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  • 1.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy service collaborations—it is a question of trust2013Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 511-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy services have been highlighted both in European Union directives and in academic literature as an important tool to increase energy efficiency. Performance-based energy services, i.e., outsourcing energy management in performance-based remuneration contracts, is said to overcome many of the barriers that have been used to explain the energy efficiency gap. Energy service companies (ESCOs) help organizations to implement energy-efficient solutions in order to reduce energy costs. By combining science and technology studies (STS) analysis and economics in an interview study of firms, the paper contributes insights on the relational nature of energy service collaborations. The objective of the study is to describe how knowledge and incentives affect trust between partners in performance-remunerated energy service collaborations. Performance-based remuneration is one aspect that makes energy service contracts complex. On the one hand, risk is recognized as an important barrier to energy efficiency. Since remuneration to ESCOs is based on energy savings, they also share the financial and technical project risk with their clients. On the other hand, performance-based remuneration can create a lack of trust. Performance is measured in calculations made by the ESCO, calculations that demand expertise that client firms do not possess. ESCOs are consulted for their knowledge on energy efficiency and therefore an imbalance of knowledge is in the nature of energy service collaborations. The paper concludes that if the initial doubt is overcome, long-term collaborations can be advantageous for both parties, since this builds trust and generates long-term profits.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    An integrated dataset of energy efficiency measures published as linked open data2015Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1125-1147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an extensive energy efficiency potential, measures are sometimes not adopted due to barriers, such as lack of information. An integrated database of available energy efficiency measures, which has not existed previously, is one step towards overcoming such barriers. To address this, we present a dataset (i.e., data-base) integrating energy efficiency data from Sweden (from the Swedish Energy Agency) and the USA (from the Department of Energys Industrial Assessment Centers), and publishing the data on the Web, using standardized Web languages and following the principles and best practices of so-called linked data. Additionally, several demonstration interfaces to access the data are provided, in order to show the potential of the result. These are entirely novel results, since this is the first dataset we are aware of that publishes this type of data using linked data principles and standards, thus integrating data from entirely different sources making them jointly searchable and reusable. Our results show that such data integration is possible, and that the integrated dataset has several benefits for different categories of users, e.g., supporting industry and energy efficiency auditors in overcoming the information barrier for investment in energy efficiency measures, and supporting application developers to more easily integrate such data into support tools for energy efficiency assessment.

  • 3.
    Broberg, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts2015Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU target on energy efficiency implies a 20 % reduction in the use of primary energy by implementation of energy efficiency measures. Not all potential cost-effective measures for improved energy efficiency are implemented. This energy efficiency gap is explained by market barriers. Policy instruments can be used to overcome these barriers. The target could, for example, be obtained through industrial excess heat recovery; but there is a knowledge gap on factors affecting excess heat utilization. In this study, interviews were carried out with energy managers in order to study excess heat utilization from industrys perspective. The study seeks to present how excess heat recovery can be promoted or discouraged through policy instruments, and several factors are raised in the paper. The interviews revealed that excess heat recovery is generally referred to in terms of heat deliveries to the district heating network. One may need to look for innovative recovery solutions, and policies are needed to bring these solutions into action. Due to inefficient conversion for heat-driven electricity generation, a system favoring this implementation could favor an inefficient system. Beyond external instruments, internal goals, visions, and the importance of energy as a priority were shown to be important in the work with improved energy management.

  • 4.
    Isaksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Avd för socialpedagogik och sociologi, Högskolan Väst.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anchoring energy efficiency information in households' everyday projects: Peoples' understanding of renewable heating systems2015Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 353-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article claims that the contents of energy conservation information policy instruments must be better adapted to household members’ everyday life experiences in order to capture their interest and transform information into action. The article elaborates on how to ground energy policy information in the everyday doings and strivings of households. Using two time-geographical concepts, i.e. activity and project, we investigate how people understand and define their energy-related activities as parts of overarching everyday projects with a focus on the constraints on energy conservation. The analysis is empirically based on interview data from a case study of households’ use of renewable heating technologies. The results illustrate how peoples’ heating activities are related to everyday projects such as reducing environmental impact, comfort for a convenient daily life, the household budget balance, learning about and/or maintaining home technologies and hobbies. One conclusion is that information instruments focusing solely on one or two such projects might hamper the translation from information to action and also limit the number of people interested in or able to access the information. Another conclusion is that the growing use of energy-efficient technologies might influence new habits and perceptions of the everyday use of energy, making common economic motives for saving energy less useful. Anchoring energy-related information and support in the everyday activities and projects of households would facilitate the translation process. If this is achieved, information could prove a useful instrument in the broader reorganization of societal institutions in a sustainable direction.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry2014Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 203-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of climate change and the threat of rising energy prices have resulted in increased attention being paid to energy issues and industry seeing a cost benefit in using more energy-efficient production processes. One energy-efficient measure is the recovery of industrial excess heat. However, this option has not been fully investigated and some of the technologies for recovery of excess heat are not yet commercially available. This paper proposes three technologies for the generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat. The technologies are thermoelectric generation, organic Rankine cycle and phase change material engine system. The technologies are evaluated in relation to each other, with regard to temperature range of the heat source, conversion efficiency, capacity and economy. Because the technologies use heat of different temperature ranges, there is potential for concurrent implementation of two or more of these technologies. Even if the conversion efficiency of a technology is low, it could be worthwhile to utilise if there is no other use for the excess heat. The iron and steel industry is energy intensive and its production processes are often conducted at high temperatures. As a consequence, large amounts of excess heat are generated. The potential electricity production from low-temperature excess heat at a steel plant was calculated together with the corresponding reduction in global CO2 emissions.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting LPG with bio-SNG as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: The impact of different perspectives on CO2 assessment2016Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1437-1445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is the second largest user of energy in the world industrial sector and is currently highly dependent on fossil fuels and electricity. Substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy in the iron and steel industry would make an important contribution to the efforts to reduce emissions of CO2. However, different approaches to assessing CO2 emissions from biomass and electricity use generate different results when evaluating how fuel substitution would affect global CO2 emissions. This study analyses the effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting liquefied petroleum gas with synthetic natural gas, produced through gasification of wood fuel, as a fuel in reheating furnaces at a scrap-based steel plant. The study shows that the choice of system perspective has a large impact on the results. When wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, a fuel switch would result in reduced global CO2 emissions. However, applying a perspective where wood fuel is seen as a limited resource and alternative use of wood fuel is considered, a fuel switch could in some cases result in increased global CO2 emissions. As an example, in one of the scenarios studied, a fuel switch would reduce global CO2 emissions by 52 ktonnes/year if wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, while seeing wood fuel as a limited resource implies, in the same scenario, increased CO2 emissions by 70 ktonnes/year. The choice of method for assessing electricity use also affects the results.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Improved energy efficiency within the Swedish steel industry: the importance of energy management and networking2015Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 713-744Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is an energy-intensive industry that consumes a significant portion of fossil fuel and electricity production. Climate change, the threat of an unsecure energy supply, and rising energy prices have emphasized the issue of improved energy efficiency in the iron and steel industry. However, an energy efficiency gap is well recognised, i.e. cost efficient measures are not implemented in practice. This study will go deeper into why this gap occurs by investigating energy management practices at 11 iron and steel companies in Sweden. Energy managers at the steel plants were interviewed about how they perceived their own and their companies’ efforts to improve energy efficiency and how networking among energy managers influenced the efforts to improve energy efficiency. Reported barriers to improved energy efficiency were, for example, too long of a payback period, lack of profitability, lack of personnel, risk of production disruption, lack of time, and lack of commitment. Only three out of the eleven companies had assigned a person to work full time with energy management, and some of the energy managers were frustrated with not having enough time to work with energy issues. Generally, the respondents felt that they had support from senior management and that energy issues were prioritised, but only a few of the companies had made great efforts to involve employees in improving energy efficiency. Networking among Swedish steel companies was administered by the Swedish Steel Producers’ Association, and their networking meetings contributed to the exchange of knowledge and ideas. In conclusion, Swedish steel companies regard improved energy efficiency as important but have much work left to do in this area. For example, vast amounts of excess heat are not being recovered and more efforts could be put into engaging employees and introducing a culture of energy  efficiency.

  • 8.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Driving forces for and barriers to providing energy services: a study of local and regional energy companies in Sweden2017Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 21-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation, and energy services are portrayed as a promising market-based approach to achieve this. This paper examines the barriers to, and driving forces needed for, the implementation of energy services from the perspective of Swedish local and regional energy companies. This includes an analysis of the resources needed in three phases of energy service implementation, i.e., development, sales, and deployment. The results indicate a supply-side interest in providing energy services, with the major challenges being related to (a) intra-organizational issues such as a lack of strategic direction and intent and (b) a perceived lack of knowledge, interest, and trust on the part of potential energy service customers. The paper concludes with managerial and policy implications on how an increased focus and impact of energy service can be achieved among local and regional companies.

  • 9.
    Nehler, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Parra, Ricardo
    Consultora Crowsnest, Chile.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in compressed air systems: barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits2018Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1281-1302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global competition and resource scarcity drives industrial companies to cut costs. Energy can be a significant component of such cuts, particularly for energy-intensive companies. Improving energy efficiency in industry is complex, as it pertains to various energy-using processes that are heavily intertwined. One such process is the compressed air system (CAS), which is used in most industrial companies worldwide. Since energy efficiency improvement measures for various types of energy-using processes differ, technology-specific measures might encounter different barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency. The same applies to the non-energy benefits (NEBs) related to energy efficiency improvement measures; since measures vary between various energy-using processes, the perceived NEBs might be different as well. The aim of this paper is to study the barriers to, drivers for and NEBs of CAS energy efficiency improvement measures from the perspectives of three actors. Carried out as an interview study combined with a questionnaire, the paper merges the perspectives of users, audit experts and suppliers of CASs. The results showed that the major barriers are related to the investment, or are of an organisational character, and that organisational and economic factors seemed to be important for making positive decisions on energy efficiency investments and measures in CASs. Major NEBs for CASs include productivity gains and the avoidance of capital expenditures. The results of this study also address the importance of having a comprehensive approach to recognise additional effects of energy efficiency improvements in CASs.

  • 10.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reindl, Katharina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Understanding barriers to energy-efficiency renovations of multifamily dwellings2018Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 53-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied how energy efficiency is discussed by professionals during renovation of multifamily dwellings, in order to capture how barriers in relation to energy measures are appearing, disappearing and transformed during the process. We did participatory observations of renovation meetings, conducted interviews with the involved professionals and studied-related documents. Our intentions have not been to assess decisions made, but to follow the process to gain a different understanding of how barriers can be understood during renovations. We can conclude that the renovation process is based on a complex series of contractural relationships, where assymetric information and lack of common goals contribute to split incentives. The results also show that the housing companys internal organisation becomes a barrier where assymetric information and split incentives also became an in-house barrier. The decisions were often based on bounded rationality where calculations were surprisingly absent in meetings and during discussions on energy measures.

  • 11.
    Rasmussen, Josefine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The additional benefits of energy efficiency investments—a systematic literature review and a framework for categorisation2017Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 1401-1418Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in industrial energy efficiency areessential for meeting future energy needs. Nevertheless, theindustrial sector’s current efforts in energy efficiency investmentsare insufficient. Additional benefits of energy efficiencyinvestments have been suggested to improve thefinancial attractiveness of energy efficiency investments.Yet, previous research indicates that not all benefits areincludedwhen investment opportunities are evaluated, leadingto an underestimation of what a firm will gain from theinvestment. Additionally, previous research lacks conceptualframeworks for describing these additional benefits at anearly stage in the investment process. Moreover, variousbenefit terms are found in currently existing research, butthere are a lack of definitions and distinctions attributed tothese terms. Therefore, this paper provides a systematicreview on the benefit terms of energy efficiency investments,establishes non-energy benefits as the term mostrelevant for such investments and provides a new definitionof the concept. Further, a new framework for categorisingnon-energy benefits to enable them to be included duringthe investment process is developed, in which the level ofquantifiability and time frame of the non-energy benefits aretaken into account. Including non-energy benefits in theinvestment process can make energy efficiency investmentsmore attractive and increase their priority against otherinvestments. Moreover, non-energy benefits can reinforcedrivers as well as counterbalance known barriers to energyefficiency investments. Acknowledging non-energy benefitscan thus contribute to an increased adoption level forenergy efficiency investments

  • 12.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Australia.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Guest editorial note in ENERGY EFFICIENCY, vol 11, issue 5, pp 1053-10552018Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1053-1055Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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