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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Management and Economics Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are religious people more prosocial? A quasi-experimental study with madrasah pupils in a rural community in India2009Inngår i: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 368-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using quasi-experimental data, this paper examines the relationship between religiosity and prosocial behavior. In contrast to previous studies which identify religious people by how often they attend religious services or by their self-reported religiosity, this study compares the behavior of highly devout students who are preparing to enter the clergy, to the behavior of other students in a public-goods game and in the dictator game. The results show that religious students were significantly more cooperative in the public-goods game and significantly more generous in the dictator game than other students.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University.
    Breeding Bin Ladens: America, Islam and the future of Europe (Zachary Shore, 2006)2008Inngår i: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 640-641Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Co-ethnic preferences in a cooking game: a study based on Come Dine With Me in Sweden2013Inngår i: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 2220-2236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines ethnic preferences using data from the television cooking show Come Dine With Me in Sweden. Amateur chefs compete by hosting dinner parties. Contestants rate each others performance and the host with the highest ratings wins a cash prize. The show gives an unorthodox opportunity to study ethnic preferences in a high-stakes game environment. The analysis of the collected data shows that native Swedish contestants rate co-ethnic hosts significantly more favourably than they rate other hosts, demonstrating the existence of co-ethnic preferences. This observation seems to be an outcome of own-group favouritism rather than dislike against other groups. Also, the observed co-ethnic preference is assumed to be subtle or non-conscious based on the nature of the analysed data.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Commentary: Some thoughts on field experiments on housing discrimination from a European view2015Inngår i: Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, ISSN 1936-007X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 149-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditional reciprocity in the investment game2011Inngår i: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 404-408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether people are conditional reciprocators in an investment game experiment, in the sense that the more they are trusted, the more they reciprocate. The results show that the majority of participants are conditional reciprocators but that they can be classified into three types: (1) exploitative reciprocators who do not reciprocate and exploit trust; (2) egoistic reciprocators who neither exploit nor reward trust; and (3) generous reciprocators who reward trusting behavior.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Don’t be first! An empirical test of the first-mover disadvantage hypothesis in a culinary game show2019Inngår i: Social Sciences & Humanities Open, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-4, artikkel-id 100004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Etnisk diskriminering - vad vet vi, vad behöver vi veta och vad kan vi göra?2015Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 18-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering är ett avsevärt hinder på arbetsmarknaden, bostadsmarknaden och andra marknader för personer med utländsk bakgrund. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder diskriminering och en myndighet som har tillsyn över problematiken. Men vad säger forskningen om etnisk diskriminering i Sverige? Denna översikt redogör för nationalekonomiska undersökningar som entydigt har funnit belägg för etnisk diskriminering. I ljuset av denna översikt förs en diskussion kring det vi känner till och det vi behöver känna till. Slutligen framförs förslag om hur arbetet mot etnisk diskriminering kan förbättras.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    School of Business and Economics Linnaeus University Växjö, Sweden.
    Muslim discrimination: evidence from two lost letter experiments2010Inngår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 888-898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö universitet.
    Vad säger ett efternamn?: en experimentell studie av etnisk diskriminering2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making2010Inngår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 42, nr 21, s. 2715-2723Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala University, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Women are not always less competitive than men: evidence from Come Dine with Me2011Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1099-1101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are women less competitive than men? Many experimental and nonexperimental studies have documented gender differences in competitiveness. This article presents the results from a study that examines gender differences in competitiveness in the television show Come Dine with Me. It is a cooking show in which amateur chefs compete against each other for a cash prize. The show provides an unusual opportunity to study gender differences in a high-stakes game environment. The results demonstrate that there are no gender differences in competitiveness.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013Inngår i: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 249-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013Inngår i: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 565-585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010Inngår i: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 79-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitet och Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet .
    Diskriminering mot icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras resultatet från ett fältexperiment vilket undersöker förekomsten av diskriminering av homosexuella i anställningssituationen. Vi finner att såväl homosexuella män som homosexuella kvinnor diskrimineras då de söker efter lediga anställningar. Omfattningen av diskrimineringen verkar dock vara mindre än vad som framkommit i tidigare studier. Diskrimineringen förekommer framförallt inom vissa yrkeskategorier som i vår studie är koncentrerade till den privata sektorn. Vidare framkommer en ny dimension av könsskillnaderna på arbetsmarknaden då resultaten visar att homosexuella män framförallt diskrimineras då de söker anställning i mansdominerade yrken medan homosexuella kvinnor diskrimineras då de söker anställning i kvinnodominerade yrken. Resultaten pekar således mot att homosexuella män i viss utsträckning möter liknande hinder på arbetsmarknaden som heterosexuella kvinnor.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 403-406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings of the first field experiment on age discrimination in the Swedish labour market. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 31-year-old male applicant and one from a fictitious 46-year-old male applicant, were sent to employers with job openings for restaurant workers and sales assistants. Employers' responses to the applicants were then recorded. The experimental data provide clear and strong evidence of significant ageism in the Swedish labour market. On average, the younger applicant received over 3 times more responses from employers looking to hire a restaurant worker and over 4 times more responses from employers looking to hire a sales assistant than the older applicant. Therefore, the older applicant received significantly fewer invitations for interviews and job offers than the younger applicant in both occupations examined.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009Inngår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 3050-3058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Inter- and Intra-Household Earnings Differentials among Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples2011Inngår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, nr S2, s. S258-S278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data2013Inngår i: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 83-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay males are at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of which earnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when we compare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, the disadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however, earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earnings advantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documented regardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing better than female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate that gay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians is likely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work than heterosexual females do.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011Inngår i: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 2422-2433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Anxo, Dominique
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The Swedish Elderly Care2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Bekiros, Stelios
    Lindvall, Emma
    Uddin, Salah Uddin
    The influence of energy consumption and democratic institutions on output and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh: a time-frequency approach2019Inngår i: Energy Systems, ISSN 1867-8998, E-ISSN 1867-9005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden: bidrag, kritik och framtid2008Inngår i: Efterfrågad arbetskraft?: årsbok 2008 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] S. Lundberg och E. Platzer, Växjö University Press , 2008, s. 101-117Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Fältexperiment för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden2009Inngår i: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 105-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har fältexperiment använts för att studera etnisk diskriminering på den svenska arbets- och bostadsmarknaden. I nedanstående framställning ges en presentation av fältexperiment som metod och en översikt över den forskning som genomförts med hjälp av fältexperiment i Sverige. Dessutom görs en framåtblickande diskussion.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan diskriminering studeras med experimentella metoder?2006Inngår i: Flervetenskapliga perspektiv i migrationsforskning: årsbok 2006 från forskningsprofilen Arbetsmarknad, migration och etniska relationer (AMER) vid Växjö universitet / [ed] K. Hjelm, Växjö University Press , 2006, s. 45-58Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekberg, Jan
    Växjö universitet.
    Kan kvinnliga personalchefer motverka diskriminering av invandrare?2005Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 72-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel presenteras resultaten av en experimentell studie om etnisk diskriminering.Undersökningen visar att det främst är infödda män som tenderar att ha ett diskriminerande beteende. I Sverige fi nns lagstiftning som förbjuder etnisk diskriminering. Vi har också en särskild myndighet – diskrimineringsombudsmannen – som skall motverka etnisk diskriminering. Den presenterade undersökningen kan ge en ny infallsvinkel. Ett sätt att motverka diskriminering av invandrare kan vara att se till att andelen kvinnor som är personalchefer i företag och myndigheter ökar. Frågan om etnisk diskriminering är kanske också en jämställdhetsfråga.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, nr 18, s. 1327-1330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Are people fussy about who they work with? An experimental test of Becker’s coworker discrimination hypothesis2019Inngår i: Social Science JournalArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009Inngår i: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, nr 303, s. 588-597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Diskriminerar kunder utrikes födda företagare? Resultat från ett webb-baserat experiment2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 25-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet och Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 31-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering av homosexuella är förbjudet i Sverige. Trots detta är den ekonomiska forskning som finns på området begränsad. I artikeln presenteras resultat från forskningsprojekt rörande homosexuellas situation på arbets- och bostadsmarknaden i Sverige. Resultaten är i linje med resultat från internationell forskning. Homosexuella män har lägre arbetsinkomster än heterosexuella män. Diskriminering och skillnader i fördelningen av marknadsarbete och hushållarbete mellan homo- och heterosexuella hushåll framförs som förklaringar till detta. Vidare diskrimineras homosexuella män på bostadsmarknaden. Beträffande kvinnor finner vi inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan homo- och heterosexuella. Avslutningsvis presenteras några tänkbara förklaringar till varför homosexuella män diskrimineras medan detta inte är fallet för homosexuella kvinnor.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: effekten av att heta Mohammed2007Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 34-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel studeras diskriminering på svensk bostadsmarknad med hjälp av ett fältexperiment utfört på internet. I experimentet studeras såväl etnisk diskriminering som könsdiskriminering genom att tre fiktiva personer, en med ett typiskt svenskt manligt namn, en med ett typiskt svensk kvinnligt namn samt en med ett typiskt arabiskt/muslimskt manligt namn söker hyresrättslägenheter vilka utannonserats som lediga av såväl privatpersoner som företag på Blocket. se. Våra resultat visar att den arabiske/muslimske mannen möter diskriminering när han söker lägenheter. Den arabisk/muslimske mannen fick långt färre positiva svar och erbjudanden till visningar av lägenheter än den svenske mannen. Vi finner också en könsdiskriminering på bostadsmarknaden där den svenska kvinnan fick fler positiva svar och visningserbjudanden än den svenske mannen.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö universitet.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö universitet.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among swedish municipalities2019Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Sweden .
    Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010Inngår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 835-849Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden and Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011Inngår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 900-910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how subtle religious representations affect prosocial behavior. The authors study the impact of religious representations on prosocial behavior in terms of cooperation in a one-shot/three-person public goods game.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors used the scrambled sentence task to prime participants with religious words before they were asked to make a one-shot/three-person public goods game decision.

    Findings – Both in the raw data and when controlling for factors such as age, gender and religious beliefs, the authors found that priming of religious representations increased cooperation in the experiment, that is, increased contributions to the public good. The authors found no significant interaction effects between priming and self-reported measures of religiosity, suggesting that the priming effect was present among both self-reported religious and nonreligious participants. Self-reported measures of religiosity were not correlated with cooperation in this study.

    Originality/value – The paper adds to the growing body of experimental economics literature that has studied self-reported measures of religiosity alongside behavior in different economic games. This study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of subtle influences of religion on cooperation. Also, in contrast to previous economic literature, the paper examines the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on cooperation.

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, Sweden.
    Victimized Twice: A Field Experiment on the Employability of Victims2019Inngår i: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do employers discriminate against victims? We address this question and present the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against victims. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious victims and nonvictims were sent to 1,117 employers in various labor market sectors. The probability of receiving a job interview invite or a job offer from employers was then estimated. Differences in this probability between the victim and nonvictim applicants were interpreted as discrimination. Results show that victims had a significantly lower probability of receiving a job interview invite or a job offer from employers than nonvictims. The extent of discrimination varied with applicants sex and occupational characteristics.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Can education affect pro-social behavior?: Cops, economists and humanists in social dilemmas2008Inngår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 298-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether education and training affect pro-social behavior. Economics students are often accused of being less pro-social. The explanations given are that less pro-social people choose to study economics or that economics studies indoctrinate students to selfish behavior. The paper experimentally tests these postulations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses the prisoner's dilemma game and stag hunt game to study cooperation across different groups of students.

    Findings – The experiment supports neither of the postulations: economics students would be indoctrinated or less pro-social people choose to study economics. However, the study shows that police cadets, who go through an education where teamwork and cooperation is promoted, become more cooperative and pro-social after their completed education.

    Originality/value – In contrast to earlier studies, this paper does not simply study economics students, but also examines if students in educational programs that promote loyalty and cooperation and encourage teamwork are more pro-social than other students.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Decisions under unpredictable losses: An examination of the restated diversification principle2007Inngår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 312-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the restated diversification principle is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), Växjö University, Sweden.
    Group identity, social distance and intergroup bias2007Inngår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 324-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how groupidentity, socialdistance and intergroupbias may affect economic decision-making. Two types of experimental groupings are created, and subjects are then paired with either an in-group member or an out-group member in a number of two-person games. The result of this experiment shows that out-group members face a risk of being discriminated against. The cause of the discrimination is not hostility toward out-group members; the discrimination is triggered because of higher expectations or favoritism of in-group members. This type of behavior holds, regardless of the grouping procedure.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lina
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008Inngår i: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 234-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination againstlesbians in the rentalhousing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: a field experiment on the Internet2008Inngår i: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 362-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents afieldexperiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rentalhousing market.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik, Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitet, Växjö / Institutet för Näringslivsforskning, Stockholm.
    Personer med arabiska namn diskrimineras av kommuner2019Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 2019-03-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utrikes födda personer särbehandlas i den skriftliga kontakten med landets kommuner. Det visar vårt experiment, där en man med svenskklingande namn fick bättre bemötande och mer information än en man med arabiskt namn. Diskrimineringen kan ge konsekvenser i form av sämre möjligheter till förskoleplats, skriver nationalekonomerna Ali Ahmed och Mats Hammarstedt.

  • 44.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market2017Inngår i: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

  • 45.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Trust in India and Sweden: an experimental examination of the Fukuyama conjecture2008Inngår i: Cross-cultural research, ISSN 1069-3971, E-ISSN 1552-3578, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 420-429Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors test the proposition, put forward by Francis Fukuyama, that the higher the level of trust in a country the less corrupt, the more developed, and wealthier its economy will be. They study trust and voluntary cooperation using a one-shot and three-person public goods game experiment in India and Sweden. The results, in line with the proposition, show that the average contribution is significantly larger in Sweden, implying a higher level of trust and cooperation in Sweden than in India. This article provides further evidence on the relationship between trust and economic development. This study differs from previous ones in that it uses a multilateral game experiment to study trust and cooperation rather than a bilateral game experiment. Furthermore, it provides evidence from two countries not studied before in this context.

  • 46.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Management and Economics, Växjö University Sweden.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Choices at various levels of uncertainty: An experimental test of the restated diversification theorem2006Inngår i: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 183-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our "Restated diversification theorem" (Skogh and Wu, 2005) says that risk-averse agents may pool risks efficiently without assignment of subjective probabilities to outcomes, also at genuine uncertainty. It suffices that the agents presume that they face equal risks. Here, the theorem is tested in an experiment where the probability of loss, and the information about this probability, varies. The result supports our theorem. Moreover, it tentatively supports an evolutionary theory of the insurance industry-starting with mutual pooling at uncertainty, turning into insurance priced ex ante when actuarial information is available. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006.

  • 47.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    Göteborg University and Växjö University, Sweden.
    Cooperación y confianza: análisis comparativo en economía experimental2007Inngår i: Revista CIFE, ISSN 0124-3551, Vol. 12, nr 9, s. 9-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work using an experiment of game of public goods analyzes the relation between the attitudinal trust and behavioral trust in three countries. Students from Colombia, Mexico and Sweden participate in this experiment and respond a questionnaire with questions on confidence. The attitudinal trust and behavioral trust are different substantially between the analyzed countries. The confidence measured by the questions of the questionnaire does not show a pattern of common conduct between the participants of the three countries. Nevertheless, a somewhat similar behavior we found in the applied experiment, that is to say, the participants assume a certain level of risk very similarity, however, cultures and different societies come from.

  • 48.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Implicit influences of Christian religious representations on dictator and prisoner’s dilemma game decisions2011Inngår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 242-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how implicit influences of Christian religious representations affect prosociality. We examine the direct impact of religion as an independent variable on prosocial behavior. We do so by priming participants with religious words in a scrambled sentence task before they make a dictator game and a prisoner's dilemma game decision. Priming religious words significantly increased prosocial behavior in both games: participants in the treatment group were more generous and cooperative than participants in the control group. The priming effect was present regardless of participants’ self-reported religiosity. Self-reported religiosity was not correlated with generosity or cooperation.

  • 49.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    University of Gothenburg and Växjö University.
    Is the hand of God involved in human cooperation?2009Inngår i: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 36, nr 1/2, s. 70-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the supernatural punishment theory. The theory postulates that religion increases cooperation because religious people fear the retributions that may follow if they do not follow the rules and norms provided by the religion.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports results for a public goods experiment conducted in India, Mexico, and Sweden. By asking participants whether they are religious or not, one can study whether religiosity has an effect on voluntary cooperation in the public goods game.

    Findings – No significant behavioral differences were found between religious and nonreligious participants in the experiment.

    Originality/value – This paper differs from the previous limited experimental literature, studying religiosity and cooperation, in the sense that it uses a public goods game rather than a prisoner's dilemma game. The public goods game is more interesting since many real life problems are multilateral rather than bilateral. Further, the study was conducted in three different countries: India, Mexico, and Sweden; with three different types of potentialy religious people: Hindus, Catholics, and Protestants.

  • 50.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Religious context and prosociality: an experimental study from Valparaíso, Chile2013Inngår i: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 627-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are people more prosocial in a religious context? We addressed this question through an experiment. We randomly placed participants in the control group in a neutral location (a lecture hall), and we placed participants in the experimental group in a religious location (a chapel). The participants then took part in a one-shot three-person public goods game, which measured participants' degree of cooperativeness. The results showed that participants in the experimental group cooperated significantly more than did participants in the control group. Furthermore, participants' beliefs about other participants' cooperativeness were more positive in the experimental group than they were in the control group. Improved expectations of others partially explained the enhanced cooperation in the religious context. We found no main or interaction effect of self-reported religiosity in the experiment.

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