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  • 1.
    Aalberg, Laura
    et al.
    National Bureau of Investigation, P.O. Box 285, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, SKL, SE-581 94 Linköping, Sweden.
    Bertler, Christina
    Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, SKL, SE-581 94 Linköping, Sweden.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Cole, Michael D.
    Forensic Science Unit, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, UK.
    Dahlén, Johan
    Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, SKL, SE-581 94 Linköping, Sweden.
    Finnon, Yvonne
    Forensic Science Unit, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, UK.
    Huizer, Henk
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Volmerlaan 17, 2288 GD Rijswijk, The Netherlands.
    Jalava, Kajsa
    National Bureau of Investigation, P.O. Box 285, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland.
    Kaa, Elisabet
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Skovagervej 2, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark.
    Lock, Eric
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Volmerlaan 17, 2288 GD Rijswijk, The Netherlands/Institut de Police Scientifique, University of Lausanne, Batiment de Chimie, CH-1015 Lausanne-Dorigny, Switzerland.
    Lopes, Alvaro
    Laboratorio de Policia Cientifica, Policia Judiciaria, Rua Gomes Freire 174, 1169-007 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Poortman-van-der Meer, Anneke
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Skovagervej 2, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark.
    Sippola, Erkki
    National Bureau of Investigation, P.O. Box 285, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland.
    Development of a harmonised method for the profiling of amphetamines: I. Synthesis of standards and compilation of analytical data2005Inngår i: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 149, nr 2-3, s. 219-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference material was synthesised for 21 substances that are frequently present as synthetic impurities, i.e. by-products, in illicitly produced amphetamine. Each of these substances is a typical by-product for at least one of the three approaches most often used to synthesise amphetamine, namely, the Leuckart, the reductive amination of benzyl methyl ketone, and the nitrostyrene routes. A large body of data on the substances was recorded, including the following: mass spectra, ultraviolet spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, infrared spectra in gas phase, and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991Inngår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, s. 233-241Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991Inngår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, s. 474-483Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 4.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Allard, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Photodesorption of fulvic acid from iron oxide surfaces into aqueous solutions2001Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 174, nr 2, s. 166-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodesorption of thin films of fulvic acid adsorbed on planar iron oxide surfaces was monitored by ellipsometry. Description was first observed at 546 nm, and additional fractions of the adsorbed acid left the surfaces at 405 and 365 nm Similar kinetics for photodesorption was observed from metallic iron films and from porous iron oxide prepared electrochemically by deposition on porous silicon substrates. Soluble photoproducts leaving the surface H ere monitored by UV absorbance spectroscopy at 200 nm Gaseous products were not detected by mass spectrometry but the results seemed to indicate that net all of the photoproducts entered the liquid phase. Of the metal films tested which adsorbed fulvic acid from aqueous solution (Fe. Cr, Ni, Al, and Pt), it was only iron which exhibited a photodesorption effect. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Grimvall, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bengtsson, Maj-Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wahlström, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phytotoxic Substances in Runoff from Forested Catchment Areas1991Inngår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, s. 397-406Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff from different catchment areas in southem Sweden was tested in a root bioassay based on solution cultures of cucumber seedlings. Water samples from agricultural catchment areas produced no signs at all or only weak signs of inhibited root growth, whereas several water samples from catchmcnt areas dominated by mires or coniferous forests produced visible root injuries. The most severe root injuries (very short roots, discolouration, swelling of root tips and lack of root hairs) were caused by samples from a catchment area without local emissions and dominated by old stands of spruce. Fractionation by ultrafiltration showed that the phytotoxic effect of these samples could be attributed to organic matter with a nominal molecular-weight  exceeding 1000 or to substances associated with organic macromolecules. Experiments aimed at concentrating phytotoxic compounds from surface water indicated that the observed growth  inhibition was caused by strongly hydrophilic substances. Previous reports on phytotoxic, organic substances of natura! origin have emphasized interaction between plants growing close together. The presence of phytotoxic substances in runoff indicates that there is also a large-scale dispersion of such compounds.

  • 6. Johansson, I
    et al.
    Pavasars, I
    Univ Orebro, Man Technol Environm Res Ctr, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Chem, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Allard, B
    Univ Orebro, Man Technol Environm Res Ctr, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Chem, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Analysis of water leachable organic components in incineration residues2000Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 78, nr 3-4, s. 305-313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of water leachable organics in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues is not well known. Therefore the utilisation of ashes is restricted due to the concern about their long-term environmental impact. Previous studies have focused on some highly toxic organic compounds present only in trace amounts. It is also important to know the composition of the bulk organic matter since dissolved organic carbon can alter the leachability of metals. In order to characterise water leachable organic matter in incineration residues a fractionation procedure using polymeric adsorbents was successfully developed and applied. The technique uses XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in tandem and has been implemented on bottom ash samples from two incineration plants in Sweden in order to characterise the bulk organic matter.

  • 7. Johansson, PJ
    et al.
    Myhrinder, KTR
    Gunnarson, EP
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Comparative analysis of lubricants used for weapons2001Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 441-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for analysis and comparison of mineral oil-based greases thickened with a metal soap is presented. The greases are first analyzed with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This analysis differentiates between greases with different main constituents. When two samples can not be differentiated with IR, a more thorough analysis has to be performed. The base oil and the soap are separated. The soap is derivatized and the two components are each analyzed with gas chromatography. The metal ions of the soap are analyzed with scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). By the method presented, grease from a weapon may be differentiated or proven to be identical to grease collected from a suspect. As thr results indicate that the grease does not change with respect to composition when the weapon is fired, the method may be used in many cases. The application of the method to an authentic case is reported.

  • 8.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid by solid-phase extractions with polystyrene–divinylbenzene-based polymers2002Inngår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 963, nr 1-2, s. 393-400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Retention mechanisms of an unmodified and a hydroxylated polystyrene–divinylbenzene polymer were studied by solid-phase extraction of o-phthalic acid and some of its mono- and diesters from purified water and then analysing by GC–MS. The monoesters and phthalic acid were retained only when protonated (i.e. acidified with HCl to pH 0.9). Of all elution solvents tested, ethyl acetate gave the best overall recoveries (61–89%) with both polymers. Applicability to complex matrixes (e.g. acidogenic landfill leachates) was examined by introducing a washing step with acetone in acidified water (pH 0.9) to eliminate volatile fatty acids (C2–C6) from the cartridge. Finally, the method was tested on real samples.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Drinking water off-flavour caused by the formation of short-chain fatty acids in slow sand filters1995Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 31, nr 11, s. 49-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study carried out at a municipal drinking water treatment plant in southern Sweden showed that the formation of short-chain fatty acids in slow sand filters can result in severe off-flavour problems. When an extract of the headspace of the surface layer of a sand filter was subjected to gas chromatographic analysis with sensory detection (GC sniffing), several strong, rancid odours were detected. Mass spectrometric analysis of the same extract, before and after methylation, showed that substantial amounts of butyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were present in the analysed sample. The off-flavour caused by these compounds was removed by repeated shock chlorination of the malfunctioning slow sand filter. Analysis of fatty acid esters may provide an early warning of the described off-flavour problem.

  • 10. Pavasars, I
    et al.
    Hagberg, J
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Allard, B
    Alkaline degradation of cellulose: Mechanisms and kinetics2003Inngår i: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 39-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose powder and softwood sawdust were subjected to alkaline degradation under conditions representative of a cementitious environment for periods of 7 and 3 years, respectively. During the first 3 years, sampling was frequent, and data on the degradation of cellulose and production of isosaccharinic acid was used for establishing long-term prediction models. Samples after an additional period of 4 years were compared to the predicted values. The total rate of degradation was measured as the increase in total organic carbon (TOC) in corresponding solutions. A previously published theoretical model of degradation kinetics gave a good approximation of the present experimental data. Peeling-off, stopping, and alkaline hydrolysis reaction rate constants were obtained as model parameters, and the results suggested that the transformation of the glucose end group is the rate-limiting step in the cellulose peeling-off reaction and also determines the pH dependence of that reaction. After 3 years, isosaccharinic (ISA) acid represented 70-85% of all degradation products as quantified by capillary zone electrophoresis. The long-term prediction model indicated that all of the cellulose would be degraded after only 150-550 years. The control sampling after 7 years points toward a lower degradation of cellulose and production of ISA than predicted by the model, reflecting either a degradation of ISA that was faster than the production or a termination of the ISA production.

  • 11.
    Pettersson, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    River Discharge of Humic Substances and Humic-bound Metals to the Gulf of Bothnia1997Inngår i: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 533-541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Rahm, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pettersson, C.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    River discharge of organic carbon into the Arctic Ocean1995Inngår i: Swedish-Russian tundra ecology-expedition -94 / [ed] Eva Grönlund and Olle Melander, Stockholm: Swedish Polar Research Secretariat , 1995, s. 347-351Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Söderström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Use of an electronic tongue and HPLC with electrochemical detection to differentiate molds in culture media2005Inngår i: International Journal of Food Microbiology, ISSN 0168-1605, E-ISSN 1879-3460, Vol. 97, nr 3, s. 247-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to further evaluate an electronic tongue, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) and UV detection as a reference method. The electronic tongue consisted of four working electrodes made of different metals and arranged in a standard three-electrode configuration. Pulses of voltage were applied to the metals, and the current responses were sampled and collected in a data matrix. The objectives of the present investigation were to examine the ability of the electronic tongue to distinguish between two mold species growing in three different media, and to obtain support for the hypothesis that the device actually discriminates between different redox-active metabolites produced by the molds. Peak areas in EC and UV HPLC chromatograms were collected in a data matrix. The electronic tongue data and the EC and UV data were then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). A number of peaks in the HPLC-EC chromatograms indicated that the growth media contained redox-active metabolites. Moreover, PCA of peak areas in EC chromatograms revealed differences between the distribution of redox-active metabolites produced by the two species and between the three culture media. The same pattern was apparent in a PCA score plot of electronic tongue data. The peaks in the UV and EC chromatograms differed, and these were also shown by the PCA score plots.

  • 14.
    Söderström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Use of an electronic tongue to analyze mold growth in liquid media2003Inngår i: International Journal of Food Microbiology, ISSN 0168-1605, E-ISSN 1879-3460, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 253-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of employing an electronic tongue to measure the growth of mold in a liquid medium was studied. We used the electronic tongue developed at Linköping University, which is based on pulsed voltammetry and consists of an array of different metal electrodes. Instead of focusing on a single parameter, this device provides information about the condition or quality of a sample or process. Accordingly, the data obtained are complex, and multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or projection to latent structures (PLS) are required to extract relevant information. A gas chromatographic technique was developed to measure ergosterol content in mold biomass and was subsequently used as a reference method to investigate the ability of the electronic tongue to measure the growth of mold in liquid media. The result shows that the electronic tongue can monitor mold growth in liquids. In PLS analysis, the electronic tongue signals correlate well with the amount of ergosterol in the mold biomass as well as the microbially induced changes in the pH of the medium. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Von, Sydow L.M.
    et al.
    Grimvall, A.B.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Laniewski, K.
    Nielsen, A.T.
    Natural background levels of trifluoroacetate in rain and snow2000Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 34, nr 15, s. 3115-3118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that some of the fluorinated ethane derivatives being introduced as CFC-replacements can be transformed to TFA (trifluoroacetate) in the atmosphere. Moreover, TFA is extremely stable in the environment, and this has raised questions regarding how widespread TFA is in the environment. We found that TFA is ubiquitous in precipitation: samples of rain from Ireland and Poland and snow from Canada, Sweden, New Zealand, and East Antarctica contained 1-1100 ng/L, and, studying a firn core drilled in Antarctica, concentrations of 3-56 ng/L were measured in layers formed during the 19th century. We have confirmed the preindustrial presence of significant background concentrations of trifluoroacetate in historic precipitation samples from the analysis of firn. Extensive procedures were enforced to prevent sample contamination.It has been shown that some of the fluorinated ethane derivatives being introduced as CFC-replacements can be transformed to TFA (trifluoroacetate) in the atmosphere. Moreover, TFA is extremely stable in the environment, and this has raised questions regarding how widespread TFA is in the environment. We found that TFA is ubiquitous in precipitation: samples of rain from Ireland and Poland and snow from Canada, Sweden, New Zealand, and East Antarctica contained 1-1100 ng/L, and, studying a firn core drilled in Antarctica, concentrations of 3-56 ng/L were measured in layers formed during the 19th century. We have confirmed the preindustrial presence of significant background concentrations of trifluoroacetate in historic precipitation samples from the analysis of firn. Extensive procedures were enforced to prevent sample contamination.

  • 16. Von, Sydow L.M.
    et al.
    Nielsen, A.T.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Statistik.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi.
    Chloro- and bromoacetates in natural archives of firn from Antarctica2000Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 239-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A firn core was drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, to investigate the presence of haloacetates in snow that had accumulated over the past 200 years. By employing GC-MS detection of methyl esters of haloacetic acids, we were able to measure haloacetate concentrations down to one or a few nanograms per liter. Trichloroacetate (TCA) and dibromoacetate (DBA) were found in firn at concentrations that clearly exceeded the blank level of the applied analytical procedure, with mean concentrations estimated to 12 and 6 ng/L, respectively. There were also indications that mono- and dichloroacetate (MCA and DCA) were present in firn, whereas monobromoacetate (MBA) was found only in samples of surficial snow. We concluded that there is a significant natural background level of TCA and DBA in precipitation based on the following: (i) several of samples represented snow accumulated in the 19th century, (ii) haloacetates can be expected to be immobile in Antarctic firn, (iii) extensive measures were taken to prevent sample contamination, and (iv) blank levels of the analytical procedure used were low and stable. In addition, our results suggested that MCA and DCA also occur naturally in precipitation.

  • 17.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hallén, Anders
    Dept. of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis2002Inngår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 819-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a fishy odor emanating from women who present with a malodorous vaginal discharge is well known. The odor is due to bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) in vaginal secretion. The release of TMA from specimens of vaginal fluid following the addition of alkali is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic method for analysis and quantification of TMA in vaginal fluid in which weighed samples were used. In addition, a proper diagnosis of BV was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:297–301). We also diagnosed BV according to Hallén et al. (A. Hallén et al. Genitourin Med 1987;63:386–9). TMA was present in all women with a Nugent score between 7 and 10 and in almost all women diagnosed with BV according to the method of Hallén et al. TMA was not found or was only found in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. TMA was also found in four women with a negative sniff test. It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 μg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV.

  • 18.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry2001Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 4026-4031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted “gold standard,” has not been done before. We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method for identifying the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in vaginal fluid. We used weighted samples of vaginal fluid to obtain a correct quantification. In addition, a proper diagnosis was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid that were Nugent scored according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., 29:297–301, 1991). We found that putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine occurred in high concentrations in vaginal fluid from 24 women with Nugent scores between 7 and 10. These amines either were not found or were found only in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. There is a strong correlation between bacterial vaginosis and the presence of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in high concentrations in vaginal fluid.

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