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  • 1.
    Wolrath, Helen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Amines and Bacterial Vaginosis2002Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial Vaginosis (BY) is a common syndrome, with a prevalence of 10-30% in women of childbearing age. The decisive pathogenetic factoris thought to have a microbiological origin, but so far no specific bacteria have been implicated in causing BV. Instead, it appears that BV is accompanied by a shift in the normal lactobacilli flora to a mixed vaginal anaerobic flora. Vaginal fluid from women with BY has also been reported to contain various amines, and several techniques have been used to identify these amines.

    We developed a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method to analyze amines related to BV together with quantification of the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. The aim of our investigation was to study if the amine content in vaginal fluids is quantitatively related to BV, diagnosed according to the Nugent scoring system. Our results show that the production of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine is a property of BV, and that samples from healthy women do not include these amines.

    Using a sensitive gas chromatographic method, we also analyzed and quantified vaginal fluids with respect to trimethylamine (TMA), the amine responsible for the fishy odor in BV. In order to obtain a proper identification of BV, the vaginal fluid samples were Gram-stained and diagnosed according to two procedures. Our results show that regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis, vaginal fluids from women with BV generally contain elevated amounts of TMA, while samples from healthy women do not.

    In conclusion, the presence of specific amines is clearly a prominent finding in women with BV, and these amines can thus be used as selective markers or diagnostic tools for the syndrome.

    Delarbeid
    1. Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
    2001 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 4026-4031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted “gold standard,” has not been done before. We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method for identifying the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in vaginal fluid. We used weighted samples of vaginal fluid to obtain a correct quantification. In addition, a proper diagnosis was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid that were Nugent scored according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., 29:297–301, 1991). We found that putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine occurred in high concentrations in vaginal fluid from 24 women with Nugent scores between 7 and 10. These amines either were not found or were found only in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. There is a strong correlation between bacterial vaginosis and the presence of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in high concentrations in vaginal fluid.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25913 (URN)10.1128/JCM.39.11.4026-4031.2001 (DOI)000171934200034 ()10355 (Lokal ID)10355 (Arkivnummer)10355 (OAI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-08 Laget: 2009-10-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13
    2. Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis
    2002 (engelsk)Inngår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 819-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a fishy odor emanating from women who present with a malodorous vaginal discharge is well known. The odor is due to bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) in vaginal secretion. The release of TMA from specimens of vaginal fluid following the addition of alkali is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic method for analysis and quantification of TMA in vaginal fluid in which weighed samples were used. In addition, a proper diagnosis of BV was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:297–301). We also diagnosed BV according to Hallén et al. (A. Hallén et al. Genitourin Med 1987;63:386–9). TMA was present in all women with a Nugent score between 7 and 10 and in almost all women diagnosed with BV according to the method of Hallén et al. TMA was not found or was only found in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. TMA was also found in four women with a negative sniff test. It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 μg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26449 (URN)10.1034/j.1600-0463.2002.1101108.x (DOI)000180804800008 ()10997 (Lokal ID)10997 (Arkivnummer)10997 (OAI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-08 Laget: 2009-10-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13
  • 2.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hallén, Anders
    Dept. of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Trimethylamine content in vaginal secretion and its relation to bacterial vaginosis2002Inngår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 819-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of a fishy odor emanating from women who present with a malodorous vaginal discharge is well known. The odor is due to bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine (TMA) in vaginal secretion. The release of TMA from specimens of vaginal fluid following the addition of alkali is often used in making a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic method for analysis and quantification of TMA in vaginal fluid in which weighed samples were used. In addition, a proper diagnosis of BV was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J Clin Microbiol 1991;29:297–301). We also diagnosed BV according to Hallén et al. (A. Hallén et al. Genitourin Med 1987;63:386–9). TMA was present in all women with a Nugent score between 7 and 10 and in almost all women diagnosed with BV according to the method of Hallén et al. TMA was not found or was only found in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. TMA was also found in four women with a negative sniff test. It seems that high levels of TMA in samples of vaginal fluid are typical for BV regardless of the scoring method used for diagnosis. However, low levels of TMA, <5 μg/g vaginal fluid, do not always correlate with BV.

  • 3.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of bacterial vaginosis-related amines in vaginal fluid by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry2001Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 4026-4031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted “gold standard,” has not been done before. We now report a sensitive gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method for identifying the amines isobutylamine, phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in vaginal fluid. We used weighted samples of vaginal fluid to obtain a correct quantification. In addition, a proper diagnosis was obtained using Gram-stained smears of the vaginal fluid that were Nugent scored according to the method of Nugent et al. (R. P. Nugent et al., J. Clin. Microbiol., 29:297–301, 1991). We found that putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine occurred in high concentrations in vaginal fluid from 24 women with Nugent scores between 7 and 10. These amines either were not found or were found only in very low concentrations in vaginal fluid from women with Nugent scores of 0 to 3. There is a strong correlation between bacterial vaginosis and the presence of putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in high concentrations in vaginal fluid.

  • 4.
    Wolrath, Helen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hallén, Anders
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide levels in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis reflect a local metabolism in vaginal secretion as compared to urine2005Inngår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 113, nr 7-8, s. 513-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The smell of rotten fish is one of the characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV), and is due to trimethylamine (TMA). Trimethylamine can be found in human urine, although most of it occurs as the nonvolatile oxide (TMAO) form. The fraction TMA/TMAO can be expected to be the same in different body fluids if no local production of TMA occurs. In women with BV, TMAO in the vaginal fluid is expected to be chemically reduced by the local bacterial flora to the much more odorous TMA. We have therefore studied the local vaginal production of TMA in vaginal secretion compared to the general TMA-TMAO metabolism that was measured in urine using gas chromatography. Both vaginal fluid and random urine samples were collected from women, with and without BV, attending a Swedish clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, and these samples were analyzed for TMA and TMAO. The results show that a local production of TMA occurs in the vagina that is not part of the general metabolism of TMA-TMAO.

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