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  • 1.
    Björkman, Thomas
    et al.
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Cooremans, Catherine
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Management: a driver to sustainable behavioural change in companies2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in mitigating climate change. One of the foremost means to improve energy efficiency in industry is energy management. A pioneer European policy program including energy management system components was the Swedish PFE, a voluntary long-term agreement programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industries, which was under operation from 2004 to 2014.The aim of this paper is to analyse the results of the 2004-2014 PFE using an interdisciplinary approach combining experience from this program with academic concepts in the field of change management and investment decision-making. Results show how academic conceptual frameworks in the field of change management and investment behaviour in industry can explain PFE results and, more generally, support improved policy evaluation further explaining voluntary agreement programs such as the PFE. Finally, we formulate future research suggestions to improve industrial energy policy conception and evaluation.

  • 2.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, p. 499-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

  • 3.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

  • 4.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in industrial energy efficiency demonstrated various additional effects beyond pure energy savings and energy cost savings. Observed on many levels, these additional effects, often denoted as non-energy benefits, constitute a diverse collection, for instance, effects related to firms production or improvements in the work environment and the external environment. Previous studies showed the potential of including quantified and monetised non-energy benefits in energy efficiency investments. However, there seems to be a lack of methodological overview, including all the steps from observation to monetisation and inclusion in investments. This study systematically reviews the academic literature on non-energy benefits relating to methods for observation, measuring, quantification, and monetisation of the benefits. The most commonly applied research design was a case study approach, in which data on non-energy benefits were collected by conducting interviews. Furthermore, the primary methods used to enable quantification and monetisation of observed non-energy benefits were based on classifications, indexes in relation to the energy savings, or frameworks. Calculation methods, databased tools, classification frameworks, and ranking were applied to evaluate the benefits potential in relation to energy efficiency investments. Based on a synthesis of the review findings, this article contributes a novel scheme for improved utilisation of the non-energy benefits of industrial energy efficiency.

  • 5.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-19 14:14
  • 6.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Roles and Potentials2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental targets place significant requirements on energy efficiency and improved industrial energy efficiency is viewed as one of the most important means of reducing CO2 emissions and mitigating climate change. Even though efforts have been undertaken to improve energy efficiency there is still the potential for further improvements to be made. The potential is a result of that proposed energy efficiency improvement measures are not implemented, even if judged as cost-effective.

    Besides improving energy efficiency, the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in industrial firms can generate additional beneficial effects: so-called non-energy benefits. Examples of non-energy benefits are: improved productivity, lower operation and maintenance costs, a better work environment, decreased waste and fewer external effects, such as lower emissions. This thesis has investigated the roles and potential of non-energy benefits in decisions on energy efficiency improvements from three perspectives: energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities.

    The results of the studies presented in this thesis demonstrated that different types of non-energy benefits were observed in various areas within industrial firms due to the energy efficiency measures, energy efficiency investments and energy management activities they have implemented. Studying energy efficiency measures and investments revealed that implementing one single energy efficiency measure or investment can generate several non-energy benefits. The studies also uncovered a relationship between the non-energy benefits, i.e. chain reactions of primary, secondary and further effects, in which one benefit can generate other types of benefits. Consequently, some non-energy benefits were observed immediately after the implementation of energy efficiency measures, direct effects, while others were perceived later on, indirect effects. Furthermore, extending the perspective by including energy management activities led to the recognition of novel non-energy benefits.

    The results of this thesis demonstrated that non-energy benefits were seldom acknowledged in decisions on energy efficiency improvements. However, the non-energy benefits’ character, diversity and relations among them enabled opportunities for the non-energy benefits to be included in decisions on energy efficiency in various ways. For instance, based on the results of these studies, monetised non-energy benefits could be included in investment calculations contributing to cost-effectiveness, while certain effects that are difficult to measure and quantify could be utilised qualitatively in investment evaluations as extra arguments, or, if important to the firm, as objectives for making the investment. Hence, depending on their type, non-energy benefits seemed to have different roles in decisions on industrial energy efficiency improvements.

    This thesis contributed with a comprehensive approach by investigating energy efficiency improvements and the related non-energy benefits through three perspectives. By combining the results from each perspective, the view on industrial firms’ decisions on energy efficiency improvements was widened. In this thesis it is concluded that the potential of non-energy benefits in decision-making on industrial energy efficiency improvements lies in the utilisation of all types of non-energy benefits and to consider all the roles that non-energy benefits may have. By utilising knowledge on non-energy benefits along with their roles observed in relation to previous implementations of energy efficiency improvements, non-energy benefits can impact decisions on new implementations.

    List of papers
    1. Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

    Series
    Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 2014
    Keywords
    non-energy benefits (NEBs), investment decision-making, barriers, energy efficiency investments, multiple-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110580 (URN)9789198048247 (ISBN)9789198048254 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Projects
    Välgrundade energirelaterade investeringsbeslut - hur, och på vilka grunder kan energi bli en strategisk fråga för svensk industri
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Finansierat av Energimyndigheten och Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet. 

    Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Investments; Non-energy benefits; Explorative study; Investment decisions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126262 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.070 (DOI)000370993200046 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-12-12
    3. Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking energy efficiency measures in industrial compressed air systems with non-energy benefits - A review
    2018 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 89, p. 72-87Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed air is widely used in supporting industrial manufacturing processes due to its cleanness, practicality and ease of use. However, the efficiency of compressed air systems is often very low. Typically, for compressed air-driven tools only 10-15% of the energy input is utilised as useful work. Despite these recognised inefficiencies, and even though energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems normally offer several opportunities for energy savings and energy cost savings, generally, less attention has been given to the energy use and energy costs incurred in compressed air systems. Industrial energy efficiency measures might also yield additional effects, beyond the energy savings, which are denoted as non-energy benefits. This study reviews the existing base of scientific knowledge on energy efficiency in compressed air systems combined with the perspective of non-energy benefits. Even though some measures were mentioned more frequent than others, the results revealed significant variation in which measures could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. However, few publications employ a comprehensive approach by examining the entire compressed air system. Furthermore, few publications have addressed the possible additional benefits to be gained from energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems. This study provides a compilation of the various energy efficiency measures reported in the reviewed scientific literature that can be undertaken in order to improve energy efficiency in compressed air systems. It also provides a comprehensive take on the measures, including a systems perspective, by categorising them in respect to where in the compressed air system they can be undertaken. This paper suggests that energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems, and related non-energy benefits, should be studied on a specific measure level to fully understand and acknowledge their effects on the energy use of a compressed air system and possible additional effects, i.e. non-energy benefits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Compressed air systems; Energy efficiency measures; Non-energy benefits; Industry; Systematic literature review
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147901 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.018 (DOI)000430853300008 ()
    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-04-11
    4. Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits
    2018 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1281-1302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SPRINGER, 2018
    Keywords
    Compressed air systems; Industrial energy efficiency; Barriers; Drivers; Energy efficiency measures; Non-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148368 (URN)10.1007/s12053-018-9647-3 (DOI)000432748200014 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11
    5. Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits
    2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

    Keywords
    energy management, non-energy benefits (NEBs), benchmarking, pulp and paper industry, energy performance benchmarking
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156296 (URN)
    Conference
    ECEEE Industrial Summer Study – Leading the low-carbon transition, Berlin, June 11-13
    Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
    6. A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Systematic Literature Review of Methods for Improved Utilisation of the Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency
    2018 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3241Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in industrial energy efficiency demonstrated various additional effects beyond pure energy savings and energy cost savings. Observed on many levels, these additional effects, often denoted as non-energy benefits, constitute a diverse collection, for instance, effects related to firms production or improvements in the work environment and the external environment. Previous studies showed the potential of including quantified and monetised non-energy benefits in energy efficiency investments. However, there seems to be a lack of methodological overview, including all the steps from observation to monetisation and inclusion in investments. This study systematically reviews the academic literature on non-energy benefits relating to methods for observation, measuring, quantification, and monetisation of the benefits. The most commonly applied research design was a case study approach, in which data on non-energy benefits were collected by conducting interviews. Furthermore, the primary methods used to enable quantification and monetisation of observed non-energy benefits were based on classifications, indexes in relation to the energy savings, or frameworks. Calculation methods, databased tools, classification frameworks, and ranking were applied to evaluate the benefits potential in relation to energy efficiency investments. Based on a synthesis of the review findings, this article contributes a novel scheme for improved utilisation of the non-energy benefits of industrial energy efficiency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2018
    Keywords
    energy efficiency; energy efficiency measures; non-energy benefits; industry; systematic literature review; investment decisions
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154122 (URN)10.3390/en11123241 (DOI)000455358300002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Commission within the European Regional Development Fund; Linkoping University [20201478]

    Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-04-11
  • 7.
    Nehler, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Non-Energy Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency: Investments and Measures2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is viewed as an important means in the reduction of CO2 emissions and climate change mitigation. Various energy efficiency measures for improving energy efficiency exists, but even evaluated as cost-effective, there seems to be a difference between the energy efficiency measures that theoretically could be undertaken and which measures that actually are realised. On the other hand, industrial energy efficiency measures might yield extra effects, denoted as non-energy benefits, beyond the actual energy savings or energy cost savings.

    Based on interviews and a questionnaire, results showed that the Swedish industrial firms studied had observed various non-energy benefits. However, few of the non-energy benefits observed were translated into monetary values and included in investment calculations. Results indicated that this non-inclusion could be explained by lack on information on how to measure and monetise the benefits, but even if not translated into monetary values, some of the non-energy benefits were sometimes used qualitatively in investment decisions. The utilisation of the benefits seemed to depend on the type and the level of quantifiability among the perceived benefits.

    This thesis has also explored energy efficiency measures and non-energy benefits for a specific industrial energy-using process – compressed air. A literature review on energy efficiency in relation to compressed air systems revealed a large variation in which measures that could be undertaken to improve energy efficiency. However, few publications applied a comprehensive perspective including the entire compressed air system. Few non-energy benefits of specific energy efficiency measures for compressed air systems were identified, but the study provided insights into how non-energy benefits should be studied. This thesis suggests that energy efficiency and non-energy benefits in compressed air systems should be studied on specific measure level to enable the observation of their effects. However, the studies also addressed the importance of having a systems perspective; the whole system should be regarded to understand the effects of energy efficiency measures and related non-energy benefits.

    List of papers
    1. Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden
    2014 (English)In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

    Series
    Industrial Summer Study proceedings, ISSN 2001-7979, E-ISSN 2001-7987 ; 2014
    Keywords
    non-energy benefits (NEBs), investment decision-making, barriers, energy efficiency investments, multiple-energy benefits
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110580 (URN)9789198048247 (ISBN)9789198048254 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ECEEE 2014, Industrial Summer Study: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, June 2-5, 2014, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Projects
    Välgrundade energirelaterade investeringsbeslut - hur, och på vilka grunder kan energi bli en strategisk fråga för svensk industri
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Finansierat av Energimyndigheten och Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet. 

    Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
    2. How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency; Investments; Non-energy benefits; Explorative study; Investment decisions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126262 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.11.070 (DOI)000370993200046 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2019-12-12
  • 8.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management in Swedish pulp and paper industry: benchmarking and non-energy benefits2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry has a large energy efficiency potential, yet to be utilized, known as the energy efficiency gap. This gap exists due to barriers that hinder industrial companies from making energy efficiency investments. Research also shows that the gap is even larger if energy management practices are included as well. One type of energy management practice for industrial companies is energy performance benchmarking, which deals with several organisational applications. For example, energy performance benchmarking can be used to compare a company’s degree of energy efficiency to its peers. A benchmarking approach can also be adopted on different levels of aggregation, including sector, site, and process level. Furthermore, continuous work with energy management also entails additional benefits beyond the energy effects, known as non-energy benefits. In an energy management context, these benefits might for instance be organisational or informational in nature. The aim of this paper is to study these aspects of energy management – benchmarking and non-energy benefits – within the Swedish pulp and paper industry.

    These aspects of energy management have not, to the authors’ knowledge, been extensively investigated. The adopted method for data collection is a mixed method approach, where a questionnaire was sent to all operating pulp and paper mills in Sweden, and semi-structured interviews were carried out at six mills. The findings in this study show that the most common benchmarking method in the Swedish pulp and paper mills is external benchmarking within a company group. The benchmarking method with the highest perceived value for a mill’s energy management, however, is historical benchmarking of energy use. Furthermore, the pulp and paper mills have perceived a number of non-energy benefits from energy management practices, where top management’s interest in energy efficiency issues increasing more than expected was perceived as the most substantial.

  • 9.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parra, Ricardo
    Consultora Crowsnest, Chile.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1281-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

  • 10.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How do firms consider non-energy benefits? Empirical findings on energy-efficiency investments in Swedish industry2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 113, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When industrial firms invest in energy efficiency, the effect may go beyond energy cost savings and produce additional non-energy benefits as well. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding experiences in non-energy benefits and the extent to which these are acknowledged by industry. This study attempts to explore firms perspectives on non-energy benefits of industrial energy-efficiency investments and if and how non-energy benefits are considered in the investment process. Moreover, this study also explores investment motives and critical aspects of adopting energy-efficiency investments. Based on a questionnaire and interviews with representatives of Swedish industrial firms, the results indicate that energy efficiency seems to be an important issue for the firms, but profitability and payoff appear to be the most important factors for adopting an investment, implying that it is often difficult to meet the payoff requirements with energy cost savings alone. In the meantime, various non-energy benefits are observed, but there seems to be a lack of knowledge of how these should be quantified and monetised. To facilitate such an assessment of non-energy benefits and to include them in the investment analysis, a measurement framework is provided. It is concluded that including non-energy benefits in the investment analysis can contribute to a framing of energy-efficiency investments that can meet the firms requirements for profitability assessment, which can further enhance opportunities for energy-efficiency investments in industry. Thus, the study contributes with new insights into the energy-efficiency investment process and the extent to which non-energy benefits are considered, along with the methods for measuring them.

  • 11.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgren, Maja
    Energimyndigheten, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including non-energy benefits in investment calculations in industry - empirical findings from Sweden2014In: ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, 2014: Retool for a competitive and sustainable industry, 2014, p. 711-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming accentuates the need for reducing anthropogenic emissions of GHG (Green House Gases). Improved energy efficiency in industry represents one of the most important means of reducing this threat. Furthermore, improved energy efficiency and cutting energy costs may be key factors for individual enterprises’ long term survival and success because of increased environmental legislation and rise of energy prices. Despite the fact that extensive potentials for improved energy efficiency exists in industry, a large part remains unexploited explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The research on barriers is well-developed and regards the non-investment of cost-effective technical measures that improve energy efficiency. In these studies, the actual investment decision is the analysing variable. However, if one extends the system boundary, there are indications that not only the actual reduction of energy cost but also other potential benefits should be taken into account in energy-efficiency investments. Including such factors, named non-energy benefits (NEBs), in the investment calculation mean the investment may have a considerably shorter pay-back period. The aim of this paper is to study if NEBs are considered and measured in energy-efficiency related investments in Swedish industry, and to study factors inhibiting the inclusion of NEBs in investment calculations. Results of this study indicate that NEBs seems to exist in the Swedish industrial companies participating in this study, but only few of the mentioned NEBs were included in investment calculations, explained by among other factors, the hidden cost of monetizing the NEB.

  • 12.
    Ricardo, Parra
    et al.
    Consultora Crowsnest Chile.
    Nehler, therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to, drivers for and non-energy benefits for industrial energy efficiency improvement measures in compressed air systems2016In: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings – Industrial Efficiency 2016: Going beyond energy efficiency to deliver savings, competitiveness and a circular economy, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and scarcity of resources drives industrial companies to cut costs where energy can be a significant part, not the least for energy-intensive companies. Improved energy efficiency in industry is complex as is regards numerous various energy using processes which are heavily intertwined. One such energy using process is compressed air systems (CAS) which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. With a few exceptions, previous research on barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency has treated energy efficiency improvement measures as one entity. However, since the characteristics of energy efficiency improvement measures differs, technology-specific measures will face different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency which will affect the investment decision accordingly. The same applies for the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures. The aim of this paper is to study barriers to, drivers for and NEBs for energy efficiency improvement measures in CASs. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper results show that the major barriers are related to the investment, e.g. other priorities for capital investments and access to capital. Major drivers are related to in-house energy management practices, and major benefits include productivity gains and avoidance of capital expenditure. Further research is emphasized in the CAS field.

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