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  • 1.
    Ahlenius, Sven
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Knut
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Prolongation of the ejaculation latency in the male rat by thioridazine and chlorimipramine.1979Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 137-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioridazine (3 mg/kg) and chlorimipramine (1.5–6.0 mg/kg) prolonged the ejaculation latency and increased the number of mounts but did not change the number of intromissions preceding ejaculation. Blockade of peripheral and central noradrenaline receptors by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine respectively resulted in a suppression of all aspects of the sexual behavior with increasing doses. dl-5-HTP (25–100 mg/kg) in combination with an inhibitor of peripheral 5-HTP decarboxylase (benserazide, 25 mg/kg) produced, like chlorimipramine and thioridazine, a prolongation of ejaculation latency and an increase in the number of mounts preceding ejaculation. Selective inhibition of 5-HT reuptake however, by zimelidine (0–20 mg/kg) or alaproclate (0–20 mg/kg) did not affect the mating behavior. At higher doses of these drugs some animals failed to initiate sexual activities. There was an increase in the postejaculatory interval but no change in the ejaculatory latency.It is concluded that the prolonged ejaculation latencies observed following treatment with thioridazine or chlorimipramine is not due to a blockade of central or peripheral adrenergic -receptors.

  • 2.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Tjäder, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    "Jag trivs bäst i öppna landskap...": Om naturmiljöers påverkan på oss människor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie med experimentell design har genomförts i syfte att jämföra natur- respektive urbanmiljöers påverkan på känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning efter en stressupplevelse, samt utslag på kognitiv prestation. Hypotesen var att naturstimuli genererar högre grad av känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning än urbanstimuli. Frågeställningen var om vi kunde se någon skillnad mellan gruppernas prestationsförmåga efter genomförd återhämtning, vad gäller riktad uppmärksamhet. Återhämtningsgrad har mätts i förändring i blodtryck, puls och självskattning av känslor.  Resultatet visade att naturmiljön genererar en högre nivå återhämtning med avseende på sänkt diastoliskt blodtryck, ökade positiva känslor samt minskad oro. Däremot visades ingen skillnad i kognitiv prestationsförmåga mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen är att känslomässig samt fysiologisk återhämtning kan underlättas i naturmiljö jämfört med urbanmiljö och att detta även kan ske med hjälp av naturbilder. Däremot är det inte är självklart att man får större kapacitet riktad uppmärksamhet efter exponering av naturbilder jämfört med stadsbilder.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013Inngår i: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 249-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 5.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017Inngår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikkel-id 94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

  • 6.
    Alickovic, Emina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Tutorial on Auditory Attention Identification Methods2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention identification methods attempt to identify the sound source of a listeners interest by analyzing measurements of electrophysiological data. We present a tutorial on the numerous techniques that have been developed in recent decades, and we present an overview of current trends in multivariate correlation-based and model-based learning frameworks. The focus is on the use of linear relations between electrophysiological and audio data. The way in which these relations are computed differs. For example, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) finds a linear subset of electrophysiological data that best correlates to audio data and a similar subset of audio data that best correlates to electrophysiological data. Model-based (encoding and decoding) approaches focus on either of these two sets. We investigate the similarities and differences between these linear model philosophies. We focus on (1) correlation-based approaches (CCA), (2) encoding/decoding models based on dense estimation, and (3) (adaptive) encoding/decoding models based on sparse estimation. The specific focus is on sparsity-driven adaptive encoding models and comparing the methodology in state-of-the-art models found in the auditory literature. Furthermore, we outline the main signal processing pipeline for how to identify the attended sound source in a cocktail party environment from the raw electrophysiological data with all the necessary steps, complemented with the necessary MATLAB code and the relevant references for each step. Our main aim is to compare the methodology of the available methods, and provide numerical illustrations to some of them to get a feeling for their potential. A thorough performance comparison is outside the scope of this tutorial.

  • 7.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Pragmatiske språkvansker og barnepsykiatri2004Inngår i: Spesialpedagogikk, ISSN 0332-8457, nr 7, s. 14-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Det har dei siste åra vore ei aukande merksemd omkring språkfunksjonen til barn som er tilviste det psykiatriske behandlingsapparatet. I artikkelen er det gjort greie for reultata frå ein pilotstudie som viser komobiditet mellom psykiatriske vanskar og kommunikasjonsvanskar.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Salomonsson, Julia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Ungas perspektiv på föräldraskap och ursprung: Reflektioner från unga vuxna tillkomna genom könscellsdonation och/eller uppvuxna i regnbågsfamiljer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna examensuppsats har ämnat undersöka ungdomars och unga vuxnas perspektiv på och upplevelser av föräldraskap och genetiskt ursprung samt aktuell föräldralagstiftning. Examensuppsatsen ämnar vidare utgöra underlag för en rapport som beaktas i en statlig utredning som handlar om att se över aktuella regler kring fastställande av rättsligt föräldraskap. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio unga vuxna i åldern 17 till 32 år har data samlats in och analyserats med tematisk analys.

    I resultaten fann vi att deltagarnas sätt definiera och tala om föräldraskap är i linje med tidigare forskning. Även internationell forskning kring synen på könscellsdonatorer och deras roll som föräldrar eller icke-föräldrar har kunnat appliceras på vårt intervjumaterial för att förstå donatorsrollen som infallande på ett kontinuum. Nya fynd som framkommit är att avsaknad av rättsliga band ej utgör ett oöverkomligt hinder för utövandet av socialt föräldraskap, både i avseende på att skaffa barn och sedermera uppfostra det. Deltagarna berättar dock att avsaknad av rättsligt föräldraskap har varit problematiskt vid dödsfall och separationer. Funderingar kring genetiskt ursprung och tillkomst beskrivs påbörjas i tidig ålder hos deltagarna och vara avslutat i tidig vuxen ålder, vilket är ett nytt fynd och går emot lagstiftad ålder för kännedom om donator och genetiskt ursprung. Möjlighet till kännedomen om genetiskt ursprung lyfts som barnets okränkbara rättighet.

    Utifrån dessa fynd drar vi slutsatsen att trots lagmässiga hinder kan ett fullständigt föräldraskap i många fall utövas av icke-juridiska föräldrar samt att avsaknad av genetiska band ej utgör en barriär för relationsskapande eller identitetsutveckling. Däremot anses lagstiftning och samhällsattityder fortfarande vara exkluderande och osynliggörande gentemot regnbågsfamiljer och könscellsdonation.

  • 9.
    Andin, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    fMRI Evidence of Magnitude Manipulation during Numerical Order Processing in Congenitally Deaf Signers2018Inngår i: Neural Plasticity, ISSN 2090-5904, E-ISSN 1687-5443, artikkel-id 2576047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Congenital deafness is often compensated by early sign language use leading to typical language development with corresponding neural underpinnings. However, deaf individuals are frequently reported to have poorer numerical abilities than hearing individuals and it is not known whether the underlying neuronal networks differ between groups. In the present study, adult deaf signers and hearing nonsigners performed a digit and letter order tasks, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found the neuronal networks recruited in the two tasks to be generally similar across groups, with significant activation in the dorsal visual stream for the letter order task, suggesting letter identification and position encoding. For the digit order task, no significant activation was found for either of the two groups. Region of interest analyses on parietal numerical processing regions revealed different patterns of activation across groups. Importantly, deaf signers showed significant activation in the right horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus for the digit order task, suggesting engagement of magnitude manipulation during numerical order processing in this group.

  • 10.
    Andin, Josefine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    University of Crete, Rethymnon, Greece.
    Cardin, Velia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University College London, UK.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Capek, Cheryl M.
    School of Psychological Science, University of Manchester, UK.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Similar digit-based working memory in deaf signers and hearing non-signers despite digit span differences2013Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, nr 942Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar working memory (WM) for lexical items has been demonstrated for signers and non-signers while short-term memory (STM) is regularly poorer in deaf than hearing individuals. In the present study, we investigated digit-based WM and STM in Swedish and British deaf signers and hearing non-signers. To maintain good experimental control we used printed stimuli throughout and held response mode constant across groups. We showed that deaf signers have similar digit-based WM performance, despite shorter digit spans, compared to well-matched hearing non-signers. We found no difference between signers and non-signers on STM span for letters chosen to minimize phonological similarity or in the effects of recall direction. This set of findings indicates that similar WM for signers and non-signers can be generalized from lexical items to digits and suggests that poorer STM in deaf signers compared to hearing non-signers may be due to differences in phonological similarity across the language modalities of sign and speech.

  • 11.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Webster, Kate E.
    School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Psychological Aspects of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries2016Inngår i: Operative techniques in sports medicine, ISSN 1060-1872, E-ISSN 1557-9794, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 77-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Impairment-based evaluation has, until recently, been the mainstay of orthopaedic research in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, participation-based outcomes, in particular returning to sport, have lately garnered increased research attention. This is important because returning to sport is typically a main concern of injured athletes. Recent metaanalyses have demonstrated that the return to sport rate after ACL reconstruction is disappointingly low, and that a range of contextual factors including age, sex, sport participation level, and psychological factors may affect the return to sport rate. Moderate to large effect sizes have been demonstrated for greater psychological readiness to return to sport, and lower fear of reinjury favoring returning to the preinjury level sport after ACL reconstruction. Understanding the relationship between psychological factors and returning to sport is essential in light of the fact that most athletes recover good physical function after surgery, and many athletes with good knee function do not return to sport. Psychological factors are potentially modifiable with appropriate intervention, yet these factors are not systematically addressed in routine postoperative rehabilitation. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the relationship between psychological factors and ACL injury, including recovery from injury and returning to sport. Oper Tech Sports Med 24:77-83 Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Arehart, Kathryn
    et al.
    University of Colorado, UCB 409, Boulder, Departmen of Speech , Language and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, United States.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Syskin Pedersen, Michael
    Oticon.
    James M, Kate
    University of Colorado at Boulder , Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences (SLHS), Electrical Engineering..
    Relationship between distortion and working memory for digital noise-reduction processing in hearing aids2014Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 133, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies have shown a relationship between working memory and the ability of older adults to benefit from specific advanced signal processing algorithms in hearing aids. In this study, we quantify tradeoffs between benefit due to noise reduction and the perceptual costs associated with distortion caused by the noise reduction algorithm. We also investigate the relationship between these tradeoffs and working memory abilities. Speech intelligibility, speech quality, and perceived listening effort were measured in a cohort of elderly adults with hearing loss. Test materials were low-context sentences presented in fluctuating noise conditions at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-reduction strategy. The amount of distortion produced by the noise reduction algorithm was parametrically varied by manipulating two binary mask parameters, error rate, and attenuation rate. Working memory was assessed with a reading span test. Results will be discussed in terms of the extent to which intelligibility, quality, and effort ratings are explained by the amount of distortion and/or noise and by working memory ability. [Funded by NIH, Oticon, and GN ReSound.].

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Sanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Åtgärdsförslag i olycksutredningar: Skapande och implementering2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag många verksamheter där människor tillsammans med befintlig teknik bildar komplexa system som ska samverka på ett effektivt men ändå säkert sätt. Trots verksamhetens höga säkerhetskrav kan en olycka eller incident ändå ske, och denna kan då bli föremål för en utredning för att hitta de bakomliggande orsakerna till händelsen. En olycksutredning ska resultera i åtgärdsförslag som bidrar till att liknande händelser inte sker igen och att säkerheten i systemet och verksamheten i stort förbättras. Det finns många olika teorier och metoder kring hur en utredning bör gå tillväga vad gäller händelseanalys och identifiering av brister i systemet, men processen att skapa och implementera åtgärdsförslagen är mindre utforskat.

    Denna studie är utförd på Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB) som ansvarar för att ta hand om och lagra det använda kärnbränslet från Sveriges kärnkraftverk. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur SKB arbetar vid olycksutredningar för att skapa åtgärdsförslag och implementera dessa, samt att belysa de svårigheter som kan upplevas med detta arbete. Den metod som använts bestod av en inledande litteraturstudie av tidigare forskning följt av sju semistrukturerade intervjuer som transkriberats och analyserats.

    Resultatet visade att skapande och implementering av åtgärdsförslag är en komplex process som innebär många svåra beslut där utredaren måste kompromissa på olika sätt för att kunna skapa effektiva åtgärdsförslag. Det visade sig bland annat vara svårt att avgränsa åtgärdsförslagen och bestämma vilken nivå de ska ligga på samt att bedöma hur många åtgärdsförslag som bör skapas. Implementeringen av åtgärdsförslagen innehåller även den mycket beslutsfattande som kräver bra kommunikation och samarbete mellan alla inblandade parter. Svårigheter med implementeringen är att åtgärdsförslagen ibland tenderar att hamna mellan stolarna och att implementerade åtgärdsförslag kan generera nya risker i systemet.

  • 14.
    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Jekel, Marc
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Gloeckner, Andreas
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute Research Collect Goods, Germany.
    Finding the Right Fit: A Comparison of Process Assumptions Underlying Popular Drift-Diffusion Models2016Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 42, nr 12, s. 1982-1993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research makes increasing use of eye-tracking methodologies to generate and test process models. Overall, such research suggests that attention, generally indexed by fixations (gaze duration), plays a critical role in the construction of preference, although the methods used to support this supposition differ substantially. In 2 studies we empirically test prototypical versions of prominent processing assumptions against 1 another and several base models. We find that general evidence accumulation processes provide a good fit to the data. An accumulation process that assumes leakage and temporal variability in evidence weighting (i.e., a primacy effect) fits the aggregate data, both in terms of choices and decision times, and does so across varying types of choices (e.g., charitable giving and hedonic consumption) and numbers of options well. However, when comparing models on the level of the individual, for a majority of participants simpler models capture choice data better. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 15.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 36989Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention theories suggest that humans are able to decompose the complex acoustic input into separate auditory streams, which then compete for attentional resources. How this attentional competition is influenced by motivational salience of sounds is, however, not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether a positive motivational value associated with sounds could bias the attentional selection in an auditory detection task. Participants went through a reward-learning period, where correct attentional selection of one stimulus (CS+) lead to higher rewards compared to another stimulus (CS-). We assessed the impact of reward-learning by comparing perceptual sensitivity before and after the learning period, when CS+ and CS-were presented as distractors for a different target. Performance decreased after reward-learning when CS+ was a distractor, while it increased when CS- was a distractor. Thus, the findings show that sounds that were associated with high rewards captures attention involuntarily. Additionally, when successful inhibition of a particular sound (CS-) was associated with high rewards then it became easier to ignore it. The current findings have important implications for the understanding of the organizing principles of auditory perception and provide, for the first time, clear behavioral evidence for reward-dependent attentional learning in the auditory domain in humans.

  • 16.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 10363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  • 17.
    Bader, Felix
    et al.
    School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Baumeister, Bastian
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Berger, Roger
    Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för analytisk sociologi, IAS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    On the Transportability of Laboratory Results2019Inngår i: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The “transportability” of laboratory findings to other instances than the original implementation entails the robustness of rates of observed behaviors and estimated treatment effects to changes in the specific research setting and in the sample under study. In four studies based on incentivized games of fairness, trust, and reciprocity, we evaluate (1) the sensitivity of laboratory results to locally recruited student-subject pools, (2) the comparability of behavioral data collected online and, under varying anonymity conditions, in the laboratory, (3) the generalizability of student-based results to the broader population, and (4), with a replication at Amazon Mechanical Turk, the stability of laboratory results across research contexts. For the class of laboratory designs using interactive games as measurement instruments of prosocial behavior we find that rates of behavior and the exact behavioral differences between decision situations do not transport beyond specific implementations. Most clearly, data obtained from standard participant pools differ significantly from those from the broader population. This undermines the use of empirically motivated laboratory studies to establish descriptive parameters of human behavior. Directions of the behavioral differences between games, in contrast, are remarkably robust to changes in samples and settings. Moreover, we find no evidence for either anonymity effects nor mode effects potentially biasing laboratory measurement. These results underscore the capacity of laboratory experiments to establish generalizable causal effects in theory-driven designs.

  • 18.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    Swedish Defence University, Department of Military Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing the quality of Shared Priorities in teams using content analysis in a microworld experiment2017Inngår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 128-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective, easy to use, and easy to comprehend assessment methods for measuring shared understanding in teams are hard to find. This paper describes an experiment where a measure called Shared Priorities, which is based on ranking of self-generated strategic items, is assessed. Trained teams were compared to non-trained teams in a dynamic problem-solving task. The maturity of the participating teams was also assessed using a content analysis measure. The Shared Priorities measure was used alongside other well-documented measures of team awareness based on self-rating. Results show that the Shared Priorities measure correlates with task performance and could also distinguish between trained and non-trained teams. However, the Shared Priorities measure did not correlate with the other team measures (cf. CARS – Crew Awareness Rating Scale – and DATMA – Distributed Assessment of Team Mutual Awareness), suggesting that it captures a different quality of teamwork than the self-rating measures. Further, the Shared Priorities measure was found to be easily administered.

  • 19.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 1565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

  • 20.
    Bergqvist, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Förebildsanalys som grund i agil utveckling: en studie i prioritering av bruksegenskaper2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla alla förväntningar som en användare kan ha är svårt.Att utveckla ett program som lyckas uppfylla vissa av alla de förväntningar en användare kan ha ärbetydligt mycket lättare. Men att kunna hitta just de egenskaperna som gör att en användare inteblir besviken utan nöjd med ett program är en svår process. Ett sätt att hitta de egenskaperna kanvara genom att nyttja en användarcentrerad metod som extrem programmering. Agil utvecklingoch extrem programmering har som område fokuserat relativt lite på användarnöjdhet som måttför att avgöra om ett program är lyckat eller ej.Med detta som bakgrund har ett utvecklingsprojekt tagit form med syfte att utveckla ettmodelleringsverktyg för analysmetoden FRAM. I detta projekt har en metod bestående av delsförebildsanalys och agil utveckling legat som grund. För att gruppera och prioriteraprogramegenskaper har Kanos modell för kundnöjdhet använts.Uppsatsen visar att en metod som grundar sig i förebildsanalys kan användas för att ta fram demest basala egenskaperna hos en artefakt. Detta i kontrast till viss agil utveckling ska det visa sig.Uppsatsen visar även på att den tillgängliga tiden för ett utvecklingsprojekt kan vara avgörande förvilka sorts egenskaper man utvecklar

  • 21.
    Bershad, Anya K.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Van Hedger, Kathryne
    Univ Western Ontario, Canada.
    McGlone, Francis
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Walker, Susannah C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    de Wit, Harriet
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Effects of MDMA on attention to positive social cues and pleasantness of affective touch2019Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 1698-1705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychostimulant drug +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reportedly produces distinctive feelings of empathy and closeness with others. MDMA increases social behavior in animal models and has shown promise in psychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How it produces these prosocial effects is not known. This behavioral and psychophysiological study examined the effects of MDMA, compared with the prototypical stimulant methamphetamine (MA), on two measures of social behavior in healthy young adults: (i) responses to socially relevant, "affective" touch, and (ii) visual attention to emotional faces. Men and women (N = 36) attended four sessions in which they received MDMA (0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg), MA (20 mg), or a placebo in randomized order under double-blind conditions. Responses to experienced and observed affective touch (i.e., being touched or watching others being touched) were assessed using facial electromyography (EMG), a proxy of affective state. Responses to emotional faces were assessed using electrooculography (EOG) in a measure of attentional bias. Subjective ratings were also included. We hypothesized that MDMA, but not MA, would enhance the ratings of pleasantness and psychophysiological responses to affective touch and increase attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. Consistent with this, we found that MDMA, but not MA, selectively enhanced ratings of pleasantness of experienced affective touch. Neither drug altered the ratings of pleasantness of observed touch. On the EOG measure of attentional bias, MDMA, but not MA, increased attention toward happy faces. These results provide new evidence that MDMA can enhance the experience of positive social interactions; in this case, pleasantness of physical touch and attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. The findings are consistent with evidence that the prosocial effects are unique to MDMA relative to another stimulant. Understanding the behavioral and neurobiological processes underlying the distinctive social effects of MDMA is a key step to developing the drug for psychiatric disorders.

  • 22.
    Bjerke, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Modifying Heuristic Evaluation for assessing the usability of TV-interaction devices2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are a several methods to evaluate usability of systems with graphical user interfaces (GUIS). However, effective methods for evaluating non-GUI interaction devices in the domain of Interactive Television are presently not available. This thesis presents a modified Heuristic Evaluation method for rapid inspection of non-GUI TV-interaction devices such as remote controls. Additionally, to enable the evaluators to more easily think from a user perspective when performing the evaluation, the persona method was also evaluated for use in this domain. The modified Heuristic Evaluation method was evaluated in an actual development project where engineers applied the method on remote control prototypes. The result suggests that the method can be used effectively by engineers and that it identifies usability problems appropriately. The persona approach seemed to provide little support to the engineers in terms of evaluating this type product.

  • 23.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik och maskininlärning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement and their Associations with Indirect Bullying, and Pro-Aggressive Bystander Behavior2019Inngår i: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the links between seven specific mechanisms of moral disengagement and indirect bullying, direct bullying, and pro-aggressive bystander behavior. In addition, the moderating role of gender on these associations was examined. Participants were 317 Swedish students in Grades 4 to 8 (𝑋⎯⎯⎯age=12.6X¯age=12.6, SD = 1.35; 62% girls). Multivariate multiple regression analyses showed that indirect bullying was predicted by gender and victim attribution. Direct bullying was predicted by moral justification, and for girls, by victim attribution. Pro-aggressive bystander behavior was predicted by diffusion of responsibility, victim attribution, gender, and age. That is, boys and younger students were more prone to take the aggressor’s side compared with girls and older students. Furthermore, the relation between pro-aggressive bystander behavior and distortion of consequences appeared stronger in boys than in girls. These results highlight the relative importance of specific moral disengagement mechanisms and may have implications for interventions targeting bullying.

  • 24.
    Björnqvist, Anton
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Det perifera seendets betydelse bland gångtrafikanter i naturlig miljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 poäng / 18 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The importance, and the role, of peripheral vision amongst pedestrians, is an area which for a long time has remained unexplored. Previous studies regarding peripheral vision and pedestrians have mostly studied the characteristics of peripheral vision, the general visual behaviours amongst pedestrians and whether people affected by a natural loss of peripheral vision fixate on different objects compared to those with normal vision. To examine the role of peripheral vision amongst pedestrians, an experiment consisting of 20 participants was conducted. The experiment took place in a car park, where head movements (i.e. how many times each participant moved their head) and head directions (i.e. in which direction the participants’ moved their heads) of the participants were recorded using three action cameras. Two of the cameras were mounted on a helmet which the participants used during the experiment. The third camera was in the hands of the experimenter, recording the participants from behind.

    The experiment consisted of four different conditions. Two conditions where the participants’ peripheral vision was blocked to different extents, one with no manipulation of the visual field and one where the participants were told to watch a video on a cell phone during the walk. The results demonstrated a significant difference in the number of head movements between all four conditions. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated a significant difference in the relative frequency of downwards head directions between the first three conditions. After the experiment, the participants answered a short survey which included questions related to each condition. The answers from the survey showcased, amongst other things, that the participants thought that the condition where their peripheral vision was blocked to the largest extent was the most difficult one. A thematic analysis was conducted based on the recordings of a think-aloud-protocol which the participants were told to conduct during the experiment. The thematic analysis demonstrated, amongst other things, that the participants thought that the condition performed with no manipulation of the visual field was easy, that they felt insecure when their peripheral vision was blocked and therefore had to increase the number of head movements, and that they sometimes felt the need to redirect their gaze away from the cell phone during that condition.

    The conclusion which can be drawn based on the results is that the peripheral vision is widely used amongst pedestrians in natural settings, which in part is based on the fact that the participants increased their number of head movements when their peripheral vision was limited and by their own expressed thoughts regarding the different conditions. However, the results are not able to explain exactly how the peripheral vision is used amongst pedestrians.

  • 25.
    Blane, Alison
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, Sweden.
    Assessing Cognitive Ability and Simulator-Based Driving Performance in Poststroke Adults2017Inngår i: Behavioural Neurology, ISSN 0953-4180, E-ISSN 1875-8584, artikkel-id 1378308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is an important activity of daily living, which is increasingly relied upon as the population ages. It has been well-established that cognitive processes decline following a stroke and these processes may influence driving performance. There is much debate on the use of off-road neurological assessments and driving simulators as tools to predict driving performance; however, the majority of research uses unlicensed poststroke drivers, making the comparability of poststroke adults to that of a control group difficult. It stands to reason that in order to determine whether simulators and cognitive assessments can accurately assess driving performance, the baseline should be set by licenced drivers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences in cognitive ability and driving simulator performance in licensed community-dwelling poststroke drivers and controls. Two groups of licensed drivers (37 poststroke and 43 controls) were assessed using several cognitive tasks and using a driving simulator. The poststroke adults exhibited poorer cognitive ability; however, there were no differences in simulator performance between groups except that the poststroke drivers demonstrated less variability in driver headway. The application of these results as a prescreening toolbox for poststroke drivers is discussed.

  • 26.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Soderlund, Goran B. W.
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Speech Processing Difficulties in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The large body of research that forms the ease of language understanding (ELU) model emphasizes the important contribution of cognitive processes when listening to speech in adverse conditions; however, speech-in-noise (SIN) processing is yet to be thoroughly tested in populations with cognitive deficits. The purpose of the current study was to contribute to the field in this regard by assessing SIN performance in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparing results with age-matched controls. This population was chosen because core symptoms of ADHD include developmental deficits in cognitive control and working memory capacity and because these top-down processes are thought to reach maturity during adolescence in individuals with typical development. The study utilized natural language sentence materials under experimental conditions that manipulated the dependency on cognitive mechanisms in varying degrees. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive capacity measures of complex working memory-span, selective attention, and lexical access. Primary findings were in support of the ELU-model. Age was shown to significantly covary with SIN performance, and after controlling for age, ADHD participants demonstrated greater difficulty than controls with the experimental manipulations. In addition, overall SIN performance was strongly predicted by individual differences in cognitive capacity. Taken together, the results highlight the general disadvantage persons with deficient cognitive capacity have when attending to speech in typically noisy listening environments. Furthermore, the consistently poorer performance observed in the ADHD group suggests that auditory processing tasks designed to tax attention and working memory capacity may prove to be beneficial clinical instruments when diagnosing ADHD.

  • 27.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Marklund, Arvid
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berglund, Ellinor
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Blomdahl, Rikard
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Braun, Ulrike
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Delin, Lovisa
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lunden, Charlotte
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Sjoblom, Katja
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sommer, Daniel
    Free Univ Berlin, Germany.
    von Weber, Kaspar
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Adding a smartphone app to internet-based self-help for social anxiety: A randomized controlled trial2018Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 87, s. 98-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing access to treatment via smartphone apps is an important topic in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Challenger is an app promoting exposure exercises in daily life. The present study evaluated the additional benefit of using the app as adjunct to Internet-based unguided self-help for SAD. In a second step, we also tested how the app and the self-help programme (SH) should best be combined. Method: 209 patients diagnosed with SAD were randomly allocated to three groups. Group 1 received the app and the self-help programme for six weeks (parallel treatment), group 2 first received SH for six weeks and then the app for six weeks (sequential treatment). Group 3 was a wait-list group. Comparisons were made at week 7 evaluating the potential add-on effect of the app (SH plus app versus SH only) and at week 14 comparing the parallel to the sequential treatment. Participants filled in questionnaires prior, during, and post treatment, and at 4- and 12- months follow-up. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect of adding the app to Internet-based self-help. However, among participants actively using the app, adding Challenger to self-help resulted in significantly less social anxiety (d = 0.30). At week 14, decreases in social anxiety were large for both the parallel and the sequential group with no differences between the active groups (d(within) = 1.12-1.19). Changes were maintained throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results of the current study cautiously support the notion of adding a smartphone app to unguided self-help for SAD. Future studies should investigate how patients can be motivated to use the app more frequently. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016Inngår i: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 93-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 29.
    Boström, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Social Anxiety Disorder, ratings of faces and character strengths: Some insights to their relation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder has several impairments (including attention bias in ratings of facial expressions). Character strengths has been seen to increase well-being and functioning among healthy individuals. With this in mind, three aims were stated; Is there a relation between SAD and VIA, can this relation be explained by confounding’s and does ratings of faces tell anything about the relation? Data were collected through a survey from 41 participants (13 men) with a mean age of 30 years. Correlation and regression models were performed to see if these constructs were related. The findings showed that character strengths and social anxiety were correlated, and that the regression model did not predict SAD. The regression model for Via were significant with all confounding variables. Ratings of facial expression were not related to any variables. Further studies need to look more into this correlation to see the underpinnings of these constructs.

  • 30.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017Inngår i: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 527-542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

  • 31.
    Braarud, Hanne
    et al.
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Moe, Vibeke
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Slinning, Kari
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Tranaas-Vannebo, Unni
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Guedeney, Antoine
    Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP/HP, Paris, France.
    Smith, Lars
    National Network for Infant Mental Health, Norway.
    Early sustained withdrawal in infants, mothers’ mental health, other early risk factors, and socio- emotional outcome in infants2012Inngår i: Infant Mental Health Journal, 33: [Abstract supplement p 64] / [ed] K. Puura, M. Tomkinson, N.W. Boris & M. Sorsa, 2012, s. 64-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The  paper examines the interplay between the biomedical and socioemotional risk factors, i.e. maternal depression and prematurity, as predictors of infant’s sustained withdrawal, and subsequent socioemotional outcomes. The study (n=284) follows the developmental course of infant’s sustained withdrawal during the first year, and illuminates the pathways in which the early adversity possibly compromises the infant’s natural intersubjective skills and motivation.

  • 32.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Face Processing Patterns of Persons with Asperger Syndrome: an Eye Tracking Study2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome is a severe social impairment (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR] 2000), something that has often been connected to a more specific impairment in facial recognition. However, the main diagnostic tool (the DSM-IV-TR) has received much criticism during later years and is soon to be revised (Woodbury-Smith & Volkmar 2009). Among other things, many researchers claim that the diagnosis should be complemented with a sliding scale of severity (Ring, Woodbury-Smith, Watson, Wheelright & Baron-Cohen 2008). The use of facial information is central in the social interaction of humans, evident in the special patterns of visual scanning that people employ for facial stimuli (Yarbus 1967). Because of that, this symptom of Asperger Syndrome has become a high research priority. The impairment in facial recognition has been connected to a bias towards detail based processing (McPartland, Webb, Keehn & Dawson 2010). A recent study also connects this to an unusually high visual acuity, which could result in a disposition to focus on small facial features. In the present study. facial stimuli were prepared to provoke memory conjunction errors. This type of memory error means that a person erroneously claims to recognize a face assembled by pieces of previously shown stimuli. If a person is more prone to do so, that would imply that he or she is more focused on details than on configural information (Danielsson 2006). Two groups were tested, one consisting of non-diagnosed adults and one of adults diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. A test for visual acuity was administered, which was followed by a series of facial recognition tasks. Responses in the latter part were given with a computer mouse, and eye fixations were recorded using a head mounted eye-tracking device. Three hypotheses were formulated. First, persons with AS were expected to perform more poorly in all facial recognition tasks. Second, persons with AS were expected to make more conjunction errors than test group subjects. Finally, persons with AS were expected to display a mean visual acuity significantly higher than that of the test group. However, no significant differences emerged between the groups in relation to either of the hypotheses, and results could not be referred to flaws in the experimental setup. Therefore, these results are taken to display the heterogeneity of the Asperger Syndrome population, and possibly the importance of early training measures to compensate for social impairments.

  • 33.
    Brännström, Jonas K
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Dept of clinical science, Section of Logopedics, Phoiatrics and audiology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Denmark.
    The Process of Developing an Internet-Based Support System for Audiologists and First-Time Hearing Aid Clients2015Inngår i: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 320-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In audiologic practice, complementary information sources and access to the clinician between appointments improve information retention and facilitate adjustment behaviors. An Internet-based support system is a novel way to support information sharing and clinician access. Purpose: This research forum article describes the process of developing an Internet-based support system for audiologists and their first-time hearing aid clients. Method: The iterative development process, including revisions by 4 research audiologists and 4 clinical audiologists, is described. The final system is exemplified. Conclusion: An Internet-based support system was successfully developed for audiologic practice.

  • 34.
    Bäckström, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    User-Centered Security Applied on Management2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to research how to implement a graphical interface for presenting information security information to management. The major conclusion of the study is that management use this kind of information mainly for financial and strategic matters. Hence the information must be presented in a way that enhances this use of the information.

    The study also concludes that people act insecure mainly due to:

    a) Insufficient knowledge of how/why to act secure.

    b) The users do not want to act secure due to social and organisational factors.

    To fight the first factor, the management need a tool that helps them to see where to spend their resources. To fight the second factor, the organisation needs to be well educated and the company culture should allow the users to act secure.

    Three heuristics for the design of information security solutions for management and a design solution for the interface are also presented in the study. The three heuristics are:

    1. Provide overview information very early in the program. The ordinary manager does not have the time or the knowledge to make this overview by himself/herself.

    2. Do not overwhelm the user. The ordinary management man/woman is not interested in the details of the information security and/or do not have time to read this sort of information. If he or she wants to access the details, he or she is likely to find them (if they are placed in a logical place).

    3. Provide information in a way that is common to the manager. Use wordings that the user understands. Provide contextual help for expressions that must be presented in a technical way.

  • 35.
    Caravita, Simona
    et al.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Ambrosini, Barbara
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Stefanelli, Sara
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Cadei, Livia
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    When the bullied peer is native vs. migrant: A mixed-method study among pupils of Italian schools2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Cardin, Velia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Orfanidou, Eleni
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Crete.
    Kästner, Lena
    Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Philosophy.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woll, Bencie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University College London, Division of Psychology and Language Sciences.
    Capek, Cheryl
    University of Manchester,.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones2016Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 20-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production.

  • 37.
    Cardin, Velia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). UCL, England; Univ East Anglia, England.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    De Oliveira, Rita F.
    London South Bank Univ, England.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Su, Merina T.
    UCL GOS Inst Child Hlth, England.
    Beese, Lilli
    UCL, England.
    Woll, Bencie
    UCL, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    The Organization of Working Memory Networks is Shaped by Early Sensory Experience2018Inngår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 3540-3554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early deafness results in crossmodal reorganization of the superior temporal cortex (STC). Here, we investigated the effect of deafness on cognitive processing. Specifically, we studied the reorganization, due to deafness and sign language (SL) knowledge, of linguistic and nonlinguistic visual working memory (WM). We conducted an fMRI experiment in groups that differed in their hearing status and SL knowledge: deaf native signers, and hearing native signers, hearing nonsigners. Participants performed a 2-back WM task and a control task. Stimuli were signs from British Sign Language (BSL) or moving nonsense objects in the form of point-light displays. We found characteristic WM activations in fronto-parietal regions in all groups. However, deaf participants also recruited bilateral posterior STC during the WM task, independently of the linguistic content of the stimuli, and showed less activation in fronto-parietal regions. Resting-state connectivity analysis showed increased connectivity between frontal regions and STC in deaf compared to hearing individuals. WM for signs did not elicit differential activations, suggesting that SL WM does not rely on modality-specific linguistic processing. These findings suggest that WM networks are reorganized due to early deafness, and that the organization of cognitive networks is shaped by the nature of the sensory inputs available during development.

  • 38.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Heene, Moritz
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lakensël, Daniel
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Schimmack, Ulrich
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Schönbrodt, Felix D
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Van Assen, Marcel
    Tilburg University and Utrecht University.
    Weinstein, Yana
    University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA.
    Inaugural Editorial of Meta-Psychology2017Inngår i: Meta-Psychology, ISSN 2003-2714, Vol. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    et al.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Messer, David J.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Brown, Janice H.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes2013Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 3421-3432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation.

  • 40.
    (Chayn) Sun, Qian
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    (Cecilia) Xia, Jianhong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Investigating the Spatial Pattern of Older Drivers Eye Fixation Behaviour and Associations with Their Visual Capacity2016Inngår i: Journal of Eye Movement Research, E-ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual capacity generally declines as people age, yet its impact on the visual search patterns along sections of different road during actual driving still remains undocumented. This onroad driving study simultaneously recorded 30 older drivers eye movement and precise vehicle movement trajectories. The vehicle positions were linked to every identified eye fixation for each individual driver, so that the locations of the drivers gaze origin in geospatial coordinates were obtained. Spatial distribution pattern of drivers eye fixations were then mapped and analysed. In addition, the associations between older drivers visual capacity (processing speed, divided and selective attention) and their eye fixation patterns in various driving manoeuvres were investigated. The results indicate that driving scenarios have a significant impact on older drivers visual patterns. Older drivers performed more frequent eye fixations at roundabouts, while they tended to fixate on certain objects for longer periods during straight road driving. The key findings show that the processing speed and divided attention of older drivers were associated with their eye fixations at complex right-turns; drivers with a lower capacity in selective attention performed less frequent eye fixations at roundabouts. This study has also demonstrated that visualisation and spatial statistics are effective and intuitive approaches to eye movement analysis.

  • 41.
    Chee, Derserri Y.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Patomella, Ann-Helen
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Curtin University, Australia.
    Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)2017Inngår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 2658-2670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving performance. Sixteen drivers with ASD and 21 typically-developed drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ASD underperformed in vehicle manoeuvring, especially at left-turns, right-turns and pedestrian crossings. However, drivers with ASD outperformed the TD group in aspects related to rule-following such as using the indicator at roundabouts and checking for cross-traffic when approaching intersections. Drivers with ASD in the current study presented with a range of capabilities and weaknesses during driving.

  • 42.
    Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Drechsler, Edda
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap (CSAN).
    Hummel, Thomas
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation2016Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 135, s. 135-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch + Civette, and Touch + Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, NLPLAB - Laboratoriet för databehandling av naturligt språk. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wang, QianYing
    Department of Communication, Stanford University.
    Nass, Clifford
    Deprtment of Communication, Stanford University.
    Similarity is More Important than Expertise: Accent Effects in Speech Interfaces2007Inngår i: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2007, s. 1553-1556Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a balanced between-participants experiment (N = 96)American and Swedish participants listened to touristinformation on a website about an American or Swedishcity presented in English with either an American orSwedish accent and evaluated the speakers’ knowledge ofthe topic, the voice characteristics, and the informationcharacteristics. Users preferred accents similar to their own.Similarity-attraction effects were so powerful that sameaccentsspeakers were viewed as being moreknowledgeable than different-accent speakers even whenthe information would be much better-known by theopposite-accent speaker. Implications for similarityattractionoverwhelming expertise are discussed.

  • 44.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för kognition, utveckling och handikapp (CDD). Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Have you seen it before? Collaborative memory for adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants.2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    ent of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston Ontario, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Individual differences in working memory capacity modulate frontal cortical activity while listening to speech in noise2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, s. 64-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 48.
    Davis, M.H.
    et al.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Ford, M.A.
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit.
    Kherif, F.
    University of Lausanne.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Queen's University.
    Does semantic context benefit speech understanding through top-down processes? Evidence from time-resolved sparse fMRI.2011Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 23, nr 12, s. 3914-3932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When speech is degraded, word report is higher for semantically coherent sentences (e.g., her new skirt was made of denim) than for anomalous sentences (e.g., her good slope was done in carrot). Such increased intelligibility is often described as resulting from “top–down” processes, reflecting an assumption that higher-level (semantic) neural processes support lower-level (perceptual) mechanisms. We used time-resolved sparse fMRI to test for top–down neural mechanisms, measuring activity while participants heard coherent and anomalous sentences presented in speech envelope/spectrum noise at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The timing of BOLD responses to more intelligible speech provides evidence of hierarchical organization, with earlier responses in peri-auditory regions of the posterior superior temporal gyrus than in more distant temporal and frontal regions. Despite Sentence content × SNR interactions in the superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal regions respond after auditory/perceptual regions. Although we cannot rule out top–down effects, this pattern is more compatible with a purely feedforward or bottom–up account, in which the results of lower-level perceptual processing are passed to inferior frontal regions. Behavioral and neural evidence that sentence content influences perception of degraded speech does not necessarily imply “top–down” neural processes.

  • 49.
    Duong, Alicia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Alkohol & föräldrastress: -Finns det något samband?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett flertal undersökningar har individer skattat att de dricker i följd till stress, vilket har visats bero på att människor dricker i försök till att hantera ekonomisk stress, stress på jobbet och/eller föräldrastress (Pohorecky, 1991). Ju svårare stressen är desto högre är alkoholkonsumtionen (Pohorecky, 1991). I denna studie studeras alkohol och föräldrastress genom självskattningsenkäter tagna ur projektet Alla Barn i Sydöstra Sverige (ABIS) 8-årsuppföljning.

    Resultatet visar på att det inte finns några signifikanta skillnader i föräldrastressen hos alkoholkonsumtionens olika riskgrupper varken hos mödrarna eller fäderna, då de själva skattat sin alkoholkonsumtion. Detta resultat visar på att man inte med säkerhet kan säga att mängden alkohol som konsumeras hos föräldrar tenderar att bero på att deras föräldraskapskrav inte räcker till för deras personliga resurser. Resultatet kunde inte heller säkert visa tendenser till att alkoholen skulle kunna reducera föräldrastressen hos föräldrarna.

  • 50.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Predicting speech-in-noise perception using the trail making task: Results from a large-scale internet study2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of an internet-based version of the trail making test (TMT) to predict performance on a speech-in-noise perception task. Computerised versions of the tests were completed, via the internet, by a large (1500+) sample of listeners aged between 18 and 91 years old, both with and without hearing loss. The results show that better performance on both the simple and complex versions of the TMT are associated with better speech-in-noise recognition scores. The findings suggest that the relation between performance in the TMT and speech recognition test may be due to the capacity of the TMT to index perceptual speed, as opposed to the more complex cognitive abilities also implicated in TMT performance.

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