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  • 1.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Questioning to learn and learning to question: Structure and function of problem-based learning scenarios in environmental science education2001Inngår i: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 263-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In problem-based learning, scenarios relating to real life are used as a point of departure for the learning process. Even though the importance of suitable cases or scenarios in bringing about a fruitful learning process is emphasised in the literature, few studies focus on how they actually function in the learning process. This study focuses on how the scenarios used in a ten-week introductory course of a new four-year undergraduate programme in environmental science functioned in terms of the structure and content of the questions they evoked. Data were gathered through diary notes from nine groups of students, comprising 5-8 students per group. The data were subjected to a qualitative analysis aimed at describing the structure and content of the questions generated by the groups. Five different kinds of questions were identified and labelled, encyclopaedic, meaning-oriented, relational, value-oriented and solution-oriented. All scenarios generated questions pertaining to all five categories in all groups, but the emphasis varied. The results are discussed in relation to the design of scenarios, and in relation to students' approaches to learning.

  • 2.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning, VUFo.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Questioning to learn and learning to question: Structure and function of PBL scenarios in environmental science education.2000Inngår i: Second International Conference on Problem-Based Learning in Higher Education,2000, 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In problem-based learning, scenarios relating to real life are used as a point of departure for the learning process. Even though the importance of suitable cases or scenarios to bring about a fruitful learning process is emphasised in the literature, few studies focus on how they actually function in the learning process. This study focuses on how the scenarios used in a ten-week introductory course of a new four-year, undergraduate programme in environmental science functioned in terms of the structure and content of the questions they evoked. Data were gathered through diary notes from nine groups of students, comprising 5-8 students per group. The data were subjected to a qualitative analysis aimed at describing the structure and content of the questions generated by the groups. Five different kinds of questions were identified and labelled; A. Encyclopaedic, B. Meaning-oriented, C. Relational, D. Value-oriented and E. Solution-oriented.  All scenarios generated questions pertaining to all five categories in all groups, but the emphasis varied. The results are discussed in relation to the design of scenarios, and in relation to students’ approaches to learning.

  • 3.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning, VUFo.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Real-life situations as a promotor of the learning process1999Inngår i: 5th auDes international conference in environmental sciences,1999, 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning, VUFo.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Structure and function of PBL scenarios in environmental science education.1999Inngår i: Universitetspedagogisk konferens: CUL-dagen 1999,1999, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 1999, s. 109-116Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Att hantera sopor i Ringdansen: En studie av hushållens perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ringdansens bostadsområde som är del av Hyresbostäder i Norrköping miljöanpassades under slutet av 1990-talet. Sopstationer med fraktioner för olika avfall infördes. För många hushåll har detta system inneburit problem. Hyresbostäder vill försöka åtgärdaproblemen genom att göra bättre och tydligare information i soprummen.

    Genom intervjustudier undersöks hushållens önskemål och klagomål på det nuvarande systemet, den egna hanteringen av sopor samt motivationen bakom deras handlande. Resultaten visar atthushållen efterfrågar bättre och tydligare information. Vissa av soprummen upplevs som skräpiga och ofräscha. Hushållen sorterar mestadels av pliktkänsla samt av ekonomiska och miljömässiga orsaker.

  • 6. do Nascimento, NR
    et al.
    Nicola, SMC
    Rezende, MOO
    Oliveira, TA
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Pollution by hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol in the coastal plain of Sao Paulo state, Brazil2004Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 121, nr 03-Apr, s. 221-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine compounds were dumped by chemical industries during the 1970s in many areas of the coastal plain of Sao Paulo state in Brazil. These dumps, located on hillsides and in valleys, in both rural and urban environments, are responsible for soil and water pollution. The objective of this work was to determine how the pollutants have spread in an area occupied by a spodosol-type soil mantle. The study combines soil morphological observations with soil and water analysis of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil toposequences. The results indicate that the highest pollutant concentrations are observed near the dump site and that the compounds contamination is increasing. A map integrating topography and chemical concentrations was created to visualize the spatial distribution of HCB levels in the landscape. Physical and chemical analyses were performed to measure HCB and PCP levels in the soil. Soil water appears to act as a vector of HCB, probably through complexation with and dispersal of dissolved organic matter. The persistence of HCB at the studied site is most likely due to the low pH values in combination with a high content of organic matter. HCB was consistently found in higher concentrations than PCP. It is plausible that the cause of this difference is that PCP is degraded more easily under sunlight than HCB and that degradation of PCP under acid conditions leads to the formation of HCB. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 7. Johansson, E.
    et al.
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Zhang, B.X.
    Institute of Soil Science, Academica Sinica, Nanjing, China.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Chlorination and biodegradation of lignin2000Inngår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 1029-1032Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown that large amounts of high-molecular weight organic chlorine of unknown origin are present in the terrestrial environment. There are indications that an underlying process may be microorganisms which produce reactive chlorine that chemically degrades organic matter and facilitates degradation of recalcitrant organic matter on one hand, and on the other hand causes a formation of organic chlorine. Our aim was to test one part of this hypothesis by investigating whether reactive chlorine facilitates microbial degradation of lignin. Different concentrations of chlorine dioxide were added to the autoclaved lignin suspension. Mycelium of the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium was used to inoculate flasks with the lignin solutions. The evolution of CO2 was followed during 8 d of continuous measurement. At the end of the experiment the solutions were analyzed for organic chlorine. The amount of CO2 evolved was variable, but the results were repeatedable, addition of chlorine dioxide to the lignin solutions caused an increase in the mineralization by P. chrysosporium that increased with increasing additions of chlorine dioxide. This suggests that exposure of lignin to reactive chlorine enhance its biodegradability. The most likely cause of the observed effect is that the addition of chlorine dioxide initiated a fragmentation and oxidation of the lignin, thus rendering a more easily degraded substrate. However, the results may also be interpreted as if an additional cause to the observed effect is that the chlorination in itself somehow enhanced degradation. The amount of organically-bound chlorine decreased during the incubation, and the decrease was more pronounced with the chlorination of lignin, whereas no change at all was observable in the control batches. This makes it tempting to suggest that P. chrysosporium rather than having an enzyme system just capable of handling the chlorinated compounds, actually has a system that preferentially degrades such compounds. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ebenå, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Organic and chlorine in Swedish spruce forest soil: Influence of nitrogen2001Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 101, nr 3-4, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of organic and inorganic chlorine were estimated in samples collected in forest soils in the southern part of Sweden, and changes were observed after the addition of nitrogen in incubated samples. All of the investigated samples contained both inorganic and organic chlorine, and the concentration of organic chlorine was 2-4 times larger than that of inorganic chlorine. The results suggest that the amount of organic chlorine in mature spruce forest soils with a moderate chloride deposition in the temperate region is larger than the amount of inorganic chlorine. The results of the nitrogen incubation indicate that addition of ammonium nitrate causes a net decrease in the concentration of organic chlorine and a net increase in chloride concentration. The observed change appears to mainly be a result of a dechlorination of the organic matter present in the water leachable fraction. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Xin, ZB
    Hu, ZY
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Organic chlorine and chloride in submerged paddy soil: a case study in Anhui province, southeast China2004Inngår i: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 144-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to understand the fate of organochlorine compounds in arable soil have concentrated on anthropogenic compounds, in spite of the fact that organochlorine compounds are both produced and mineralized in soil through natural processes. In order to understand the fate of chlorinated pesticides, it is necessary to take account of the natural chlorine cycle. The present study is a first attempt to illuminate the relationship between the natural chlorine cycle and agricultural practices. The concentration and storage of organic chlorine (Cl-org) and chloride (Cl-inorg) were determined in topsoil of a paddy field compared to an adjacent afforested hill at a sampling site in the Meicun area, Anhui Province, China. The concentration of Cl-org, as well as the chlorine-to-carbon ratio, was significantly lower in the paddy field samples than in the forest soil samples. A weak relationship between the concentration of Cl-org and the organic carbon content was observed in the paddy field, in contrast to the observations made in the adjacent forest soil as well as those made in previous studies, which have suggested a positive correlation between organic carbon content and Cl-org. The similarity between our results at the forest site and the previous studies, which have been carried out in temperate regions, suggests that it is the land use rather than the climate that makes the current paddy soil results different. Our results suggest that the contribution of Cl-org to the paddy soil from above-ground litter and from production within the soil are small or negligible compared with the contribution from pesticide application and wet and dry deposition.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    UV-light induced mineralization of organic matter bound chlorine in Lake BjΣn, Sweden - A laboratory study2003Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 463-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface water and aqueous solutions of isolated organic matter from a humic rich lake in southern Sweden were exposed to artificial UV radiation to investigate the UV light induced influence on organic matter bound chlorine in natural systems. It was found that the photodegradation of organic matter bound chlorine was more pronounced than the photodegradation of organic carbon. After 120 h of irradiation of the isolated organic matter, only 35% of the initial organochlorine was still in the solution compared to about 70% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A similar result was obtained for unfractionated surface water. Furthermore, our results indicate that the loss of organic chlorine was mainly due to a mineralization of organic chlorine into chloride ions. The total decrease of organic chlorine after 120 h was 32 ╡g Clorg l-1, of which the major part disappeared in the initial irradiation phase. A similar increase was observed in the chloride concentration (34 ╡g Cl- l-1).

  • 11.
    Laturnus, Frank
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation, Konstvetenskap och visuell kommunikation.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Wiencke, Christian
    Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Ultraviolet radiation affects emission of ozone-depleting substances by marine macroalgae: Results from a laboratory incubation study2004Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, nr 24, s. 6605-6609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of stratospheric ozone due to the effects of ozone-depleting substances, such as volatile organohalogens, emitted into the atmosphere from industrial and natural sources has increased the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. Especially in the subpolar and polar regions, where stratospheric ozone destruction is the highest, individual organisms and whole ecosystems can be affected. In a laboratory study, several species of marine macroalgae occurring in the polar and northern temperate regions were exposed to elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the macroalgae released significantly more chloroform, bromoform, dibromomethane, and methyl iodide-all volatile organohalogens. Calculating on the basis of the release of total chlorine, bromine, and iodine revealed that, except for two macroalgae emitting chlorine and one alga emitting iodine, exposure to ultraviolet radiation caused macroalgae to emit significantly more total chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation due to possible further destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer as a result of ongoing global atmospheric warming may thus increase the future importance of marine macroalgae as a source for the global occurrence of reactive halogencontaining compounds.

  • 12.
    Lovbrand, E.
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Comment on "How science makes environmental controversies worse" by Daniel Sarewitz, Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 385-403 and "When Scientists politicise science: Making sense of the controversy over The Skeptical Environmentalist" by Roger A. Pielke Jr., Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 405-4172005Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 195-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 13. Rodstedth, M
    et al.
    Ståhlberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Chloride imbalances in soil lysimeters2003Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 381-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assumption that soil neither acts as a source or a sink of chloride is evaluated by incubating soil cores in lysimeters in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. Some of the lysimeters acted as a sink while others acted as a source of chloride. Considerable amounts of organic chlorine were lost by leaching. The loss by leaching of organic chlorine could only explain part of the discrepancy in the lysimeters where the soil acted as a sink and it could certainly not explain the cases where the soil acted as a source. The storage of organic chlorine was four times larger than the storage of chloride and comparably small changes in the organic chlorine storage will thus have a considerable influence on the chloride budget. However, the soil was too heterogeneous to determine whether a change in the storage had taken place or not. It is concluded that the observed chloride surplus and also, at least to some extent, the observed chloride deficit, most likely was caused by net-changes in the storage of organic chlorine in soil. An inverse correlation was found between the initial chloride content of the soil and the imbalance in the chloride budget. Dry deposition of chloride is generally assumed to equal the run-off minus the wet deposition. Extrapolation to the field situation suggests that the output of organic chlorine by soil leachate is at risk to cause an underestimation of the dry deposition by about 25%. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Vali nia, Salar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Chlorination of Organic Material in Agricultural Soil2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine is an essential building block in the environment and can be found in most places. Chlorine participates in a complex biogeochemical cycle and has been discussed for many years and it is well documented that natural chlorination of organic compound takes place in many parts of the ecosystem. Chlorine can be inorganic (Clin) and organically bound (Clorg). Previous studies have shown that the transformation of Clin to Clorg is connected with the amount of organic matter and the microbial activity in the soil. So far, studies have been focused on forest soil and there is a need for analysing the natural chlorination in other soil types. The aim of this study was to provide chlorination rates in agricultural soil which does not weem to have been done previously. Three common agricultural soils experiencing different agricultural practice and different cropping systems were incubated with Na36Cl at 20o C in a 56 days radiotracer experiment. The results show that a chlorination of 36Clin to 36Clorg in agricultural soil occurred and the Clorg levels increased over time. The chlorination rates ranged from 0,040 to 0,063 μg Cl g dry weight soil-1 d1. This was 10-fold lower than rates previously measured in coniferous forest soil. However, when expressed as μg Cl g dry weight organic carbon-1 d-1, rates in the agricultural soil was only slightly (at the most 2-fold) lower than in coniferous forest. This study contributes with new knowledge of natural chlorination rates in agricultural soil and gives further evidence that the natural chlorination can be connected to the amount of organic matter in the soil.

  • 15.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Exploring focus groups: Analysing focus group data about genetically modified food2004Inngår i: International Association of Dialogue Analysis IADA,2001, Tübingen: Niemeyer , 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Genförändrad mat - vardagsmat? Åsikter och uppfattningar om genteknik och livsmedelsproduktion2003Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken syftar till att fungera som ett underlag för diskussion, debatt och reflektion kring hur genteknik uppfattas av allmänheten och kring vad allmänhetens rädsla och skepsis kan bero på. Tanken är att stimulera till funderingar om sociala aspekter och etik i samband med genteknik.

  • 17.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Adelsvärd, Viveka
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation.
    Linell, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation.
    Comprendre la complexité: les focus groups comme espace de pensée et d´argumentation á propose des aliments génétiquement modifiés2004Inngår i: Bulletin de psychologie, ISSN 0007-4403, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 253-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    The biogeochemistry of chlorine in soil2003Inngår i: The handbook of environmental chemistry: Vol. 3. P. P, Anthropogenic compounds. Natural production of organohalogen compounds / [ed] Gordon W. Gribble, Springer Verlag , 2003, s. 43-62Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Summarizes the knowledge on naturally occurring organohalogens, of which more than 3700 are documented. This book features chapters that cover various aspects of this field, including the structural diversity and sources of organohalogens, the mechanisms for their formation and biodegradation, the clinical use of dichloroacetate, and more

  • 19.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    The natural chlorine cycle - fitting the scattered pieces2002Inngår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 565-581Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine is one of the most abundant elements on the surface of the earth. Until recently, it was widely believed that all chlorinated organic compounds were xenobiotic, that chlorine does not participate in biological processes and that it is present in the environment only as chloride. However, over the years, research has revealed that chlorine takes part in a complex biogeochemical cycle, that it is one of the major elements of soil organic matter and that the amount of naturally formed organic chlorine present in the environment can be counted in tons per km(2). Interestingly enough, some of the pieces of the chlorine puzzle have actually been known for decades, but the information has been scattered among a number of different disciplines with little or no exchange of information. The lack of communication appears to be due to the fact that the points of departure in the various fields have not corresponded, a number of paradoxes are actually revealed when the known pieces of the chlorine puzzle are fit together. It appears as if a number of generally agreed statements or tacit understandings have guided perceptions, and that these have obstructed the understanding of the chlorine-cycle as a whole. The present review enlightens four paradoxes that spring up when some persistent tacit understandings are viewed in the light of recent work as well as earlier findings in other areas. The paradoxes illuminated in this paper are that it is generally agreed that: (1) chlorinated organic compounds are xenobiotic even though more than 1,000 naturally produced chlorinated compounds have been identified, (2) only a few, rather specialised, organisms are able to convert chloride to organic chlorine even though it appears as if the ability among organisms to transform chloride to organic chlorine is more the rule than the exception,, (3) all chlorinated organic compounds are persistent and toxic even though the vast majority of naturally produced organic chlorine is neither persistent nor toxic, (4) chlorine is mainly found in its ionic form in the environment even though organic chlorine is as abundant or even more abundant than chloride in soil. Furthermore, the contours of the terrestrial chlorine cycle are outlined and put in a concrete form by constructing a rough chlorine budget over a small forested catchment. Finally, possible ecological roles of the turnover of chlorine are discussed.

  • 20.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Holm, Mats
    Skogsvårdsstyrelsen Norrköpings distrikt.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Parikka, Matti
    Institutionen för bioenergi Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Chlorine budget of a small catchment2004Inngår i: European Geosciences Union 1st Assembly,2004, 2004, s. 180-180Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science Kalmar University.
    Towards reflexive scientization of environmental policy2005Inngår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 195-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tematisk utbildning och forskning, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Retention of chloride in soil and cycling of organic matter-bound chlorine2005Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 2123-2136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride (Cl-inorg) is generally considered to be a hydrologically and chemically inert substance. Past research suggests that Cl-inorg participates in a complex biogeochemical cycle involving the formation of organically bound chlorine (Cl-org). The present study examines whether Cl-org cycling is sufficiently extensive as to influence the geochemical cycling Of Cl-inorg- Undisturbed soil cores were collected in a coniferous forest soil in SE Sweden. The cores were stored in climate chambers for three months, irrigated with artificial rain, and the leachate was collected and analysed. The water balance of the lysimeters could be well described, and we found that 20-50% of the chlorine leached from the lysimeters was organically bound and that the amounts lost did not decrease with time. This strongly suggests that a substantial amount of Cl-inorg forms in topsoil, and that subsequent leaching to deeper layers causes a considerable withdrawal of Cl-inorg. The concentration of both organic carbon and Cl-inorg in the leachate was considerably higher than concentrations observed in the runoff in the actual catchment, suggesting that organic matter precipitates or is mineralized on its way through the soil. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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