of human activity, presumably breath, and, possibly, to other compounds appearing together with formaldehyde in indoor air. Nevertheless, the sensor is able to detect and partially quantify formaldehyde below 40 ppb with a correlation to the reference of 0.48 and negligible interference from ambient temperature or relative humidity.

• 5.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. Modena and Reggio Emilia University, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. University of Catania, Italy.
Ultra Low Noise Epitaxial 4H-SiC X-Ray Detectors2009In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 615-617, p. 845-848Article in journal (Refereed)

The design and the experimental results of some prototypes of SiC X-ray detectors are presented. The devices have been manufactured on top of 2 inch 4H-SiC wafer with 115 μm thick undoped high purity epitaxial layer, which constitutes the detection’s active volume. Pad and pixel detectors based on Ni-Schottky junctions have been tested. The residual doping of the epi-layer was found tobe extremely low, 3.7 x 1013 cm-3, allowing to achieve the highest detection efficiency and the lower specific capacitance of the detectors. At 22 °C and in operating bias condition, the reverse current densities of the detector’s Schottky junctions have been measured to be between J = 0.3 pA/cm2 and J = 4 pA/cm2; these values are more than two orders of magnitude lower than those of state of the art silicon detectors. With such low leakage currents, the equivalent electronic noise of SiC pixel detectors is as low as 0.5 electrons r.m.s at room temperature, which represents a new state of the art in the scenario of semiconductor radiation detectors.

• 6.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors2011In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 652, no 1, p. 193-196Article in journal (Refereed)

The latest advances in SiC X-ray detectors are presented: a pixel detector coupled to a custom ultra-low noise CMOS preamplifier has been characterized at room and high temperature. An equivalent noise energy (ENE) of 113 eV FWHM, corresponding to 6.1 electrons r.m.s., has been achieved with the detector/front- end system operating at 30 °C. A Fano factor of F = 0.10 has been estimated from the 55Fe spectrum. When the system is heated up to 100 °C, the measured ENE is 163 eV FWHM (8.9 electrons r.m.s.). It is determined that both at room and at high temperature the performance are fully limited by the noise of the front-end electronics. It is also presented the capability of SiC detectors to operate in environments under unstable temperature conditions without any apparatus for temperature stabilization; it has been proved that a SiC detector can acquire high resolution X-ray spectra without spectral line degradation while the system temperature changes between 30 °C and 75 °C.

• 7.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Puglisi, DonatellaPolitecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.Lanzieri, Claudio
Silicon Carbide Microstrip Detectors for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with outstanding physical properties for realizing ionizing radiation detectors. We present the manufacturing, electrical and spectroscopic characterization of a prototype SiC microstrip detector constituted by 32 strips, 2 mm long, 25 μm wide with 55 μm pitch. The detectors have been fabricated on 115 μm thick undoped epitaxial 4H-SiC using Ni-SiC Schottky junctions. The measured leakage currents are below 5 fA at 25 °C and 0.6 pA at 107 °C with internal electric fields up to 30 kV/cm. X-ray spectra from 55Fe and 241Am with energy resolution of 224 eV FWHM and 249 eV FWHM (12-13.5 electrons r.m.s.) have been acquired at 20 °C and 80 °C, respectively.

• 8.
Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico of Milano, Como, Italy.
Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico of Milano, Como, Italy. Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico of Milano, Como, Italy. Department of Medical Physics, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Department of Medical Physics, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Department of Medical Physics, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.
Silicon Carbide Detectors for in vivo Dosimetry2014In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 961-966Article in journal (Refereed)

Semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry haveserved in recent years as an important part of quality assurancefor radiotherapy. Silicon carbide (SiC) can represent a bettersemiconductor with respect to the more popular silicon (Si) thanksto its physical characteristics such as wide bandgap, high electronsaturation velocity, lower effective atomic number, and high radiationresistance to X and gamma rays. In this article we present aninvestigation aimed at characterizing 4H-SiC epitaxial Schottkydiodes as in vivo dosimeters. The electrical characterization atroom temperature showed ultra low leakage current densities aslow as 0.1 pA/cm at 100 V bias with negligible dependence ontemperature. The SiC diode was tested as radiotherapy dosimeterusing 6 MV photon beams from a linear accelerator in a typicalclinical setting. Collected charge as a function of exposed radiationdose were measured and compared to three standard commerciallyavailable silicon dosimeters. A sensitivity of 23 nC/Gy withlinearity errors within 0.5% and time stability of 0.6% wereachieved. No negligible effects on the diode I-V characteristicsafter irradiation were observed.

• 9.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. University of Milano, Italy. Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A., Rome, Italy.
X-γ Ray Spectroscopy With Semi-Insulating 4H-Silicon Carbide2013In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 1436-1441Article in journal (Refereed)

Radiation detectors on a semi-insulating (SI) 4H siliconcarbide (SiC) wafer have been manufactured and characterizedwith X and photons in the range 8–59 keV. The detectors were 400 μm diameter circular Ni-SiC junctions on an SI 4H-SiC wafer thinned to 70 μm. Dark current densities of 3.5 nA/cm2 at 20 °C and 0.3 μA/cm2 at 104 °C with an internal electric field of 7 kV/cm have been measured. X-γ ray spectra from 241Am have been acquired at room temperature with pulser line width of 756 eV FWHM. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) has been measured under different experimental conditions with a maximum CCE = 75 % at room temperature. Polarization effects have been observed, and the dependence of CCE on time and temperature has been measured and analyzed. The charge trapping has been described by the Hecht model with a maximum totalmean drift length of 107 μm at room temperature.

• 10.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Silicon Carbide X-Ray Detectors Operating at Room and High Temperature2014Conference paper (Refereed)

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with attractive physical properties for manufacturing X-ray detectors [1]. The density of SiC crystal allow an X‑ray absorption similar to Silicon. The wide bandgap of SiC (3.2 eV) allows to make high Schottky barriers and minimises the reverse current from thermal generation of charge carriers. The SiC breakdown field (2 MV/cm) and the high saturation velocities of the charge carriers (200 mm/ns) make the detector response very fast and not affected by charge trapping degradation.

In this talk, we present the SiC X-ray detectors we have developed. The detectors show leakage current densities as low as J=0.1 pA/cm2 at +25°C, three orders of magnitude lower than those of the best silicon detectors and make SiC detectors practically noiseless at room temperature. The detectors have been tested also at high temperatures: at T=+100°C the J= 1 nA/cm2, allowing excellent X-ray spectrometry even at such high temperatures, forbidden to conventional semiconductor detectors. In addition we will show that our SiC detectors can also operate while the temperature is freely changing of tens of °C, without affecting spectra quality.

The possibility to make the detector operating without any cooling system even at high temperature with adequate energy resolution can open new perspectives in X‑ray spectrometry applications, even ever considered before.

• 11.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. University of Messina, Italy. Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A., Rome, Italy.
Silicon carbide detector for laser-generated plasma radiation2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 272, p. 128-131Article in journal (Refereed)

We present the performance of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) detector in the acquisition of the radiation emittedby laser generated plasmas. The detector has been employed in time of flight (TOF) configuration withinan experiment performed at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The detector is a 5 mm2 area 100 nmthick circular Ni SiC Schottky junction on a high purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layer 115 μm thick. Currentsignals from the detector with amplitudes up to 1.6 A have been measured, achieving voltage signals over 80 V on a 50 Ω load resistance with excellent signal to noise ratios. Resolution of few nanoseconds hasbeen experimentally demonstrated in TOF measurements. The detector has operated at 250 V DC biasunder extreme operating conditions with no observable performance degradation.

• 12.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-FETs Using Multivariate Statistics2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 214, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)

Gas sensitive field effect transistors based on silicon carbide, SiC-FETs, have been studied for indoor air quality applications. The selectivity of the sensors was increased by temperature cycled operation, TCO, and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of benzene, naphthalene, and formaldehyde independent of the level of background humidity is possible by using shape describing features as input for Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA, or Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA. Leave-one-out cross-validation leads to a correct classification rate of 90 % for LDA, and for PLS-DA a classification rate of 83 % is achieved. Quantification of naphthalene in the relevant concentration range, i.e. 0 ppb to 40 ppb, was performed by Partial Least Squares Regression and a combination of LDA with a second order polynomial fit function. The resolution of the model based on a calibration with three concentrations was approximately 8 ppb at 40 ppb naphthalene for both algorithms.

Hence, the suggested strategy is suitable for on demand ventilation control in indoor air quality application systems.

• 13.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Discrimination and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb-Range with Gas Sensitive SiC-Field Effect Transistors2014Conference paper (Refereed)

Gas sensitive FETs based on SiC have been studied for the discrimination and quantification of hazardous volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in the low ppb range. The sensor performance was increased by temperature cycled operation (TCO) anddata evaluation based on multivariate statistics, here Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Discrimination of formaldehyde,naphthalene and benzene with varying concentrations in the ppb range is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that naphthalenecan be quantified in the relevant concentration range independent of the relative humidity and against a high ethanol background.Hence, gas sensitive SiC-FETs are suitable sensors for determining indoor air quality.

• 14.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Gas sensing with epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: performance tuning for air quality control2014In: Proc. E-MRS 2014, Lille, France, May 26-30, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
• 15.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Adjusting the electronic properties and gas reactivity of epitaxial graphene by thin surface metallization2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)

Graphene-based chemical gas sensors normally show ultra-high sensitivity to certain gas molecules but at the same time suffer from poor selectivity and slow response and recovery Limes. Several approaches based on functionalization or modification of the graphene surface have been demonstrated as means to improve these issues, but most such measures result in poor reproducibility. In this study we investigate reproducible graphene surface modifications by sputter deposition of thin nanostructured Au or Pt layers. It is demonstrated that under the right metallization conditions the electronic properties of the surface remain those of graphene, while the surface chemistry is modified to improve sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response to nitrogen dioxide.

• 16.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Modified Epitaxial Graphene on SiC for Extremely Sensitive andSelective Gas Sensors2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 1145-1148Article in journal (Refereed)

Two-dimensional materials offer a unique platform for sensing where extremely high sensitivity is a priority, since even minimal chemical interaction causes noticeable changes inelectrical conductivity, which can be used for the sensor readout. However, the sensitivity has to becomplemented with selectivity, and, for many applications, improved response- and recovery times are needed. This has been addressed, for example, by combining graphene (for sensitivity) with metal/oxides (for selectivity) nanoparticles (NP). On the other hand, functionalization or modification of the graphene often results in poor reproducibility. In this study, we investigate thegas sensing performance of epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) decorated with nanostructured metallic layers as well as metal-oxide nanoparticles deposited using scalable thin-film depositiontechniques, like hollow-cathode pulsed plasma sputtering. Under the right modification conditions the electronic properties of the surface remain those of graphene, while the surface chemistry can betuned to improve sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response to several gases relevant for airquality monitoring and control, such as nitrogen dioxide, benzene, and formaldehyde.

• 17.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Thickness uniformity and electron doping in epitaxial graphene on SiC2013In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, p. 153-156Article in journal (Refereed)

Large variations have been observed in the thickness uniformity and carrier concentration of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC by sublimation for samples grown under identical conditions and on nominally on-axis hexagonal SiC (0001) substrates. We have previously shown that these issues are both related to the morphology of the graphene-SiC surface after sublimation growth. Here we present a study on how the substrate polytype, substrate surface morphology and surface restructuring during sublimation growth affect the uniformity and carrier concentration in epitaxial graphene on SiC. These issues were investigated employing surface morphology mapping by atomic force microscopy coupled with local surface potential mapping using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy.

• 18.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
SiC-2D-material-hybrids as a Platform for Extremely Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensors2016In: Proceedings EMRS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
• 19. Hasegawa, Yuki
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Development of ethylene gas sensor for evaluating fruit ripening2017Conference paper (Refereed)
• 20.
Saitama University, Saitama, Japan.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Development of Agriculture Support System Using Plant Bioelectric Potential Responses and Gas Sensor2017In: International Journal of Food and Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 2408-0675, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)

In this study,we focus on the plant bioelectric potential response as a low-cost and a high sensitivity evaluation technique of plant physiological activities for an agriculture support system. We developed a cultivation light intensity control system using bioelectric potential response. This system contributes to improvement of the cultivation environment and provides energy saving effect.In addition, we introduced a field effect transistor based on silicon carbide (SiC-FET)gas sensor and evaluated the characteristics of the sensor by changing several parameters. The results showed that iridium gated SiC-FET sensor has high sensitivity to ethylene,and the highest response is achieved at 200 ◦C. We aim at the development of an agriculture support system, which combines the plant bioelectrical potential and the SiC-FET gas sensor response.

• 21.
Servizio Archeologico, Soprintendenza ai BB.CC.AA., Catania, Italy.
Servizio Archeologico, Soprintendenza ai BB.CC.AA., Catania, Italy. LANDIS, National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-LNS, Catania, Italy; University of Catania, Italy. LANDIS, National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-LNS, Catania, Italy; IBAM-CNR, Catania, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. LANDIS, National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-LNS, Catania, Italy; University of Catania, Italy. LANDIS, National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-LNS, Catania, Italy; IBAM-CNR, Catania, Italy.
Archaeological volcanic glass from the site of Rocchicella (Sicily, Italy)2008In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 474-494Article in journal (Refereed)

The site of Rocchicella, near Catania, in eastern Sicily, has yielded important archaeological evidence from prehistoric times to the Middle Ages. Extensive archaeological investigations of cultural layers dating from the Palaeo-Mesolithic to the Copper Age have recently been undertaken, and volcanic glass, mainly obsidian, has been collected in the course of excavation. To determine the provenance of this volcanic glass, a non-destructive elemental analysis was carried out to measure the concentration of characteristic trace elements. The analysis was carried out using a new XRF spectrometer equipped with a beam stability controller and a quantitative method developed at the LANDIS laboratory of the INFN–CNR Institutes of Catania. In addition to the obsidian, it was demonstrated for the first time that a local vitreous material similar to obsidian, but displaying a completely different composition, was used during all the investigated periods. This material was identified as a basaltic glass, characterized by a superficial product of devitrification called palagonite. Analysis of the obsidians has led to the identification of the island of Lipari as the provenance source. High- and low-power microscopic use-wear analysis on obsidian and basaltic glass artefacts indicated that soft wood and plant matter might have been processed at the site.

• 22.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland.
Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland. Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland. Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Finland.
LTCC, new packaging approach for toxic gas and particle detection2015In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 120, p. 484-487Article in journal (Refereed)

Packaging of chemical sensors is still an area, which is not much explored. Low temperature co-fired ceramic, LTCC, packaging offers large advantages in terms of 3D design, integration of advanced functionality and fast processing. SiC based FET gas sensors are possible to integrate directly in the LTCC co-firing process at 850 °C, whereby both high temperature and other advanced applications like ultra-low detection of toxic gases are greatly improved. The LTCC packaging is also used for development of particle detectors as well as packaging for an electrical method to detect toxic effect on cells by particles.

• 23.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
University of Oulu, Finland. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
LTCC, new packaging approach for toxic gas and particle detectors2015In: Proceedings Eurosensors 2015, 2015, p. 592-595Conference paper (Refereed)
• 24.
Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.
Margarone, DanieleInstitute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.Kramer, D.Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.Mocek, T.Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.Limpouch, J.Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.Kim, I. J.Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.Jeong, T. M.Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.Nam, K. H.Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.Bertuccio, GiuseppePolitecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.Puglisi, DonatellaPolitecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.Korn, G.Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.
Experimental test of TOF diagnostics for PW class lasers2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)

New particle acceleration regimes driven by PW class lasers imply the development of new in-situ diagnostics. Before constructing new types of detectors one must test currently available diagnostics in these new regimes ofhigh intensity laser-matter interaction. Experimental tests on two types of time of flight detectors are presented, demonstrating the possibility of their measuring capabilities in harsh conditions, namely the strong laser induced electromagnetic pulse. A recently developed silicon carbide detector was successfully tested and particle beams were characterized. Further tests were performed on a detector based on secondary emission of electrons during the transition of laser accelerated particle beams. The presented results show a clear consistency and sufficient capabilities for high intensity laser driven particle beam detection.

• 25.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
VOC sensors for indoor air quality control2015Conference paper (Other academic)
• 26.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Politecnico di Milano, Campus Como, Como, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy; Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section Milano, Milan, Italy.
Silicon Carbide Microstrip Radiation Detectors2019In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 835Article in journal (Refereed)

Compared with the most commonly used silicon and germanium, which need to work at cryogenic or low temperatures to decrease their noise levels, wide-bandgap compound semiconductors such as silicon carbide allow the operation of radiation detectors at room temperature, with high performance, and without the use of any bulky and expensive cooling equipment. In this work, we investigated the electrical and spectroscopic performance of an innovative position-sensitive semiconductor radiation detector in epitaxial 4H-SiC. The full depletion of the epitaxial layer (124 µm, 5.2 × 1013 cm−3) was reached by biasing the detector up to 600 V. For comparison, two different microstrip detectors were fully characterized from −20 °C to +107 °C. The obtained results show that our prototype detector is suitable for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging capability in a wide range of operating temperatures.

• 27.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Mastering VOC detection for better indoor air quality2014Conference paper (Refereed)

In this study, we use two different sensor technologies based on gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistors (SiC-FETs) and epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) for highly sensitive and selective detection of trace amounts of three hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e. formaldehyde (CH2O), benzene (C6H6), and naphthalene (C10H8), present in indoor environments in concentrations of health concern.

Iridium and platinum are used as sensing layers for the gate contacts. The FET sensors are operated at high temperature, under static and dynamic conditions. Excellent detection limits of 10 ppb for CH2O, about 1 ppb for C6H6, and below 0.5 ppb for C10H8 are measured at 60 % relative humidity (r.h.) [1]. The selectivity of the sensors is increased by temperature cycled operation and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of CH2O, C6H6, and C10H8 independent of the level of background humidity is possible with a very high cross-validation rate up to 90 % [2]. These results are very encouraging for indoor air quality control, being below the threshold limits recommended by the WHO guidelines.

Graphene-based chemical sensors offer the advantage of extreme sensitivity due to graphene’s unique electronic properties and the fact that every single atom is at the surface and available to interact with gas molecules. For this reason, uniform monolayer graphene is crucial [3], which is guaranteed by our optimized epitaxial growth process. Graphene-based chemical gas sensors normally show ultra-high sensitivity to certain gas molecules but suffer from poor selectivity. Functionalization or modification of the graphene surface can improve selectivity, but most such measures result in poor reproducibility. We demonstrate reproducible, non-destructive means of graphene surface decoration with nanostructured metals and metal oxides, and study their effect on the gas interactions at the graphene surface.

• 28.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. No University. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
SiC-FET and graphene-based gas sensors for sensitive detection of toxic substances in indoor environments2014In: Proc of IMCS 2014, Buenos Aires, ARgentina, March 17-19, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
• 29.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Exploring the gas sensing performance of catalytic metal/ metal oxide 4H-SiC field effect transistors2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 997-1000Article in journal (Refereed)

Gas sensitive metal/metal-oxide field effect transistors based on silicon carbide were used to study the sensor response to benzene (C6H6) at the low parts per billion (ppb) concentration range. A combination of iridium and tungsten trioxide was used to develop the sensing layer. Highsensitivity to 10 ppb C6H6 was demonstrated during several repeated measurements at a constant temperature from 180 to 300 °C. The sensor performance was studied also as a function of the electrical operating point of the device, i.e., linear, onset of saturation, and saturation mode. Measurements performed in saturation mode gave a sensor response up to 52 % higher than those performed in linear mode.

• 30.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Catalytic metal-gate field effect transistors based on SiC for indoor air quality control2015In: Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, ISSN 2194-8771, Vol. 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)

High-temperature iridium-gated field effect transistors based on silicon carbide have been used for sensitive detection of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in concentrations of health concern, for indoorair quality monitoring and control. Formaldehyde, naphthalene, and benzene were studied as hazardous VOCs at parts per billion (ppb) down to sub-ppb levels. The sensor performance and characteristics were investigated at a constant temperature of 330° C and at different levels of relative humidity up to 60 %, showing good stability and repeatability of the sensor response, and excellent detection limits in the sub-ppb range.

• 31.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Silicon carbide field effect transistors for detection of ultra-low concentrations of hazardous volatile organic compounds2014In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 778-780, p. 1067-1070Article in journal (Refereed)

Gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistors with nanostructured Ir gate layershave been used for the first time for sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) atpart per billion level, for indoor air quality applications. Formaldehyde, naphthalene, and benzenehave been used as typical VOCs in dry air and under 10% and 20% relative humidity. A singleVOC was used at a time to study long-term stability, repeatability, temperature dependence, effectof relative humidity, sensitivity, response and recovery times of the sensors.

• 32.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Exploring the gas sensing performance of catalytic metal/ metal oxide 4H-SiC field effect transistors2015In: ICSCRM 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
• 33.
University of Catania, Italy.
University of Catania, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy.
Diffusion Length in n-doped 4H Silicon Carbide Crystals Detected by Alpha Particle Probe2009In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 615-617, p. 857-860Article in journal (Refereed)

The achievement of nuclear detectors in silicon carbide imposes severe constraints onthe electronic quality and thickness of the material due to the relatively high value of the energyrequired to generate an electron-hole pair (7.8 eV) in this material compared to the value for Si (3.6 eV). In this work, 4H-SiC charged particle detectors were realised using epitaxial layers ofn-type doping as active region. The thickness of the epilayer is always below 80 μm with a netdoping concentration in the range of 8 x 1013 to 1016 cm-3. These properties allowed the fabricationof Schottky diodes that operate well as radiation detectors. At low doping concentration, theepilayer is totally depleted at quite low reverse bias (≈ 50 V), thereby obtaining the maximumactive volume.

• 34.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Iron oxide nanoparticle decorated graphene for ultra-sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds2018In: Proceedings, ISSN 2504-3900, Vol. 2, no 13, article id 985Article in journal (Refereed)

It has been found that two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, can be used as remarkable gas detection platforms as even minimal chemical interactions can lead to distinct changes in electrical conductivity. In this work, epitaxially grown graphene was decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles for sensor performance tuning. This hybrid surface was used as a sensing layer to detect formaldehyde and benzene at concentrations of relevance in air quality monitoring (low parts per billion). Moreover, the time constants could be drastically reduced using a derivative sensor signal readout, allowing detection at the sampling rates desired for air quality monitoring applications.

• 35.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB, Linköping, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A platform for extremely sensitive gas sensing: 2D materials on silicon carbide2018Conference paper (Refereed)
• 36.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Epitaxial graphene sensors combined with 3D printed microfluidic chip for heavy metals detection2018In: Proceedings, ISSN 2504-3900, Vol. 2, no 13, article id 982Article in journal (Refereed)

Two-dimensional materials may constitute key elements in the development of a sensing platform where extremely high sensitivity is required, since even minimal chemical interaction can generate appreciable changes in the electronic state of the material. In this work, we investigate the sensing performance of epitaxial graphene on Si-face 4H-SiC (EG/SiC) for liquid-phase detection of heavy metals (e.g., Pb). The integration of preparatory steps needed for sample conditioning is included in the sensing platform, exploiting fast prototyping using a 3D printer, which allows direct fabrication of a microfluidic chip incorporating all the features required to connect and execute the Lab-on-chip (LOC) functions. It is demonstrated that interaction of Pb2+ ions in water-based solutions with the EG enhances its conductivity exhibiting a Langmuir correlation between signal and Pb2+ concentration. Several concentrations of Pb2+ solutions ranging from 125 nM to 500 µM were analyzed showing good stability and reproducibility over time.

• 37.
INFN-LNS Catania, Italy.
INFN-LNS Catania, Italy. University of Messina, Italy. INFN-LNS Catania, Italy. INFN-LNS Catania, Italy. INFN-LNS Catania, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale, Italy. Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, and INFN, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, and INFN, Italy. University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. PALS Laboratory, Prague, Czech Republic. PALS Laboratory, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland.
High intensity laser-generating plasmas in forward direction in thin films and Thomson parabola spectrometer monitorage2010Report (Other academic)

Asterix laser at PALS Laboratory of Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration, 1016 W/cm2 intensity and single pulse mode, was employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in high vacuum. Non-equilibrium plasmas were obtained in forward direction, i.e. along the normal to the target surface on the rear of the irradiated thin films. Plasmas were monitored with different ion detectors, placed around the direction normal to the target. The main detector was a Thomson parabola spectrometer aligned along the normal in forward direction. This spectrometer permits to provide many plasma parameters concerning the involved ions (energy, charge state, mass,...) obtained in a single laser shot. The spectrometer images, obtained by using a MCP coupled to a fast CCD camera, can be processed by a comparison with the simulation data obtained by a proper software. High ion energies and charge states have been obtained as a function of the laser parameters, target thickness and composition and irradiation conditions.

• 38.
University of Messina, Italy.
INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy. INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy. INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy. INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy. INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy. Fondazione Bruno Kessler–IRST, Povo, Trento, Italy. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, Waesaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, Waesaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, Waesaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, Waesaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, Waesaw, Poland.
Proton driven acceleration by intense laser pulses irradiating thin hydrogenated targets2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 272, p. 2-5Article in journal (Refereed)

The Asterix iodine laser of the PALS laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, 600 J maximum pulse energy and 1016 W/cm2 intensity, is employed to irradiatethin hydrogenated targets placed in high vacuum. Different metallic and polymeric targets allow togenerate multi-energetic and multi-specie ion beams showing peculiar properties. The plasma obtainedby the laser irradiation is monitored, in terms of properties of the emitted charge particles, by using time-of-flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS). A particular attention is given tothe proton beam production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield and angular distributionas a function of the laser energy, focal position (FP), target thickness and composition.

• 39.
University of Messina, Italy.
University of Catania, Italy. University of Messina, Italy. University of Catania, Italy. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic.
Single crystal silicon carbide detector of emitted ions and soft x rays from power laser-generated plasmas2009In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 105, p. 123304-1-123304-7Article in journal (Refereed)

A single-crystal silicon carbide SiC detector was used for measurements of soft x rays, electrons, and ion emission from laser-generated plasma obtained with the use of the Prague Asterix Laser System PALS at intensities of the order of 1016 W/cm2 and pulse duration of 300 ps. Measurements were performed by varying the laser intensity and the nature of the irradiated target. The spectra obtained by using the SiC detector show not only the photopeak due to UV and softx-ray detection, but also various peaks due to the detection of energetic charged particles. Time-of-flight technique was employed to determine the ion kinetic energy of particles emitted from the plasma and to perform a comparison between SiC and traditional ion collectors. The detector was also employed by inserting absorber films of different thickness in front of the SiC surface inorder to determine, as a first approximation, the mean energy of the soft x-ray emission from the plasma.

• 40.
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA.
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy; INFN-sez.Milano, Como, Italy. Politecnico di Milano, Como Campus, Italy; INFN-sez.Milano, Como, Italy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA.
Characterizing the Timing Performance of a Fast 4H-SiC Detector With an 241Am Source2013In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 2352-2356Article in journal (Refereed)

An SPX4 4H-silicon carbide detector consisting of 4 x 4 pixels was developed and studied experimentally. Its pixel size is 400 μm x 400 μm . A timing resolution of 117 $\pm$ 11 ps fullwidth at half-maximum (FWHM) has been measured for thedetection of alphas. With such good timing performance andhigh granularity, the SiC pixel detector holds great promise as anassociated alpha-particle detector for fast neutron imaging.

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