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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Wachtmeister, Jesper
    Mobile Behav, Sweden.
    Nyman, Mattias
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Nordenstrom, Axel
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Using smartphone logging to gain insight about phone use in traffic2020Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 181-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile phone usage in traffic has been studied by road-side counting, naturalistic driving data, surveillance cameras, smartphone logging, and subjective estimates via surveys. Here, we describe a custom-made smartphone logging application along with suggestions on how future such applications should be designed. The developed application logs start and end times of all phone interactions (mobile phone applications, incoming/outgoing phone calls and text messages, audio output, and screen activations). In addition, all movements are automatically classified into transport, cycling, walking, running, or stationary. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated in a pilot study with 143 participants. Examples of results that can be gained from smartphone logging include prevalence in different transportation modes (here found to be 12% while driving, 4% while cycling, and 7% while walking), which apps are being used (here found to be 19% navigation, 12% talking, 12% social media, and 10% games) and on which road types (rural, urban, highway etc.). Smartphone logging was found to be an insightful complement to the other methods for assessing phone use in traffic, especially since it allows the analyses of which apps are used and where they are used, split into transportation mode and road type, all at a relatively low cost.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Swedish Def Research Agency, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Diptee, Darryl
    Naval Postgrad Sch, USA.
    Approaches to team performance assessment: a comparison of self-assessment reports and behavioral observer scales2017Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, nr 2-3, s. 517-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human factors research popularly employs perception-based techniques to investigate team performance and its dependency to cognitive processes. Such studies frequently rely upon either observer-based or self-assessment techniques to collect data. In this study, we examined behavioral observer ratings and self-assessment ratings for measuring team performance in virtual teams, with team performance regarded as a combination of task outcome and team cognition. Juxtaposing self-assessments and observer ratings from a quasi-experiment comparing team performance rating techniques reveals that they indeed produce overall similar results, with both singling out teamwork effectiveness ratings as the strongest contributor to overall team performance. However, the comparisons show remarkably low correlation on individual questionnaire items. The most striking difference is that the team members self-assessments of workload are lower than the corresponding observer ratings. In particular, the self-assessments do not correlate at all with overall team performance, whereas the observers workload ratings are more consistent with contemporary research that suggests a strong correlation between workload and team performance, suggesting that observer-based techniques are more reliable than self-assessments for assessing workload. For other ratings, the results show that the two techniques are fairly equal, suggesting that the choice between methods to employ can be deferred to other considerations such as obtrusiveness, accessibility, and resource availability.

  • 3.
    Benn, J.
    et al.
    Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, Paddington, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom.
    Healey, A.N.
    Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, Paddington, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Improving performance reliability in surgical systems2008Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 323-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care has evolved rapidly to meet the medical demands of society, but not to meet the demands of consistent operational safety. In other high risk domains in which the consequences of systems failure are unacceptable, organisational and operational work systems have been developed to deliver consistent, high-quality, failure-free performance. In this paper we review contributions to a special issue of Cognition, Technology and Work on 'Enhancing Surgical Systems'. We consider their implications for improving the reliability of care processes in light of theoretical developments in the area of high-reliability organisations and resilience engineering. Health care must move from reactive safety cultures to be more proactively resilient to the continual threats posed by complexity in clinical care processes and the multi-professional hospital environment. Our analysis emphasises the importance of team working for reliable operational performance. A schematic framework to illustrate how safety interventions in surgery might cohere within an organisational strategy for achieving high-reliability is proposed. The implications for continuous quality improvement and effective regulation of system safety over differing time scales and organisational levels are discussed. © 2007 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  • 4.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Human factors and folk models2004Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 6, s. 79-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Doupi, Persephone
    et al.
    National Institute Health and Welf, Finland.
    Svaar, Helge
    Svaar Konsult, Norway.
    Bjorn, Brian
    Danish Soc Patient Safety, Denmark.
    Deilkas, Ellen
    Akershus University Hospital, Norway; Norwegian Directorate Heatlh, Norway.
    Nylen, Urban
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ruthberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken i Östergötland.
    Use of the Global Trigger Tool in patient safety improvement efforts: Nordic experiences2015Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 45-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Trigger Tool (GTT) developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement is a method for retrospective patient record review based on the use of triggers-signals of potential adverse events that have caused patient harm. The method has the purpose of patient safety measurement and monitoring among adult inpatient populations and has been increasingly popular among Nordic countries. Use of the GTT in the Nordic area has been part of broader legal and policy actions and initiatives supportive of patient safety promotion and is being used to establish also national level estimates of patient safety incidents. Limitations of the method are its dependency on quality of documentation and the varying inter-rater reliability observed in many studies. Strengths of the GTT are its ability to detect larger numbers, as well as different types of adverse events when compared to other incident detection methods, hence it is a good addition to the palette of means for organizational patient safety monitoring. Research on reliability, usefulness and implementation approaches of the GTT, including its automation, is ongoing in the Nordic countries and is expected to generate useful input for the international patient safety community.

  • 6.
    Garbis, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring the Openness of Cognitive Artifacts in Cooperative Process Management2002Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 9-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field study at a Stockholm underground control room, with particular focus on the different interactional affordances of the artifacts, used by the operators. The analysis is based on the notion that the design of cognitive artifacts affords different degrees of openness, i.e. to what extent they render the interaction of a task performer with the artifact open to others in the vicinity. A comparison between the dayshift and nightshift demonstrates how the various levels of openness are manifested during work. Some tentative design comments are made with regard to computer support systems for the underground line control.

  • 7.
    Granasen, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Def Res Agcy, Sweden.
    Towards automated assessment of team performance by mimicking expert observers ratings2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 253-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation is the holy grail of performance assessment. Cheap and reliable automated systems that produce consistent feedback on performance. Many such systems have been proposed that accurately measure the state of a product or the outcome of a process. Procedural faults can be detected and even mitigated without the need for human interference. In production industry and professional sports, this is a natural part of business. However, in macrocognitive team performance studies, human appraisal is still king. This study investigates the reliability of human observers as assessors of performance among virtual teams, and what they base their assessments on when only able to monitor one of the team members at a time. The results show that expert observers put a lot of emphasis on task outcomes and on communication and are generally reliable raters of team performance, but there are several aspects that they cannot rate reliably under these circumstances, e.g., team workload, stress, and collaborative problem-solving. Through simple algorithms, this study shows that by capturing task scores and different quantitative communication metrics, team performance ratings can be estimated to closely match how the expert observers assess team performance in a virtual team setting. The implication of the study is that numeric team performance estimations can be acquired by automated systems, with reasonable accuracy and reliability compared to observer ratings.

  • 8.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Measuring team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises: A cross-disciplinary case study2016Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 121-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, IT-security experts from northern European governments and organizations gathered to conduct the first of a series of NATO-led cyber-defense exercises in a pilot attempt of training cyber defense. To gain knowledge on how to assess team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises, this case study investigates the role of behavioral assessment techniques as a complement to task-based performance measurement. The collected data resulted in a massive data set including system logs, observer reports, and surveys. Six different methods were compared for feasibility in assessing the teams’ performance, including automated availability check, exploratory sequential data analysis, and network intrusion detection system attack analysis. In addition, observer reports and surveys were used to collect aspects relating to team structures and processes, aiming to discover whether these aspects can explain differences in effectiveness. The crossdisciplinary approach and multiple metrics create possibilities to study not only the performance-related outcome of the exercise, but also why this result is obtained. The main conclusions found are (1) a combination of technical performance measurements and behavioral assessment techniques are needed to assess team effectiveness, and (2) cyber situation awareness is required not only for the defending teams, but also for the observers and the game control.

  • 9.
    Hermelin, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Kristofer
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trnka, Jiri
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Mirko
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Operationalising resilience for disaster medicine practitioners: capability development through training, simulation and reflection2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience has in recent decades been introduced as a term describing a new perspective within the domains of disaster management and safety management. Several theoretical interpretations and definitions of the essence of resilience have been proposed, but less work has described how to operationalise resilience and implement the concept within organisations. This case study describes the implementation of a set of general resilience management guidelines for critical infrastructure within a Swedish Regional Medical Command and Control Team. The case study demonstrates how domain-independent guidelines can be contextualised and introduced at an operational level, through a comprehensive capability development programme. It also demonstrates how a set of conceptual and reflective tools consisting of educational, training and exercise sessions of increasing complexity and realism can be used to move from high-level guidelines to practice. The experience from the case study demonstrates the value of combining (1) developmental learning of practitioners’ cognitive skills through resilience-oriented reflection and interaction with dynamic complex open-ended problems; (2) contextualisation of generic guidelines as a basis for operational methodological support in the operational environment; and (3) the use of simulation-based training as part of a capability development programme with increasing complexity and realism across mixed educational, training and exercise sessions. As an actual example of a resilience implementation effort in a disaster medicine management organisation, the study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding how to implement the concept of resilience in operational practice.

  • 10.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A function-centred approach to joint driver-vehicle system design2006Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 169-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Hollnagel, E.
    École des Mines de Paris-Pôle Cindyniques, Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Pre-requisites for large scale coordination2007Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is in this paper seen as the foundation for purposeful human-human activity in dynamic environments. Coordination is a central issue in large systems such as military organisations, enterprises, or rescue organisations, and communication is needed in order to achieve coordination in such systems. This paper suggest a holistic approach to control, where control in a large system is seen as an emergent product of human interaction, focusing on human-human communication from a technical, organisational, temporal, and social perspective. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Matsson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    C3Fire in Command and Control Research2003Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 191-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New and envisioned technological means and abilities for exerting command and control have increased the interest of man-machine research in a military context. Although there are many current proposals for how new command and control systems should be designed, many of the proposed properties that are considered advantageous have never been tested or could even be impossible to test in real-world situations. In spite of that, proposed design solutions are generally held valid in many Western countries where developments of major command and control system projects are in progress. An important question is how microworlds can be used for research on team decision-making. The use of microworlds gives us the possibility to create controlled settings and the opportunity to use advanced monitoring tools to study the subjects. Our studies indicate that the microworld concept, even though the simulation is fairly simple, reflects some of the crucial aspects of team-work in dynamic settings. The article presents results from a study in command and control using the C3Fire microworld (http://www.c3fire.org). Results and methodological issues are discussed.

  • 13.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ljokkoi, T.
    Volvo Trucks, Sweden.
    Culshaw, John
    Volvo Trucks, Sweden.
    Effects of training on truck drivers interaction with cyclists in a right turnInngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With encounters between trucks and cyclists still being a major safety issue and physical as well as technological improvements far from ubiquitous implementation, training truck drivers in anticipatory driving to improve their interaction with cyclists may be a way forward. After a baseline drive in an urban environment, truck drivers inexperienced with urban driving received a dedicated training on anticipatory driving, followed by another drive along the same route several weeks later. The drivers were also interviewed about their opinion about the training. The drivers behaviour changed from before to after training, resulting in a better speed management in general, and a more intensive monitoring of the cyclists. There were also some improvements with respect to the placement in relation to the cyclist, but this effect was limited mainly because truck drivers performed well already before the training. The observed results correspond well to the opinions and feelings about the training that were reported by the drivers in the interview. Thus, driver training can possibly be one contributor to an increase in safety in urban areas.

  • 14.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis tools in the study of distributed decision-making: a meta-study of command and control research2012Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 157-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of distributed decision making in professional teams and their performance comes in part from studies in which researchers gather and process information about the communications and actions of teams. In many cases, the data sets available for analysis are large, unwieldy and require methods for exploratory and dynamic management of data. In this paper, we report the results of interviewing eight researchers on their work process when conducting such analyses and their use of support tools in this process. Our aim with the study was to gain an understanding of their workflow when studying distributed decision making in teams, and specifically how automated pattern extraction tools could be of use in their work. Based on an analysis of the interviews, we elicited three issues of concern related to the use of support tools in analysis: focusing on a subset of data to study, drawing conclusionsfrom data and understanding tool limitations. Together, these three issues point to two observations regarding tool use that are of specific relevance to the design of intelligent support tools based on pattern extraction: open-endedness and transparency.

  • 15.
    Leifler, Ola
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Automated text-based analysis for decision-making research2012Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 129-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a study on constructing and evaluating a support tool for the extraction of patterns in distributed decision -making processes, based on design criteria elicited from a study on the work process involved in studying such decision-making. Specifically, we devised and evaluated an analysis tool for C2 researchers who study simulated decision-making scenarios for command teams. The analysis tool used text clustering as an underlying pattern extraction technique and was evaluated together with C2 researchers in a workshop to establish whether the design criteria were valid and the approach taken with the analysis tool was sound. Design criteria elicited from an earlier study with researchers (open-endedness and transparency) were highly consistent with the results from the workshop. Specifically, evaluation results indicate that successful deployment of advanced analysis tools requires that tools can treat multiple data sources and offer rich opportunities for manipulation and interaction (open-endedness) and careful design of visual presentations and explanations of the techniques used (transparency). Finally, the results point to the high relevance and promise of using text clustering as a support for analysis of C2 data.

  • 16.
    Liu, Zhuofan
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transportat Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden; Changan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transportat Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Comparison of a time- and a speed-based traffic light assistance system2018Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 93-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic light assistance systems (TLASs) can be infrastructure based or on-board, and in the latter case they can inform the driver about the time remaining to green, or about the recommended speed for a smooth passage at green. A speed-based and a time-based on-board system prototype was compared against each other and against a baseline without any assistance system. Using a within-subjects design, 18 participants drove in a fixed-base simulator along a suburban road with signalised intersections, where the delay to green was set to zero (allowing a passage at the current speed), "half-speed" (requiring a clear speed reduction) and "stop" (requiring a substantial speed reduction). Driving behaviour, visual attention distribution and acceptance were evaluated. Both support systems improved driving efficiency and comfort over baseline, with the time-based system achieving higher scores in general. Both systems attracted a substantial amount of visual attention in the current setting; however, single-glance durations were below 1 s, and the number of glances forward were equal in the time-based condition compared to baseline, but lower in the speed-based condition. No red or amber light violations were registered in baseline, while some occurred with any of the systems. Acceptance for both systems was high, with higher scores for the time-based prototype. Overall, an on-board TLAS with a countdown timer to green has the potential to increase efficiency and comfort without strong indications for attention disruption, but the risk for increased red/amber light violations has to be addressed. Improved system design as a way to mitigate potential issues is discussed.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation2014Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 143-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel-Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience-their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of plans made in advance. In this paper, we analyze the experiences of 14 members of Swedish field teams involved in the crises response, based on focus group discussions. We describe a cycle of preparing for role improvisation, of taking improvised roles, of working in them, and of getting out of them when they are no longer a benefit. The discussions revealed that although role improvisation was seen as necessary to get the work done, they also saw a need to manage negative side effects and vulnerabilities of role improvisation in various ways. We discuss training goals based on their experiences, to address perceived strengths and vulnerabilities of role improvisation. We also discuss factors affecting role improvisation, such as a resilience climate of shared attitudes. Our results can be useful for organizations that have or that plan to adopt flexible crisis response teams. Our results can also be of interests to a more general audience with an interest in how practices necessary for resilience can bring negative side effects, for instance, resilience loss in the organization after an initial adaptive stage.

  • 18.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ahlstrom, Christer
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bicyclists adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments2018Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 377-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.

  • 19.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams2013Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

  • 20.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerosp Lab NLR, Netherlands.
    Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem2016Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 623-642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

  • 21.
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Unit of Human Factors in the Transport System, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Event-related potentials as indices of mental workload while using an in-vehicle information system2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 55-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New in-vehicle information systems are now being commercialized. Despite the expected benefits, some concerns exist that they may overload drivers’ capacity and decrease performance. According to the multiple resource theory (Wickens, Hum Factors 50:449–455, https://doi.org/10.1518/001872008X288394 , 2008), overload may occur at different stages of processing, that is, perceptual–central and/or response-related stages. Therefore, different measures may be needed to detect such specific demands. We explored the sensitivity of different mental workload measurements during the performance of an auditory task alone (single task) and in combination with a tracking task that was presented without (dual task) or, with a visual display (triple task). The demands associated with the number of concurrent tasks (single, dual and triple tasks), tracking speed (low, high, adjustable) and their interaction were analyzed. To account for different processing requirements, mental workload was assessed using subjective, behavioral (performance on the auditory task) and psychophysiological measurements (event-related potentials). 17 young adults participated in the study. The results showed that most measurements discriminated between the performances of one or more tasks, as well as between low and high speeds. However, only the subjective ratings and tracking task performance further discriminated between the dual- and triple-task conditions. Finally, ERPs (N1 and P3) were the only measure detecting increases in cognitive demands associated with higher requirements on processing speed combined with the addition of the display. Our results suggest that ERPs may provide complementary information to other traditional mental workload measures. Its applications in the evaluation and design of future systems should be investigated.

  • 22.
    Svensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ohlander, Ulrika
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design implications for teamwork in ATC2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In air traffic control (ATC), teamwork is a key component among air traffic control operators (ATCOs) to safely direct theaircraft through the sky and on the ground. To be able to design for future ATC systems, we must understand how ATCOswork together, their teamwork, and how they experience and perceive teamwork, in different ATC environments. We conductedinterviews with 16 ATCOs working in four different ATC environments (en-route control, terminal area control, towercontrol for a small airport and tower control for a large airport in Sweden) and analysed the results in the light of the “BigFive” model of teamwork. The main contributions of this paper are to show: (1) how eight teamwork factors are differentlymanifested by the ATCOs in the different ATC environments, (2) that teamwork in ATC is important during routine operations,during stressful work, and during abnormal situations, and (3) that the design of the organisation, the environment,and the tools, affects teamwork and the importance of different teamwork factors.

  • 23.
    Tran Luciani, Danwei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Designing fine-grained interactions for automation in air traffic control2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our work aims to explore novel approaches to the challenge of designing the interaction between people and automation. Through a case study within the domain of air traffic control, we focus on designing fine-grained human–automation interactions. We design a concept and develop an interactive lo-fi prototype of an assisted sketching system to enable air traffic controllers to interact with automation in a fine-grained manner and to externalize mental images. Assisted sketching seems to offer a possible way to communicate different degrees of predictive certainty using visual cues and interaction. Our insights further suggest that externalization through assisted sketching could encourage exploration of future scenarios, and support communication and collaboration between air traffic controllers and between air traffic controllers and pilots. The explorative benefits for the individual decision-making process might be more evident in situations where air traffic controllers have more time for reflection, for example during planning or debriefing and in educational settings.

1 - 23 of 23
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