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  • 1.
    Ackerley, R
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Badre, G
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Positive Effects of a Weighted Blanket on Insomnia2015Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders, ISSN 2379-0822, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common occurrence and can have a negative impact on physiological, psychological and social well-being. There is a need for simple, effective solutions to increase sleep quality. It has been suggested that weighted blankets and vests can provide a beneficial calming effect, especially in clinical disorders. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of a chain weighted blanket on insomnia, using objective and subjective measures. Objectively, we found that sleep bout time increased, as well as a decrease in movements of the participants, during weighted blanket use. Subjectively, the participants liked sleeping with the blanket, found it easier to settle down to sleep and had an improved sleep, where they felt more refreshed in the morning. Overall, we found that when the participants used the weighted blanket, they had a calmer night’s sleep. A weighted blanket may aid in reducing insomnia through altered tactile inputs, thus may provide an innovative, non-pharmacological approach and complementary tool to improve sleep quality.

  • 2.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 1368-1380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbachs alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 3.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, s. 31-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013Inngår i: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 155-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    "Om vikten av att bli berörd som behandlare": Metodforum - En arena för reflekterande över den vardagliga praktiken2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats är en praxisnära fenomenologisk studie genomförd på en mindre skol- och behandlingsverksamhet i Täby, som heter Svalnäs. På Svalnäs samlas personalen en gång per vecka i något de kallar metodforum. I detta forum delas och reflekteras det kring erfarenheter från den dagliga praktiken som på olika sätt berört personalen. Metodforum är ett svårfångat och komplext fenomen och därmed också svårt att beskriva. Denna uppsats är ett försök att beskriva metoden från insidan, via deltagarnas upplevelser av metoden.I uppsatsen presenteras Svalnäs och den värdegrund och kultur ur vilken metodforum uppkommit. Studien bygger i huvudsak på intervjuer med samtliga (9) behandlare i verksamheten. Frågeställningarna i uppsatsen rör deltagarnas beskrivning av metoden, deras upplevelser kring vad i metoden som är verksamt samt metodens eventuella nytta eller användbarhet. En deskriptiv fenomenologisk metod har använts och resultatet redovisas i en illustrativ beskrivning av fenomenets meningsbärande innebörder samt i en sammanfattande generell struktur. I diskussionen reflekteras det över metodforum i relation till presenterad teori och metodens generella användbarhet.

  • 6.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Logopeders bedömarreliabilitet vid perceptuell röstanalys av utvalda röstexempel: en början till ett referensröstmaterial2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid användning av audio-perceptuell röstanalys för framtagning av referensröster är begreppet reliabilitet av central betydelse. Syftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka reliabiliteten mellan erfarna röstlogopeders perceptuella röstanalys av ett antal utvalda röstexempel. Förhoppningen var att utifrån detta kunna sammanställa en början till ett referensröstmaterial bestående av manliga och kvinnliga referensröster representativa för olika parametrar i SVEA-protokollet. De specifika frågeställningarna var: Hur samstämmiga i perceptuell röstanalys är bedömarna kring de valda röstexemplens olika parametrar? Är någon eller några av de parametrar som bedömarna är överens om extra framträdande i någon röst så att denna röst kan användas som referensröst? Utifrån en databas med 65 röstinspelningar valdes 15 röstexempel ut av författarna att skattas av sju erfarna logopeder med SVEA-protokollet. En andra bedömningsomgång genomfördes med tre röstexempel slumpvis utvalda från de 15 röstexemplen i den första bedömningsomgången. Statistiska analyser av logopedernas inter- och intrabedömarreliabilitet gjordes både på alla röstexempel och på samtliga kvalitetsparametrar. Bedömarnas skattningar uppvisade mycket stor spridning i flera röstexempel, vilket inverkade på korrelationernas utfall och kan vid en första anblick ge ett missvisande resultat. En djupare analys av bedömarnas skattningar av enskilda röstparametrar visade på betydligt högre samstämmighet. Utifrån detta resultat tog författarna fram tre potentiella referensröster. Flera av de övriga 12 röstexemplen hade relativt hög interbedömarreliabilitet men då skattningsvärdena var så pass låga för dessa röster valdes de inte ut som referensröster. Trots låga skattningsvärden skulle dessa röstexempel kunna användas som referensröster för att exemplifiera lägre grader av avvikelser. Slutsatsen är att det finns skillnader i hur bedömarna skattat röstexemplen i denna studie och reliabiliteten mellan bedömarna skiftar. Författarna drar även slutsatsen att det är motiverat att fortsätta leta och analysera röstexempel för att få en heltäckande uppsättning referensröster. Metodvalet i denna studie anses vara en framkomlig väg för att fortsätta forma detta referensröstmaterial.

  • 7.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Narrativ förmåga vid afasi: analys av strategier vid gemensamt berättande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aphasia is a linguistic impairment which affects communication and may have an impact on a person’s narrative ability. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the narrative ability in aphasia by narrative interviews with people with aphasia and their partners. The interviews were scrutinised for strategies used in joint narration involving couples where one of the spouses has aphasia. The definition of strategies was methods to cope with communicative difficulties often due to aphasia. Strategies were also studied in an assessment of independent narration. The specific questions were: Which strategies do couples, consisting of one person with aphasia and their partner, use in joint narration? Which strategies does the person with aphasia use in independent narration? Are there any differences in the use of strategies in joint narration compared to independent narration? Five couples were recruited from conversational groups for people with aphasia in the south of Sweden. The couples were asked questions which were meant to encourage joint narration and the interviews were filmed. In addition to the interview, the narrative ability of the individuals with aphasia was assessed with the Swedish aphasia test A-ning. The interviews and the assessments were transcribed according to principles from conversation analysis. The result showed a variation regarding type of strategies occurring in the couples’ narrations and the frequency of these strategies. In joint narration, repetition was the strategy most commonly used by individuals with aphasia, followed by self-initiated self-repair, word search and gestures. The partners also used repetition to a high extent as well as appendor production. The conclusion of this study is that the narrative ability of the persons with aphasia in independent narration to some extent corresponded with their ability in joint narration. However, there were great differences between how the individuals with aphasia and their partners used strategies to cope with difficulties in joint narration.

  • 8.
    Azios, Jamie H.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Bellon-Harn, Monica
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Dockens, Ashley L.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Quality and readability of English-language internet information for aphasia2019Inngår i: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 21, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Little is known about the quality and readability of treatment information in specific neurogenic disorders, such as aphasia. The purpose of this study was to assess quality and readability of English-language Internet information available for aphasia treatment. Method: Forty-three aphasia treatment websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analysed using quality and readability assessments. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Result: Websites exhibited low quality with few websites obtaining Health On the Net (HON) certification or clear, thorough information as measured by the DISCERN. Regardless of website origin, readability scores were also poor. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on aphasia treatment websites ranged from 13 to 16 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of non-profit organisations. Conclusion: Current aphasia treatment websites were found to exhibit low levels of quality and readability, creating potential accessibility problems for people with aphasia and significant others. Websites including treatment information for aphasia must be improved in order to increase greater information accessibility.

  • 9.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Granese, Angela
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Towards an evidence-base for /r/ therapy in English.2013Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, ISSN 0791-5985, Vol. 20, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Müller, NicoleLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.Nelson, Ryan L.University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders2014Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders.

    The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the concept of qualitative research and its application to communication disorders, and describes the main qualitative research approaches. The contributions are forward-looking rather than merely giving an overview of their topic. The second part illustrates these approaches through a series of case studies of different communication disorders using qualitative methods of research.

    This Handbook is an essential resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners, in communication disorders and related fields.

  • 11.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rutter, Ben
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Kroll, Tobias
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Interactional phonetics: background and examples.2014Inngår i: Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders / [ed] Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller, and Ryan L. Nelson, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, s. 311-328Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Beckman, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gesters påverkan på talflytet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Oflyt i tal är något som förekommer hos alla talande människor och likadant är det med gester. Det är dock inte självklart hur de är relaterar till varandra. Det finns få studier inom området och ännu färre med svensktalande försökspersoner. Denna studies syfte är att se hur gester påverkar talflytet hos personer med svenska som modersmål och om det finns någon skillnad rörande detta mellan olika kontexter.

    Studien genomfördes med åtta försökspersoner i åldrarna 20–30 år som har svenska som modersmål. Alla försökspersoner fick individuellt svara på fyra frågor varav två med spatialt innehåll och två med abstrakt innehåll. Under första halvan av testningen fick försökspersonerna använda gester och resterande tid fick de sitta på sina händer för att inte kunna använda gester.

    Resultatet visade att ikoniska gester användes oftare vid spatialt innehåll och metaforiska gester användes mer frekvent vid abstrakt innehåll, vilket var en signifikant skillnad. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad noterades mellan spatialt och abstrakt innehåll vid mätning av tallängd. Detta oberoende av fri respektive begränsad användning av gester.

    De få studier som gjorts på området ger ingen tydlig bild av hur tal och gester är relaterade till varandra. Denna studie understryker komplexiteten inom området tal och gester.

  • 13.
    Berg, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Countertransference in Swedish psychotherapists: testing the factor structure of the Therapist Response Questionnaire2019Inngår i: RESEARCH IN PSYCHOTHERAPY-PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PROCESS AND OUTCOME, ISSN 2239-8031, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 99-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires need testing of reliability and factor structure before clinical use or research in new languages or cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ) in Sweden compared to corresponding factor analyses in USA and Italy. A national sample of psychotherapists (N=242) registered their countertransference with a single client using TRQ. The data were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test factor structures from previous studies, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The CFA did not verify the factor structure from the previous studies. The EFA extracted seven factors as the best solution: Helpless/Inadequate, Overwhelmed/Disorganized, Hostile/Angry, Parental/Protective, Disengaged, Special/Overinvolved, Sex-ualized. Analysis of convergent validity indicated that five of these could be considered equivalent to factors in the previous studies, and the remaining two were conceptually related to corresponding factors. Even though the factor structure was not confirmed by the CFA, the concordance was large, indicating a reliable self-report instrument with promising validity for measurement of complex aspects of countertransference. Common countertransference themes can inform psychotherapy supervision and education, give feedback to the therapist, and lay ground for a taxonomy for therapist reactions and feelings.

  • 14.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; Anglia Ruskin University, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar University, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Anglia Ruskin University, England; University of Nottingham, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial2017Inngår i: Journal of american academy of audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, E-ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 340-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. Research Design: A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Study Sample: Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. Intervention: The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Data Collection and Analysis: Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap, insomnia, cognitive functioning, hyperacusis, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were used to investigate the effects of iCBT with audiological support. In addition, a weekly questionnaire was incorporated to monitor change in tinnitus distress while undertaking the intervention. Results: Feasibility was established using an audiologist to support this guided iCBT intervention, as a significant change postintervention was found for tinnitus severity, as measured by the TFI and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Screening version. The attrition rate was 22% and compliance was variable. Although these results were based on a small sample, they provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of delivering iCBT treatment for tinnitus symptoms with audiology support in the United Kingdom. Conclusions: An Internet-based intervention of tinnitus appears to be feasible in the United Kingdom when using audiological support. Randomized controlled trials to further investigate the effectiveness of iCBT for tinnitus in the United Kingdom are required.

  • 15.
    Beukes, Eldre W.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England; Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Allen, Peter M.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, England.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India; Manipal Univ, India.
    Baguley, David M.
    Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, England; Univ Nottingham, England; Nottingham Univ Hosp, England.
    Effectiveness of Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Face-to-Face Clinical Care for Treatment of Tinnitus A Randomized Clinical Trial2018Inngår i: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 2168-6181, E-ISSN 2168-619X, Vol. 144, nr 12, s. 1126-1133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Accessible clinical care is not always available to individuals with distressing tinnitus. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has the potential to increase access to evidence-based services that manage tinnitus. Research comparing the effectiveness of this internet-based intervention with face-to-face care is required. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention is at least as effective as established individualized face-to-face clinical care in reducing tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related difficulties. DESIGN, SETTING. AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, multicenter, 2-arm parallel group, non-inferiority trial with 2-month follow-up was performed between October 4, 2016, and July 14, 2017. Invited to participate were 374 adults based in the United Kingdom who had been referred to their local tinnitus clinics because of bothersome tinnitus. The experimental group received the internet-based intervention online, and the active control group underwent the usual face-to-face tinnitus care at 1 of 3 UK-based National Health Service hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either intervention using variable permuted block sizes of 4 and 6. Of 92 participants who were randomized (46 each in the experimental and control groups), 88 participants completed the assessment immediately after intervention and 74 participants completed the follow-up assessment. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive either 8 weeks of guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy or a mean of 2 to 3 individualized face-to-face appointments in a tinnitus clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a change in tinnitus distress (assessed by the Tinnitus Functional Index). Secondary assessment measures were included for insomnia, anxiety, depression, hearing disability, hyperacusis, cognitive failures, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS Of 92 patients overall, 55 (60%) were men with a mean (SD) age of 52.96 (12.07) years and mean (SD) tinnitus duration of 6.54 (9.25) years. The between-group difference in the Tinnitus Functional Index scores after intervention were 5.18 (95% CI, -4.17 to 14.53) at the initial assessment and 5.52 (95% CI, -4.60 to 15.61) at follow-up; both differences were within the non-inferiority margin of 13 points for the lower 95% CI. For the secondary outcomes, only outcomes for insomnia fell outside the non-inferiority margin, both after intervention and at follow-up, favoring internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This is the first trial, to our knowledge, to compare an internet-based intervention with standard individualized face-to-face care for tinnitus. It revealed that both interventions are equally effective for reducing tinnitus distress and most tinnitus-related difficulties.

  • 16.
    Bianchi, Federica
    et al.
    Oticon Med AB, Denmark.
    Wendt, Dorothea
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Wassard, Christina
    Oticon Med AB, Denmark.
    Maas, Patrick
    Oticon Med AB, Denmark; Oticon Med, Germany.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Rosenbom, Tove
    Oticon Med AB, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Marcus
    Oticon Med AB, Sweden.
    Benefit of Higher Maximum Force Output on Listening Effort in Bone-Anchored Hearing System Users: A Pupillometry Study2019Inngår i: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 1220-1232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare listening effort, as estimated via pupillary response, during a speech-in-noise test in bone-anchored hearing system (BAHS) users wearing three different sound processors. The three processors, Ponto Pro (PP), Ponto 3 (P3), and Ponto 3 SuperPower (P3SP), differ in terms of maximum force output (MFO) and MFO algorithm. The hypothesis was that listeners would allocate lower listening effort with the P3SP than with the PP, as a consequence of a higher MFO and, hence, fewer saturation artifacts in the signal. Design: Pupil dilations were recorded in 21 BAHS users with a conductive or mixed hearing loss, during a speech-in-noise test performed at positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), where the speech and noise levels were individually adjusted to lead to 95% correct intelligibility with the PP. The listeners had to listen to a sentence in noise, retain it for 3 seconds and then repeat it, while an eye-tracking camera recorded their pupil dilation. The three sound processors were tested in random order with a single-blinded experimental design. Two conditions were performed at the same SNR: Condition 1, where the speech level was designed to saturate the PP but not the P3SP, and condition 2, where the overall sound level was decreased relative to condition 1 to reduce saturation artifacts. Results: The P3SP led to higher speech intelligibility than the PP in both conditions, while the performance with the P3 did not differ from the performance with the PP and the P3SP. Pupil dilations were analyzed in terms of both peak pupil dilation (PPD) and overall pupil dilation via growth curve analysis (GCA). In condition 1, a significantly lower PPD, indicating a decrease in listening effort, was obtained with the P3SP relative to the PP. The PPD obtained with the P3 did not differ from the PPD obtained with the other two sound processors. In condition 2, no difference in PPD was observed across the three processors. The GCA revealed that the overall pupil dilation was significantly lower, in both conditions, with both the P3SP and the P3 relative to the PP, and, in condition 1, also with the P3SP relative to the P3. Conclusions: The overall effort to process a moderate to loud speech signal was significantly reduced by using a sound processor with a higher MFO (P3SP and P3), as a consequence of fewer saturation artifacts. These findings suggest that sound processors with a higher MFO may help BAHS users in their everyday listening scenarios, in particular in noisy environments, by improving sound quality and, thus, decreasing the amount of cognitive resources utilized to process incoming speech sounds.

  • 17.
    Bojcic, Irma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Tiderman, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad – en intervjustudie med specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När hälso- och sjukvårdens kliniska arbete baseras på evidens medför det att vården blir mer patientsäker, mer kostnadseffektiv, behandlingsresultaten förbättras och patienternas livskvalitet ökar. Dagens sjukvård präglas dock av högt arbetstempo och hög arbetsbelastning vilket försvårar implementering av evidens. Specialistsjuksköterskor anses vara de som kan ta utökat ansvar för att utveckla den evidensbaserade omvårdnaden. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva specialistsjuksköterskors erfarenheter av implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad inom medicinsk vård. Design: Kvalitativ intervjustudie med induktiv och deskriptiv ansats genomfördes. Metod: Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med åtta specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård om implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad utifrån specialistsjuksköterskans kompetens, ansvar, omgivning och möjligheter att öka implementering. Resultatet analyserades enligt Krippendorffs innehållsanalys. Resultat: Implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad inom medicinsk vård beskrivs genom fyra kategorier: Förväntningar, Attityd och engagemang, Implementering, en process samt Säker och trygg omvårdnad. Konklusion: Specialistsjuksköterskor inom medicinsk vård förväntas ha kompetens för implementering av evidensbaserad omvårdnad, de kan ta ansvar för att driva en implementering framåt men då behövs stöd från medarbetare och organisation. När evidensbaserad omvårdnad implementeras inom medicinsk vård kan det leda till ökad patientsäkerhet och ökad trygghet för sjuksköterskor. En förutsättning är dock att implementeringsprocessen ges tid och resurser och att den är relevant för vårdkontexten.

  • 18.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The Benefits of Gaze-Based Assistive Technology in Daily Activities for Children with Disabilities2017Inngår i: HARNESSING THE POWER OF TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE LIVES, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 242, s. 1082-1088Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports research findings on how gaze-based assistive technology contributed to performance of daily activities for a group of children with severe physical impairments and without speech.

  • 19.
    Briere, John
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA.
    Svedin, Carl Göran (, )
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    TSCYC, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children: Manual, Svensk version2012Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSCYC är ett frågeformulär som används för att mäta ett brett spektrum av akuta eller kroniska posttraumatiska symptom hos barn som har upplevt traumatiska händelser såsom övergrepp eller misshandel eller har bevittnat våld i hemmet eller i sin närmiljö. Den svenska versionen av TSCYC har översatts av docent Doris Nilsson och professor Carl-Göran Svedin som även har översatt, normerat och standardiserat den svenska versionen av traumainstrumentet TSCC för äldre barn och ungdomar.

    Den svenska standardiseringen och normeringen av TSCYC har gjorts i en grupp om 629 barn ur normalpopulation och en klinisk grupp om 59 barn i åldrarna 3–11 år. Normerna är uppdelade utifrån ålder och kön.

    TSCYC-formuläret innehåller 90 frågor och handlar om olika typer av traumasymptom som barnet kan uppvisa. Frågorna besvaras av barnets förälder eller vårdnadshavare. TSCYC ger en detaljerad utvärdering av posttraumatiska symptom på åtta kliniska skalor. En summaskala ger värdefull information om akuta och kroniska symptom samt andra vanligt förekommande symptom hos traumatiserade barn. PTSD-diagnosbladet, som ingår i svarsblanketten, kan användas som stöd i evalueringen av möjlig PTSD-diagnos.

  • 20.
    Bylund, Bengt
    et al.
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Wärngård, Olof
    Very low birth weight children at 9 years:  School performance and behaviour in relation to risk factors2000Inngår i: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 124-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the school performance and behavior of very low-birth-weight children in comparison with controls, and relate the findings to risk factors.

    Methods All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study; 81 % (n = 70) and 82% (n = 72), respectively, were re-examined at the age of 9 years regarding growth, neurological status, neurofunctional classification and academic achievement tests (Raven's matrices, mathematics, vocabulary, reading ability). The need for special education at school was assessed and four behavioral problem scores were also assessed (hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, social skills). Children with known handicaps were not re-examined.

    Results VLBW children were shorter and lighter than controls, and differed from them with regard to neurological functional classification. As a group, they produced poorer results in all academic achievement tests except vocabulary, and also in two out of four behavioral subscales (hyperactivity and fine motor skills). When the comparison was restricted to children with normal Raven scores, almost all the differences disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexic compared to NEW children.

  • 21.
    Bäck, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cider, Åsa
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mari
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kinesiophobia mediates the influences on attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease2016Inngår i: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 571-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify predictors of attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and to test the hypothesis that kinesiophobia mediates the influence on attendance at CR in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients: In total, 332 patients (75 women; mean age 65 +/- 9.1 years) with a diagnosis of CAD were recruited at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Methods: The patients were tested in terms of objective measurements, self-rated psychological measurements, and level of physical activity. A path model with direct and indirect effects via kinesiophobia was used to predict participation in CR. An exploratory selection of significant predictors was made. Results: A current incidence of coronary bypass grafting (p amp;lt; 0.001) and a diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (p = 0.004) increased the probability of attendance at CR, while kinesiophobia (p = 0.001) reduced attendance. As a mediator, kinesiophobia was influenced by four predictors and the following indirect effects were found. General health and muscle endurance increased the probability of attendance at CR, while self-rated anxiety and current incidence of heart failure had the opposite effect. Conclusions: This study suggests that kinesiophobia has an influence on and a mediating role in attendance at CR. The results need to be further investigated in relation to clinical practice.

  • 22.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Persson, Elisabeth B.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Annelie Inghilesi
    Qual Stat AB, Sweden.
    Fischer, Marcelo Rivano
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Chronic pain patients can be classified into four groups: Clustering-based discriminant analysis of psychometric data from 4665 patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre (a SQRP study)2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikkel-id e0192623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To subgroup chronic pain patients using psychometric data and regress the variables most responsible for subgroup discrimination. Design Cross-sectional, registry-based study. Setting and subjects Chronic pain patients assessed at a multidisciplinary pain centre between 2008 and 2015. Methods Data from the Swedish quality registry for pain rehabilitation (SQRP) were retrieved and analysed by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Results Four subgroups were identified. Group 1 was characterized by low "psychological strain", the best relative situation concerning pain characteristics (intensity and spreading), the lowest frequency of fibromyalgia, as well as by a slightly older age. Group 2 was characterized by high "psychological strain" and by the most negative situation with respect to pain characteristics (intensity and spreading). Group 3 was characterized by high "social distress", the longest pain durations, and a statistically higher frequency of females. The frequency of three neuropathic pain conditions was generally lower in this group. Group 4 was characterized by high psychological strain, low "social distress", and high pain intensity. Conclusions The identification of these four clusters of chronic pain patients could be useful for the development of personalized rehabilitation programs. For example, the identification of a subgroup characterized mainly by high perceived "social distress" raises the question of how to best design interventions for such patients. Differentiating between clinically important subgroups and comparing how these subgroups respond to interventions is arguably an important area for further research.

  • 23.
    Code, Chris
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Ball, Martin
    University of Lousiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Tree, Jeremy
    University of Swansea.
    Dawe, Karen
    Bristol University.
    The effects of initiation, termination and inhibition impairments on speech rate in a case of progressive nonfluent aphasia with progressive apraxia of speech with frontotemporal degeneration2013Inngår i: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 602-618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research into nonfluent forms of primary progressive aphasia and progressive apraxia of speech has highlighted the importance of speech rate as a diagnostic feature. We describe detailed investigation and comparison of speech rate (latencies and utterance length in single word/nonword production and speech rate in connected speech) on a range of experimental tasks in a man with progressive speech deterioration of 10 years duration from Pick's Disease. C.S. had a progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) together with progressive apraxia of speech (pAOS) with an absence of significant interlectual, phonological or semantic impairment. C.S. showed increased latencies but reduced word length compared to matched controls on single word and nonword repetition and reading, an absence of a syllabic length effect in either single word/nonword tasks or connected speech tasks. Further investigation suggested that underlying his speech production impairments were problems with speech initiation, termination and inhibition. Most impairments worsened with progression over a 12-month period. Results provide support for the view that progressive apraxia of speech presents differently to apraxia of speech following stroke and, especially at advanced stages, involves deterioration in more central and supportive cognitive processes.

  • 24.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Törnvall, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Education to Increase Skills in Research Methods among Clinicians in Health Care2017Inngår i: Journal of Health & Medical Informatics, ISSN 2157-7420, Vol. 8, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of this study was to evaluate participants’ and managers’ experience of the design and content of an education programme. The Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework was applied to identify the steps of knowledge creation and action in the education programme.

    Methods

    Data were collected from 18 participants representing two groups: participants in the intervention and supervisors and managers. Two focus groups took place: two with participants in the intervention (4 and 3 in each) and one with eleven managers.

    Results

    All steps in the KTA framework were identified and discussed from several aspects. The importance of selecting projects that were relevant and added value in their clinics was mentioned by all participants. The participants also mentioned that after the education, they had further understanding and increased skills in how to be active and perform continuous improvement projects. The step in the KTA process regarding how to adapt knowledge to local context was not discussed explicitly by the participants or managers.

    Discussion

    Education in research methods and performing improvement projects to develop the clinic creates a more positive attitude to working with continuous improvement. The participant’s self-esteem and knowledge increased regarding how to work with improvements. It is important to have the manager’s support to perform a project. Emphasis was on knowledge inquiry and synthesis and presenting the results with or without possible solutions. The participants and managers talked about barriers and knowledge use more generally and at an organizational level. This means that the participants did not gain the last bit of nowledge needed to put the action into practice. This implies that the problem regarding lack of implementation skills in health care might remain.

  • 25.
    Domeij, Erica
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Buller ur barns perspektiv: en kartläggning av hur barn upplever ljud- och kommunikationsmiljö på förskola2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier har visat att höga bullernivåer kan vara skadliga för såväl röst, hörsel och språkliginlärning som andra kognitiva förmågor. Höga ljudnivåer kan bidra till ett hyperfunktionelltröstbeteende som kan ge kroniska besvär. Barns röstorgan kan vara särskilt sårbara då de ännuinte är fullt utvecklade. På många förskolor är bullernivån hög och ogynnsam för både barn ochpersonal och därmed utgör de båda en riskgrupp för att utveckla röstbesvär och hörselskador.Föreliggande studie består av ljudnivåmätningar av två förskolors lokaler samtfokusgruppsintervjuer av 16 femåriga barn. Syftet var att kartlägga hur barnen upplever bulleroch kommunikation på förskola samt relatera det till uppmätta ljudnivåer. Studien ingår i ettstörre nordiskt projekt.Resultatet visar att barnen förefaller ha viss kunskap om bullrets påverkan på hörseln men intealls på rösten. Barnens utsagor speglar att de har viss kunskap om att buller försvårarkommunikation och att de föredrar lägre ljudnivåer. Barnen uttrycker även egna erfarenheter avatt det ibland är svårt att kommunicera på förskolorna. Resultatet av bullermätningarna indikerarockså detta. Utifrån föreliggande studies intervjuer framkommer följande tre teman och sexunderkategorier; egna upplevelser (kroppsliga, emotionella), miljöfaktorer (rumsliga, buller)samt strategier (röst, hörsel). Bullervärden mättes i samtliga rum både med och utan barn ochpersonal närvarande. Ljudnivåer förekom från 60 till 93 dB(A) med barn och personal i rummen.Bullernivåerna låg ofta över 70 dB(A) och det högsta uppmätta värdet var 93 dB(A) i lekrummetvid en gemensam fri lek.

  • 26.
    Draycott, T.
    et al.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    van der Nelson, H.
    Spire Bristol Hospital, England.
    Montouchet, C.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Ruff, L.
    Covance Inc, England.
    Andersson, F.
    Linköpings universitet. Ferring Pharmaceut AS, Denmark.
    Reduction in resource use with the misoprostol vaginal insert vs the dinoprostone vaginal insert for labour induction: a model-based analysis from a United Kingdom healthcare perspective2016Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 49-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In view of the increasing pressure on the UKs maternity units, new methods of labour induction are required to alleviate the burden on the National Health Service, while maintaining the quality of care for women during delivery. A model was developed to evaluate the resource use associated with misoprostol vaginal inserts (MVIs) and dinoprostone vaginal inserts (DVIs) for the induction of labour at term. Methods: The one-year Markov model estimated clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 1397 pregnant women (parous and nulliparous) induced with either MVI or DVI at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. Efficacy and safety data were based on published and unpublished results from a phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Resource use was modelled using data from labour induction during antenatal admission to patient discharge from Southmead Hospital. The models sensitivity to key parameters was explored in deterministic multi-way and scenario-based analyses. Results: Over one year, the model results indicated MVI use could lead to a reduction of 10,201 h (28.9 %) in the time to vaginal delivery, and an increase of 121 % and 52 % in the proportion of women achieving vaginal delivery at 12 and 24 h, respectively, compared with DVI use. Inducing women with the MVI could lead to a 25.2 % reduction in the number of midwife shifts spent managing labour induction and 451 fewer hospital bed days. These resource utilisation reductions may equate to a potential 27.4 % increase in birthing capacity at Southmead Hospital, when using the MVI instead of the DVI. Conclusions: Resource use, in addition to clinical considerations, should be considered when making decisions about labour induction methods. Our model analysis suggests the MVI is an effective method for labour induction, and could lead to a considerable reduction in resource use compared with the DVI, thereby alleviating the increasing burden of labour induction in UK hospitals.

  • 27.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dastmalchi, Maryam
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning (VUFo). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Experiencing virtual patients in clinical learning: a phenomenological study2011Inngår i: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 331-345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students experience as a point of departure. Thirty-one students used VPs as a mandatory part of an early clinical rotation in rheumatology. Using the qualitative approach of phenomenology, we interviewed these students and then analysed data regarding their experiences of VPs as a learning activity. The result shows that students perceived VP activities in relation to actual patients, the clinical context and other learning activities. The VPs represented typical clinical cases which encouraged clinical reasoning and allowed for decision making. The students experienced the activities as integrating biomedical knowledge and clinical experience, providing structure that prepared for the unstructured clinical environment and patient encounters under unstressful conditions. However, the VPs were experienced as lacking the emotional interactivity and complexity of actual patients. Theoretical frameworks of clinical reasoning and experiential learning are suggested as foundations for further educational integration of VPs in the clinical environment. VP activities during clinical rotations provide experiences of clinical reality and allow students to solve problems actively. These features are dependent on VP technology but are also contingent on the surrounding environment.

  • 28.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kommunikation vid demenssjukdom: En studie av samtalsstrategier och positionering i samtal mellan personer med demenssjukdom och vårdpersonal.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia may cause impairment of linguistic abilities, affecting both production and comprehension, which in turn affects communication (Mahendra & Hopper, 2012: Perkins, Whithworth & Lesser, 1998). The aim of the present study was to investigate and describe the communication strategies in everyday conversations between people with dementia and their interlocutors, and to describe the identified interaction phenomena based on a participatory perspective.

    The study was conducted at a home for people with dementia. Three people with known dementia and two health professionals participated in the study. Everyday interactions were filmed, and then transcribed and analyzed according conversation analytic principles. The transcribed data was also analyzed with ideas from positioning theory.

    The present study highlights the presence of trouble sources in communication between the person with dementia and carers and how these are handled by the participants in terms of strategies, competence and positioning. The study shows that all participants use communicative strategies when trouble sources occurs, but also that trouble sources in the conversation sometimes are ignored. How trouble sources are handled affects how participants acknowledge themselves and each other competence and how they position themselves and each other in the conversation. The study also demonstrates that Conversation Analysis can be an important tool to map strenghts and break downs in communication between people with dementia and key interlocutors. That knowledge could then form the basis for designing individual adaptations and strategies to facilitate communication. 

  • 29.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark..
    Predicting Speech-in-Noise Recognition from Performance on the Trail Making Test: Results from a Large-Scale Internet Study2016Inngår i: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 73-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task.

    Design: Data were taken from a sample of 1509 listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old. Participants completed computerized versions of the TMT and an adaptive speech-in-noise recognition test. All testing was conducted via the internet.

    Results: The results indicate that better performance on both the simple and complex subtests of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. Thirty-eight percent of the participants had scores on the speech-in-noise test that indicated the presence of a hearing loss.

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that the TMT may be a useful tool in the assessment, and possibly the treatment, of speech-recognition difficulties. The results indicate that the relation between speech-in-noise recognition and TMT performance relates both to the capacity of the TMT to index processing speed and to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

  • 30.
    Emanuelsson Blanck, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nightingale2012Inngår i: Filosofi och medicin: från Platon till Foucault / [ed] Lennart Nordenfelt, Stockholm: Thales, 2012, s. 151-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindquist, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bergmark, K.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation2018Inngår i: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 27, nr 1, artikkel-id e12736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n=29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the womens views (n=24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising.

  • 32.
    Erhardsdotter, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekelund, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bland lagar, jornalmallar och medicinska termer: En studie av barnlogopeders journalföring2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skriva journal utgör en stor del av logopeders administrativa arbete, och för att reglera och kvalitetssäkra journalers hantering och innehåll finns det lagar och föreskrifter som måste följas. Journalmallar utformas till viss del efter dessa lagar och föreskrifter, men varierar beroende på typ av verksamhet och journalsystem. Att effektivisera och standardisera journalföring är viktigt då journalen kan fungera som en kommunikationsväg för flera vårdgivare, samt som informationskälla för patient och anhöriga. Journalen bör därför vara enkel att följa och vara skriven med ett språk som i så stor grad som möjligt kan förstås av olika yrkesprofessioner inom vården. Att följa upp hur dessa mallar efterföljs, samt om förbättringar kan göras, är därför ett värdefullt arbete.

    Syftet med studien har varit att kartlägga hur sökorden i statusdelen används av fem yrkesverksamma barnlogopeder, och om de använde sökorden utifrån verksamhetens lokala mall. Ytterligare en aspekt författarna ansåg var av intresse att studera var språkbruk och förståelighet i journalerna, vilket gjordes i pilotform av författarna själva. Totalt analyserades 15 journaler.

    Resultatet i kartläggningen av användandet av sökord i journalernas statusdel visade bland annat att information fördes in under fel sökord i sju av de femton journalerna utifrån journalmallen. Författarna kom i studien bland annat fram till att mallen som journalen skrivs efter behöver vara väldefinierad och tydligt utformad för att minska tolkningsfriheten för att få så enhetliga, tydliga och lättförståeliga journaler som möjligt.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    En fokusgruppstudie om Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI): SFI-lärares syn på utbildningen och relaterade språkliga områden2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I Utbildning i svenska för invandrare (SFI) ryms flera logopediskt intressanta områden. För att få en större inblick i SFI gjordes därför denna kvalitativa studie över lärares syn på undervisning inom SFI med hjälp av två fokusgruppintervjuer och grundad teori som forskningsansats. Denna studie har som huvudsyfte att spegla hur SFI-lärare ser på såväl sin egen undervisning som undervisning inom detta område i stort. Vidare frågar sig författarna hur lärare ser på de språkliga områdena: fonologi, grammatik, lexikon, pragmatik samt läs- och skrivförmåga. Uppsatsen genomsyras av tre huvudteman;

    samhälle, SFI-undervisning och individ, som uppstått under pågående studie. En fördjupad modell har dessutom gjorts över temat SFI-undervisning.. Det framkommer att SFI-undervisning är ett komplext område som både påverkar och påverkas av såväl individ som samhälle. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer att varje tema var för sig genomsyras av en central del; resurser, tid respektive individualisering. Samhället styr vilka resurser som finns att tillgå och hur SFI i stora drag organiseras. På SFI påverkar tidsaspekten till vilken grad undervisningen kan individualiseras för den enskilda eleven. Två områden som särskilt utmärker sig i intervjusamtal kring behov av resurser är uttalsvårigheter samt läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi.

    Slutligen beskrivs att det vore av intresse att utreda vilka personresurser som redan finns och vad de i nuläget arbetar med samt effekten av detta. Författarna föreslår därmed att vidare studier görs för att utröna om individualisering av undervisning kan underlättas med hjälp av ökade resurser eller samarbeten och i så fall hur dessa bör vara utformade. Vid en sådan studie skulle också frågan om logopeder är en yrkeskategori som skulle kunna komplettera eller utgöra en hjälp för SFI, kunna besvaras.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rex, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Vad kommer en treåring ihåg?: En studie om svenska barns arbetsminne och fonologi2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Få studier finns om små barns fonologiska förmåga relaterat till arbetsminne. Det råder också en brist på test av arbetsminne för små barn. Föreliggande studie syftade därför till att studera relationen mellan visuellt arbetsminne, fonologiskt arbetsminne och förmåga att hantera fonologiska representationer hos treåringar. Detta har gjorts genom att samla in jämförelsedata för treåringars resultat på det nyutvecklade surfplatte-testet KUBEN (Kognitiv utveckling hos små barn), som testar förmågorna visuellt och fonologiskt arbetsminne samt fonologisk diskrimination. Dessutom har test för fonologisk produktion, även det testat med hjälp av surfplatta, och nonordsrepetition använts. I studien deltog 91 treåriga svenska barn med typisk utveckling.

    För framför allt visuellt arbetsminne, fanns ett mycket litet underlag att jämföra med, men resultatet visade att barngruppen presterade som förväntat vad gäller samtliga testade förmågor. Förmågorna förbättrades med ökad ålder, däremot var kön och vana av surfplatta inte faktorer som påverkade barnens resultat. I resultatet beskrivs också samband mellan förmågorna. Det fanns samband mellan alla de förmågor som i denna studie mäter fonologiska representationer (fonologisk diskrimination, nonordsrepetition och fonologisk produktion). Däremot korrelerade dessa fonologiska förmågor inte med test för fonologiskt arbetsminne, vilket var ett mindre väntat resultat. En möjlig förklaring kan vara att det är svårt att separat testa fonologiskt arbetsminne hos barn så små som tre år. Inget samband förelåg heller mellan test av fonologiskt och visuellt arbetsminne, vilket dock indikerar att två olika arbetsminnesförmågor har testats. Detta styrker den falang inom forskningen som menar att visuellt och fonologiskt arbetsminne är separerade förmågor redan hos små barn.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Wikstrom, Lotta
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linnaeus University, Sweden; Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Broström, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Association of pain ratings with the prediction of early physical recovery after general and orthopaedic surgery-A quantitative study with repeated measures2017Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 2664-2675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare different levels of self-rated pain and determine if they predict anticipated early physical recovery in patients undergoing general and orthopaedic surgery. Background: Previous research has indicated that average self-rated pain reflects patients ability to recover the same day. However, there is a knowledge gap about the feasibility of using average pain ratings to predict patients physical recovery for the next day. Design: Descriptive, quantitative repeated measures. Methods: General and orthopaedic inpatients (n = 479) completed a questionnaire (October 2012-January 2015) about pain and recovery. Average pain intensity at rest and during activity was based on the Numeric Rating Scale and divided into three levels (0-3, 4-6, 7-10). Three out of five dimensions from the tool "Postoperative Recovery Profile" were used. Because few suffered severe pain, general and orthopaedic patients were analysed together. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis showed that average pain intensity postoperative day 1 significantly predicted the impact on recovery day 2, except nausea, gastrointestinal function and bladder function when pain at rest and also nausea, appetite changes, and bladder function when pain during activity. High pain ratings (NRS 7-10) demonstrated to be a better predictor for recovery compared with moderate ratings (NRS 4-6), day 2, as it significantly predicted more items in recovery. Conclusion: Pain intensity reflected general and orthopaedic patients physical recovery postoperative day 1 and predicted recovery for day 2. By monitoring patients pain and impact on recovery, patients need for support becomes visible which is valuable during hospital stays.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Moritz, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Att förklara läsförståelse hos förstaklassare: En studie om vilka kognitiva förmågor som förklarar läsförståelse hos barn i årskurs ett2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fonologisk medvetenhet, ordavkodningsförmåga, bokstavskunskap och arbetsminneskapacitet har visats predicera den tidiga läsförmågan. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka hur dessa olika kognitiva förmågor tillsammans förklarar läsförståelse hos barn i första klass. Läsförståelse, ordavkodning, fonologisk medvetenhet, bokstavskunskap samt arbetsminne undersöktes hos 36 elever i årskurs ett med normal hörsel och svenska som modersmål. Resultatet visar att ordavkodning och fonologisk medvetenhet tillsammans förklarar 62 % av variansen i läsförståelsen hos deltagarna. Slutsatsen är därmed att ordavkodning och fonologisk medvetenhet tillsammans predicerar läsförståelse i årskurs ett.

  • 37.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bram, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University.
    Visual Acuity in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome: No Evidence for “Eagle-Eyed” Vision2011Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, nr 9, s. 812-816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication.Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently,Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been thesubject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visualperception in ASC are not explained by this factor.Acontinued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in personswith ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 38.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Jönköping County, Rehabilitation Centre, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls2017Inngår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 377-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

    Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.

    Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).

    Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.

  • 39.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Psykiatri- och habiliteringsenheten.
    The desired moral attitude of the physician: (I) Empathy2012Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 103-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired underlying attitude of physicians. In this article, one of them—empathy—is presented in an interpretation that is meant to depicture (together with the two additional concepts compassion and care) this attitude. Therefore empathy in the clinical context is defined as the adequate understanding of the inner processes of the patient concerning his health-related problems. Adequacy is scrutinized on behalf of the emotional and subjective involvement of he physician, and on the necessary dependence on medical—moral—goals. In the present interpretation, empathy alone is no guarantee of the right moral attitude, but a necessary instrumental skill in order to perceive and treat a patient as an individual person. The concepts of compassion and care that will be discussed in two forthcoming articles are necessary parts to describe the desired moral attitude of the physician more completely.

  • 40.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Psykiatri- och habiliteringsenheten.
    The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) Compassion2012Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 397-410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude—compassion—is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient’s dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as “empathic compassion” can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of “care” that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral attitude of the physician more completely. The reconstruction of the desired professional attitude in terms of “empathic compassionate care” is certainly not the only possible description, but it is a detailed proposal in order to give an impulse for the discussion about the inner tacit values and the meaning of medicine and clinical healthcare professions.

  • 41.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Psykiatri- och habiliteringsenheten.
    The desired moral attitude of the physicians: (III) Care2013Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 125-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In professional medical ethics, the physician traditionally is obliged to fulfil specific duties as well as to embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired moral attitude of physicians. In a series of three articles, three of the discussed concepts are presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: “empathy”, “compassion” and “care”. In the first article of the series, “empathy” has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In the second article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude—compassion—has been presented. Compassion as a professional attitude has been distinguished from a spontaneous feeling of compassion, and has been related to a general idea of man as vulnerable and solidary being. Thus, the dignity of the patient is safeguarded in spite of the asymmetry of compassion. In this article, the third concept of the triad—“care”—is presented. Care is conceived as an attitude as well as an activity which can be directed to different objects: if it is directed to another sentient being, it is regarded as intrinsically morally valuable; implying (1) the acceptance of being addressed, (2) a benevolent inclination to help and to foster, and (3) activity to realize this. There are different forms of benevolence that can underlie caring. With regard to the professional physician’s ethos, the attitude of empathic compassion as developed in the two previous articles is proposed to be the adequate underlying attitude of care which demands the right balance between closeness and professionalism and the right form of attention to the person of the patient. ‘Empathic compassionate care’ does not, however, describe the whole of the desired attitude of a physician, but focuses on the morally-emotive aspects. In order to get also the cognitive and practical aspects of biomedicine into the picture, ‘empathic compassionate care’ has to be combined with an attitude of responsibility that is more directed to decision-making and outcome than a caring attitude alone can be. The reconstruction of the desired professional attitude in terms of “empathic compassionate care” and “responsibility” is certainly not the only possible description, but it is a detailed proposal in order to give an impulse for the discussion about the inner tacit values and the meaning of medicine and clinical healthcare professions.

  • 42.
    Gjessing, Kristian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Torgé, Cristina Joy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, NISAL - Nationella institutet för forskning om äldre och åldrande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Improvement of quality and safety in health care as a new interprofessional learning module – evaluation from students2014Inngår i: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare, ISSN 1178-2390, E-ISSN 1178-2390, nr 7, s. 341-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interprofessional teamwork is in many ways a norm in modern health care, and needs to be taught during professional education.

    Description: This study is an evaluation of a newly introduced and mandatory learning module where students from different health profession programs used Improvement of Quality and Safety as a way to develop interprofessional competence in a real-life setting. The intention of this learning module was to integrate interprofessional teamwork within the students' basic education, and to give students a basic knowledge about Improvement of Quality and Safety. This report focuses on evaluations from the participating students (n=222), mainly medical and nursing students.

    Materials and methods: To evaluate this new learning module, a questionnaire was developed and analyzed using a mixed methods design, integrating both qualitative and quantitative methods. The evaluation addressed learning concepts, learning objectives, and interprofessional and professional development.

    Results and conclusion: A majority of students responded positively to the learning module as a whole, but many were negative towards specific parts of the learning module and its implementation. Medical students and male students were less positive towards this learning module. Improvements and alterations were suggested. 

  • 43.
    Gryth, Dan
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rådestad, Monica
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Heléne
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Katastrofmedicinskt centrum. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nerf, Ola
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Prehospital Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rüter, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Katastrofmedicinskt centrum.
    Evaluation of medical command and control using performance indicators in a full-scale, major aircraft accident exercise.2010Inngår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 118-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Large, functional, disaster exercises are expensive to plan and execute, and often are difficult to evaluate objectively. Command and control in disaster medicine organizations can benefit from objective results from disaster exercises to identify areas that must be improved.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to examine if it is possible to use performance indicators for documentation and evaluation of medical command and control in a full-scale major incident exercise at two levels: (1) local level (scene of the incident and hospital); and (2) strategic level of command and control. Staff procedure skills also were evaluated.

    METHODS: Trained observers were placed in each of the three command and control locations. These observers recorded and scored the performance of command and control using templates of performance indicators. The observers scored the level of performance by awarding 2, 1, or 0 points according to the template and evaluated content and timing of decisions. Results from 11 performance indicators were recorded at each template and scores greater than 11 were considered as acceptable.

    RESULTS: Prehospital command and control had the lowest score. This also was expressed by problems at the scene of the incident. The scores in management and staff skills were at the strategic level 15 and 17, respectively; and at the hospital level, 17 and 21, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to use performance indicators in a full-scale, major incident exercise for evaluation of medical command and control. The results could be used to compare similar exercises and evaluate real incidents in the future.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap (CSAN). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Högland Hospital, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Hospital Jönköping, Sweden.
    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for preschool childrena Swedish validation2016Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, nr 8, s. 567-574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, 80-90% of children aged 1-5 years attend preschool, and that environment is well suited to identify behaviours that may be signs of mental health problems. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-known short and structured instrument measuring child behaviours that indicate mental health problems well suited for preschool use.Aim: To investigate whether SDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying behavioural problems in children aged 1-3 years and 4-5 years in a Swedish population, as rated by preschool teachers.Methods: Preschools situated in different sized municipalities in Sweden participated. The preschool teacher rated each individual child. Concurrent validity was tested using the Child-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) and Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for age groups, 1-3 years and 4-5 years.Results: The preschool teachers considered most of the SDQ items relevant and possible to rate. For the children aged 1-3 years, the subscales Hyperactivity (Cronbach alpha=0.84, split half=0.73) and Conduct (Cronbach alpha=0.76, split half=0.80) were considered to be valid. For the age group 4-5 years, the whole original SDQ scale, 4-factor solution was used and showed reasonable validity (Cronbach alpha=0.83, split half=0.87).Conclusion: SDQ can be used in a preschool setting by preschool teachers as a valid instrument for identifying externalizing behavioural problems (hyperactivity and conduct problems) in young children.Clinical implications: SDQ could be used to identify preschool children at high-risk for mental health problems later in life.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, E.
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Litström, Emma
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Drott, Jenny
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Reliability testing of oxaliplatin-associated neurotoxicity questionnaire (OANQ), a pilot study2016Inngår i: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 747-754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the Swedish version of the Oxaliplatin-Associated Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (OANQ) administrated throughout a self-reported mobile phone-based system, a pilot study.

    METHODS:

    Twenty-three patients from two university hospitals and two regional hospitals who had been treated with oxaliplatin were included through purposive sampling between autumn 2013 to autumn 2014. A test-retest was performed through a mobile phone-based system, with a recall period of 1 h to determine the reliability of the questionnaire.

    RESULTS:

    Internal consistency was strong for the three domains of the scale (α > 0.840). The statistical analyses for the test-retest indicated that the OANQ was stable. Intraclass correlation (ICC) for symptom items and effect on daily activities items showed an overall excellent reproducibility at 69 and 83 %, respectively. The weighted kappa for symptom items and daily activities items showed an overall almost perfect agreement at 59 and 52 %, respectively. A paired samples t test did not reveal any significant differences between the two measures.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The OANQ was tested and considered a reliable assessment for capturing the oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) in patients receiving oxaliplatin. However, further reliability testing of the OANQ is needed.

  • 46.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Björk Olafsdottir, Linda
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Thora Egilson, Snaefridur
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Agreements and disagreements between children and their parents in health-related assessments2017Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 1059-1072Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To systematically review research concerning parent-child agreement in health-related assessments to reveal overall agreement, directions of agreement, and the factors that affect agreement in ratings. Method: The Uni-Search and five additional databases were searched. Childrens health issues were grouped into psychosocial issues including autism and ADHD, and physical and performance issues including pain. Measures used for comparison were those addressing (a) psychosocial functioning, (b) physical and performance functioning, and (c) health-related quality of life. Results: Totally, 39 studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 44 analyses in all since four studies contained more than one analyses. Moderate child-parent agreement was demonstrated in 23 analyses and poor agreement in 20 analyses. Several analyses found more agreement on observable/external than on non-observable/internal domains. Overall, parents considered their children had more difficulties than did the children themselves, although there were indications that for children with physical performance issues, parents may underreport their childrens difficulties in emotional functioning and pain. There were no consistencies in differences between childrens and parents ratings on levels of agreement with respect to the childrens health issue, age or gender. Conclusions: Discrepancies between child and parent reports seem to reflect their different perspectives and not merely inaccuracy or bias. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION In general, parents consider their children to have more difficulties - or more extensive difficulties than the children themselves think they have. The perspectives of the child and his or her parents should be sought whenever possible since both constitute important information concerning the childs health and well-being. Children with physical and performance issues reported more difficulties than their parents concerning the childrens emotional functioning and pain. Clinicians should prioritize obtaining childrens views on subjective aspects such as emotional issues as well as on pain.

  • 47.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kommunikativa utmaningar och strategier vid utskrivningssamtal mellan läkare och patienter med afasi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utskrivningssamtalet är den sista kontakten mellan läkare och patient innan patienten åker hem ifrån avdelningen. Syftet med den föreliggande studien är att undersöka ifall det förligger kommunikativa utmaningar i ett utskrivningssamtal mellan en läkare och en patient med afasi.  Den konkreta frågeställningen för studien var hur de potentiella problem som uppkom i samtalet hanterades och vilket utrymme som skapades för patientens deltagande i samtalet samt hur samtalsdeltagarna använde sig av icke-verbal kommunikation för att uppnå förståelse. Den valda metoden för att undersöka detta var Conversation Analysis, CA.

    I studien deltog två läkare, två patienter med afasi, samt två närstående till patienterna. Patienterna som deltog hade mild till måttlig afasi, svenska som modersmål och var 50 år och 70 år gamla. Läkarna som deltog hade varit anställda på avdelningen och arbetat med patienter med afasi i 2.5 år respektive 3.5 år och hade svenska som andraspråk.

    Resultatet av analysen var en identifiering av kommunikativa handlingar som ledde till sekvenser i samtalet som deltagarna orienterade mot som problematiska. Dessa var bland annat när läkaren inte följde upp på patientens förfrågan för mer information eller patient-initierade ämnen och inte redde ut missförstånd som uppkom. I resultatet identifierades även sekvenser där samtalsdeltagarna använde sin kommunikativa kompetens för att hantera kommunikativa utmaningar, samt sekvenser där samtalsdeltagarna använde sig av icke-verbal kommunikation för att underlätta den gemensamma förståelsen. Resultatet stämde överens med tidigare forskning om hur patienter med afasi och vårdpersonal organiserar interaktion i samtal.

  • 48.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Logopedi, Audiologi och Otorhinolaryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Peterson, Malin
    Specialpedagogiskt Centre, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient characteristics and intervention effect as measured by Voice Handicap Index2017Inngår i: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 93-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze patients with a confirmed voice disorder in order to identify patterns regarding age, gender, and occupation compared to the general public. To explore effects of voice therapy according to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score pre- and post-therapy in relation to the number of sessions, age, and gender. Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a collaborative project between Linkoping University and hospitals in the south-east health care region in Sweden. Six voice clinics participated by asking their patients voluntarily to complete the Swedish version of the VHI at the beginning and end of therapy. Results and conclusions: The two most prevalent diagnoses were dysphonia (43%) and phonasthenia (25%). Among the working population, the three most common occupational fields were education, health care, and child-care. The majority of the patients were women (74.3%), and the mean age of all patients was 55 years. A significant improvement in VHI scores was found after therapy, with an average decrease of 19 median points in total score and a substantial effect size (0.55). The number of sessions did not significantly correlate with the mean VHI score difference but had a weak correlation to the start and end scores. Increasing age correlated with a higher median VHI score both at the start and end of therapy but did not affect the average decrease between the two measurements.

  • 49.
    Henriksson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Troedsson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Jag vet vad du tänker: Mentaliseringsförmågan hos typiskt utvecklade barn i 6-7års åldern2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Mentaliseringsförmåga innebär förmågan att ta en annan persons perspektiv, att förstå hur någon annan tänker och känner. Det innebär även att förstå de egna tankarna och reaktionerna relaterat till andra personers tankar och känslor. Det är viktigt med en välfungerande mentaliseringsförmåga för att kunna samverka med andra individer och sin omgivning på ett pragmatiskt och ändamålsenligt sätt. Det finns flera olika förmågor som kan vara viktiga för mentaliseringsförmågan, i vilken grad de påverkar är dock fortfarande oklart. Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka mentaliseringsförmågan och dess samvariation med andra kognitiva förmågor hos barn i åldrarna 6-7 år. I föreliggande studie användes tio test för att undersöka vilka kognitiva förmågor som samverkade med mentaliseringsförmågan. De förmågor som testades var visuellt och auditivt arbetsminne, korttidsminne, språkförståelse och ickeverbal intelligens. Testgruppen bestod av 25 typiskt utvecklade barn i åldrarna 6:0–8:0 år med svenska som modersmål.

    Resultatet av testerna visade att ickeverbal intelligens, korttidsminne och språkförståelse korrelerade med barnens mentaliseringsförmåga. Vad gällde arbetsminnet verkade det främst som att en arbetsminneskapacitet upp till en viss nivå gynnade mentaliseringsförmågan, kapacitet över denna nivå verkade inte ha någon betydelse för prestationen. Det upptäcktes ingen enskild faktor som var viktigare än de andra för mentaliseringsförmågan, utan att samverkan av dessa förmågor är viktig.

  • 50.
    Hua, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp (CDD). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University.
    Widen, Stephen
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    School of Health and Medical Sciences and Örebro University; Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    The impact of different background noises: Effects on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance in employees with aided hearing impairment and normal hearing2014Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 859-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care professionals frequently meet employees with hearing impairment (HI) who experience difficulties at work. There are indications that the majority of these difficulties might be related to the presence of background noise. Moreover, research has also shown that high level noise has a more detrimental effect on cognitive performance and selfrated disturbance in individuals with HI than low level noise.

    Purpose: To examine the impact of different types of background noise on cognitive performance and perceived disturbance (PD) in employees with aided HI and normal hearing.

    Research Design: A mixed factorial design was conducted to examine the effect of noise under four experimental conditions.

    Study Sample: Forty participants (21 men and 19 women) were recruited to take part in the study .The study sample consisted of employees with HI (n =20) and normal hearing (n = 20). The group with HI had a mild-moderate sensorineural HI and they were all frequent hearing aid users.

    Intervention: The current study was conducted by employing four general work-related tasks (mental arithmetic, orthographic decoding, phonological decoding and serial recall) in four different background conditions: (1) quiet, (2) office noise at 56 dBA, (3) daycare noise at 73.5 dBA and (4) traffic noise at 72.5 dBA. Reaction time (RT) and the proportion of correct answers in the working tasks were used as outcome measures of cognitive performance. The Borg CR-10 scale was used to assess PD.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Data collection occurred on two separate sessions, completed within four weeks of each other. All tasks and experimental conditions were employed in a counterbalanced order. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to analyze the results. To examine interaction effects, pairwise t-tests were used. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between RT and proportion of correct answers, and cognitive performance and PD were also calculated to  examine the possible correlation between the different variables.

    Results: No significant between or within-group differences in cognitive performance were observed across the four background conditions. Ratings of PD showed that both groups rated PD according to noise level, where higher noise level generated a higher PD. The present findings also demonstrate that the group with HI was more disturbed by higher than lower levels of noise (i.e. traffic and daycare setting compared to the office setting). This pattern was observed consistently throughout four working tasks where the group with HI reported a significantly greater PD in the daycare and traffic setting compared to the office noise.

    Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that background noise does not impair cognitive performance in non-auditory tasks in employees with HI and normal hearing, but that PD is affected to a greater extent in employees with HI during higher level of background noise exposure. In addition, this study also supports previous studies regarding the detrimental effects high level noise has on employees with HI. We therefore emphasize the need of both self-rated and cognitive measurements in hearing care and occupational health services for both employees with normal hearing and HI.

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