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  • 1.
    Brinkman, D. J.
    et al.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Tichelaar, J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Schutte, T.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Benemei, S.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Chamontin, B.
    University of Toulouse, France.
    Christiaens, T.
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Likic, R.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Maciulaitis, R.
    Lithuanian University of Health Science, Lithuania.
    Marandi, T.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Monteiro, E. C.
    NOVA Medical Sch, Portugal.
    Papaioannidou, P.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Pers, Y. M.
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Pontes, C.
    Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Raskovic, A.
    University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Regenthal, R.
    University of Leipzig, Germany.
    Sanz, E. J.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Tamba, B. I.
    Gr T Popa University of Medical and Pharm, Romania.
    Wilson, K.
    University of Manchester, England.
    de Vries, T. P.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Richir, M. C.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    van Agtmael, M. A.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Research and Expertise Centre Pharmacotherapy Educ RECIPE, Netherlands.
    Essential Competencies in Prescribing: A First European Cross-Sectional Study Among 895 Final-Year Medical Students2017Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 101, nr 2, s. 281-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    European medical students should have acquired adequate prescribing competencies before graduation, but it is not known whether this is the case. In this international multicenter study, we evaluated the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) of final-year medical students across Europe. In a cross-sectional design, 26 medical schools from 17 European countries were asked to administer a standardized assessment and questionnaire to 50 final-year students. Although there were differences between schools, our results show an overall lack of essential prescribing competencies among final-year students in Europe. Students had a poor knowledge of drug interactions and contraindications, and chose inappropriate therapies for common diseases or made prescribing errors. Our results suggest that undergraduate teaching in CPT is inadequate in many European schools, leading to incompetent prescribers and potentially unsafe patient care. A European core curriculum with clear learning outcomes and assessments should be urgently developed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Johnson, Ericka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sjogren, E
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Åsberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Prescribing for the "Swedish Viagra Man"2011Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 15-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural and social studies of sildenafil (Viagra) have shown how it in influence more than just blood flow in the penis. Sildenafil has introduced the term "erectile dysfunction" (ED) to the general public, changing wider cultural perceptions and the treatment of impotence. This article presents results from a study on how this pharmaceutical drug was introduced to a Swedish audience, where direct-to-consumer marketing is not all allowed. Our studies of the online market information (presented as health education) show that not only does the globalization of the pharmaceutical market make medicines available to international consumers, it also spreads ideas about the healthy subjectivities— gendered identities and behaviors—those medicines are prescribing. This, we feel, calls for further critical consideration to articulate the prescribed social practices that prescription medicines carry.

  • 3.
    Kalman, L. V.
    et al.
    Centre Disease Control and Prevent, GA USA.
    Agundez, J. A. G.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Lindqvist Appell, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Black, J. L.
    Mayo Clin, MN USA.
    Bell, G. C.
    University of S Florida, FL 33682 USA.
    Boukouvala, S.
    Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
    Bruckner, C.
    Affymetrix, CA USA.
    Bruford, E.
    European Molecular Biol Lab, England.
    Caudle, K.
    St Jude Childrens Research Hospital, TN 38105 USA.
    Coulthard, S. A.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Daly, A. K.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Del Tredici, A. L.
    Millennium Health LLC, CA USA.
    den Dunnen, J. T.
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Drozda, K.
    US FDA, MD USA.
    Everts, R. E.
    Agena Bioscience, CA USA.
    Flockhart, D.
    Indiana University of School Med, IN 46202 USA.
    Freimuth, R. R.
    Mayo Clin, MN USA.
    Gaedigk, A.
    University of Missouri, MO 64110 USA; University of Missouri, MO 64108 USA.
    Hachad, H.
    Translat Software, WA USA.
    Hartshorne, T.
    Thermo Fisher Science, CA USA.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Klein, T. E.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Lauschke, V. M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Maglott, D. R.
    National Lib Med, MD USA.
    McLeod, H. L.
    University of S Florida, FL 33682 USA.
    McMillin, G. A.
    University of Utah, UT USA; ARUP Labs, UT USA.
    Meyer, U. A.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Mueller, D. J.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Nickerson, D. A.
    University of Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Oetting, W. S.
    University of Minnesota, MN USA.
    Pacanowski, M.
    US FDA, MD USA.
    Pratt, V. M.
    Indiana University of School Med, IN 46202 USA.
    Relling, M. V.
    St Jude Childrens Research Hospital, TN 38105 USA.
    Roberts, A.
    Aegis Science Corp, TN USA.
    Rubinstein, W. S.
    National Lib Med, MD USA.
    Sangkuhl, K.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Schwab, M.
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute Clin Pharmacol, Germany; University Hospital, Germany.
    Scott, S. A.
    Icahn School Medical Mt Sinai, NY 10029 USA.
    Sim, S. C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Thirumaran, R. K.
    Genelex Corp, WA USA.
    Toji, L. H.
    Coriell Institute Medical Research, NJ USA.
    Tyndale, R. F.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    van Schaik, R. H. N.
    Erasmus MC, Netherlands.
    Whirl-Carrillo, M.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Yeo, K. T. J.
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Zanger, U. M.
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute Clin Pharmacol, Germany; University Hospital, Germany.
    Pharmacogenetic allele nomenclature: International workgroup recommendations for test result reporting2016Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 172-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward.

  • 4.
    Molander, L
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Hansson, A
    Lunell, E
    Alainentalo, L
    Hoffman, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk farmakologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Larsson, Rutger
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Internmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in kidney failure2000Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 250-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney failure. Very high plasma nicotine concentrations have been reported in patients with severe kidney failure, indicating that the disposition of nicotine in these patients may be different. The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered nicotine in healthy subjects and in patients with kidney failure. Methods: Nine healthy subjects (glomerular filtration rare [GFR], 84 to 143 mL/min/1.73 m2), four patients with mild kidney failure (GFR, 63 to 73 mL/min/1.73 m2), five patients with moderate kidney failure (GFR, 18 to 36 mL/min/1.73 m2), and six patients with severe kidney failure (GFR, 1 to 10 mL/min/1.73 m2) were recruited. Three patients were treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. An intravenous infusion of nicotine (0.028 mg/kg) was given for 10 minutes. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in plasma, urine, and peritoneal dialysate from 0 to 24 hours after start of infusion Results: There were significant correlations between GFR and total clearance, nonrenal and renal clearance of nicotine, area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, terminal elevation half-life, and mean residence time. Nonrenal clearance was 1303 mL/min and 661 mL/min in healthy subjects and patients with severe kidney failure, respectively. Only 1% to 2% of the nicotine dose was excreted unchanged in a 24-hour collection of peritoneal dialysate. The elimination of cotinine was also decreased in patients with kidney failure. Conclusion: Progressive kidney failure is associated with a gradual decrease of renal and nonrenal elimination of nicotine.

  • 5.
    Zackrisson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
    Lindblom, Bertil
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
    Ahlner, Johan
    National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
    High Frequency of Occurrence of CYP2D6 Gene Duplication/Multiduplication Indicating Ultrarapid Metabolism Among Suicide Cases: High frequency of CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers among suicide cases2009Inngår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0009-9236, E-ISSN 1532-6535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden about 550 individuals die every year due to intoxication with drugs. Many of these drugs are metabolized by CYP-enzymes, such as CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Lack of these enzymes, resulting in a poor metabolism, can lead to adverse reactions, even leading to a fatal outcome. On the other hand, socalled ultra-rapid metabolism can lead to insufficient drug plasma concentration and with that failed treatment or it can lead to a high amount of active/toxic metabolites. The aim of this project was to study the genetic distributions of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in fatal intoxication cases (242), suicide cases (intoxications excluded) (262) and natural death cases (212). PCR followed by pyrosequencing was used for all the analyses. Surprisingly, we found an increased number of individuals carrying more than two active CYP2D6 alleles, corresponding to the phenotype of an ultra-rapid metabolizer, among the suicide cases as compared to the natural death cases (p=0.007).

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