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  • 1.
    Backteman, K
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ledent, E
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    A rapid and reliable flow cytometric routine method for counting leucocytes in leucocyte-depleted platelet concentrates2002Ingår i: Vox Sanguinis, ISSN 0042-9007, E-ISSN 1423-0410, Vol. 83, nr 1, s. 29-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: To ensure a proper quality control it is important to use a reliable method to count low numbers of leucocytes in leucocyte-reduced platelet concentrates (PCs). Materials and Methods: A modified flow cytometric method for counting low numbers of leucocytes, based on a reference population contained in tubes with an exact number of fluorescent beads and staining with propidium iodide was used. To increase the number of events, the original sample volume was increased. Results: There was a good correlation in the number of leucocytes (r = 0.99) between the modified flow cytometric method and microscopy of samples from unfiltered and expected numbers from serially diluted PCs. Samples from leucocyte-reduced PCs obtained by apheresis or filtered buffy coats showed no correlation between results from the modified flow cytometric method and microscopy (Nageotte). Conclusion: Counting by microscopy gave a lower number of leucocytes than the modified flow cytometric method when counting a low number of cells. However, analysis of the serially diluted PCs proved that the modified flow cytometric method was reliable and rapid, making it suitable for clinical routine use.

  • 2.
    Berlin, Gösta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Challoner, KE
    Woodson, RD
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Low-O2 affinity erythrocytes improve performance of ischemic myocardium2002Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 92, nr 3, s. 1267-1276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    O2 transport and O2 diffusion interact in providing O2 to tissue, but the extent to which diffusion may be critical in the heart is unclear. If O2 diffusion limits mitochondrial oxygenation, a change in blood O2 affinity at constant total O2 transport should alter cardiac O2 consumption (VO2) and function. To test this hypothesis, we perfused isolated isovolumically working rabbit hearts with erythrocytes at physiological blood-gas values and P50 (PO2 required to half-saturate hemoglobin) values at Ph of 7.4 of 17 ▒ 1 Torr (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate depletion) and 33 ▒ 5 Torr (inositol hexaphosphate incorporation). When perfused at 40 and 20% of normal coronary flow, mean VO2 decreased from the control value by 37 and 46% (P < 0.001), and function, expressed as cardiac work, decreased by 38 and 52%, respectively (P < 0.001). Perfusion at higher P50 during low-flow ischemia improved VO2 by 20% (P < 0.001) and function by 36% (P < 0.02). There was also modest improvement at basal flow (P < 0.02 and P < 0.002, respectively). The improvement in VO2 and function due to the P50 increase demonstrates the importance of O2 diffusion in this cardiac ischemia model.

  • 3.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Implementation of donor screening for infectious agents transmitted by blood by nucleic acid technology2002Ingår i: Vox Sanguinis, ISSN 0042-9007, E-ISSN 1423-0410, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 87-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi.
    The use of cell products for treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases2002Ingår i: Current Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0929-8673, E-ISSN 1875-533X, Vol. 9, nr 16, s. 1497-1505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell products are live cells that are given to patients in order to replace or modify the function of missing or dysfunctional cells. Progress in technology and in the understanding of pathobiology may lead to the use of cell products in many areas. This review outlines the use of cell products in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, with focus on neuroinflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis. Treatment of autoimmune diseases should be selective and specific in order to avoid serious side effects. To achieve this, T lymphocyte regulation has been in focus for several immunomodulatory regimens. One area of great interest is the use of T cell vaccination, when autologous attenuated auto-reactive T cells are given to patients in order to initiate a specific immune response to the pathogenic T cell populations. Phopheresis may be an immunomudulatory treatment related to T cell vaccination. Another promising area involves ex-vivo alteration of the cytokine profile of harmful auto-reactive T cells. This can be achieved by genetic manipulation or by certain cytokine stimulations. A subsequent adoptive cell transfer will, by homing mechanisms, lead to at site specific delivery of the cells, which will have a local down-regulatory effect on the inflammatory process. Although unsolved questions regarding doses, timing, optimal preparing conditions and mechanisms still remain, both T cell vaccination and adoptive transfer of ex-vivo manipulated cytokine secreting cells have proven successful for treatment of neuroinflammation in experimental models. T cell vaccination was shown to be feasible in patients with multiple sclerosis, however, otherwise the experience in humans so far is limited.

  • 5.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Effect of photopheresis on lymphocyte population in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes2004Ingår i: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, ISSN 1071-412X, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 856-861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years photopheresis has been claimed to be an effective form of immunomodulation. It has also been shown to have an effect on the disease process at the onset of type 1 diabetes. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study, we analyzed if the effect of photopheresis in children with newly diagnosed diabetes is related to changes in the balance of lymhocyte populations. We also analyzed if lymphocyte subsets were related to recent infection, mild or aggressive disease manifestations, heredity, or gender. Nineteen children received active treatment with photopheresis, while 21 children received sham pheresis (placebo group). No influence of a history of previous infection, heredity, or certain clinical parameters on lymphocyte subsets was found. At the onset of type 1 diabetes, girls showed a higher proportion and a larger number of T cells (CD3+) and T-helper cells (CD4+) and a higher proportion of naïve CD4 +CD45RA+ cells. In the placebo group, an increase in the number of subsets with the activated phenotype in both the CD4 (CD29 +) and the CD8 (CD11a+) compartments was noted during the course of the study. These changes did not occur in the photopheresis group. No relation between lymphocyte subsets and clinical outcome was found 1 year after the treatment with photopheresis. In conclusion, we found no major effect of photopheresis on lymphocyte populations in a group of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. However, in the placebo group the proportions of activated CD4 and CD8 cells increased over time. Since these changes did not occur in the actively treated group, our findings suggest that photopheresis may have some suppressive effects.

  • 6.
    Faresjö, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Garcia, Jorge
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    The immunological effect of photopheresis in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes2005Ingår i: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 459-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photopheresis has been claimed to have immune-modulating effects, but the mechanisms of action are unknown. This study investigated the immune effect of photopheresis in children with type 1 diabetes, with a focus on the balance of Th1- and Th2-like cytokines. Ten children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (10-17 y) were treated with five double treatments of photopheresis and 10 children matched for disease, age, and gender were given placebo tablets and sham pheresis. Expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-13 in cell-culture supernatants by ELISA after stimulation with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) (a.a. 247-279), the ABBOS peptide (a.a. 152-169), insulin, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Photopheresis changed antigen-stimulated immune balance in line with a Th2-like shift. Thus, the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 mRNA expression after in vitro stimulation with a peptide of the autoantigen GAD 65 was reduced after treatment in the photopheresis group. The IFN-γ/IL-4 mRNA expression ratio after in vitro stimulation with insulin was also lower in children treated with photopheresis compared with the placebo group. Photopheresis has an immune-modulating effect in children with type 1 diabetes, causing a Th2-like deviation. Copyright © 2005 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.

  • 7.
    Furubacke, A
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Hand och plastikkirurgi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Dermatologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Hudkliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Anestesiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Lack of significant treatment effect of plasma exchange in the treatment of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis? 1999Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine, ISSN 0342-4642, E-ISSN 1432-1238, Vol. 25, s. 1307-1310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Asp, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Kardiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Anestesiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anestesi- och operationscentrum, Intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Ekdahl, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Geriatriska kliniken.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Maller, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    A new program for better clinical supervision of students. A joint project at the Halsouniversitet and county council in Ostergotland2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, s. 649-654Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Asp, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Kardiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Kardiologiska kliniken.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Anestesiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anestesi- och operationscentrum, Intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Ekdahl, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Geriatriska kliniken.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Maller, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Ny handlingsplan för bättre klinisk handledning av studenter.2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, s. 649-654Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

        

  • 10.
    Jablonowska, Barbara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kjellberg, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    T and B lymphocyte subsets in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion: IVIG versus placebo treatment2002Ingår i: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 312-318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Jablonowska B, Palfi M, Matthiesen L, Selbing A, Kjellberg S, Ernerudh J. T and B Lymphocyte subsets in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion: IVIG versus placebo treatment. AJRI 2002; 48:312–318 © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2002

    PROBLEM: To investigate circulating lymphocyte subsets in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in relation to pregnancy outcome and to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).

    METHOD OF STUDY: Forty-one women with a history of unexplained RSA were examined during first trimester of pregnancy before IVIG or placebo treatment and after pregnancy. The results were compared with five healthy, non-pregnant women and five women in the first trimester of normal pregnancy. Circulating lymphocyte subsets with focus on T-cell subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry.

    RESULTS:  The proportions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR positive T cells (CD3+ HLA-DR+), T-killer/effector cells (CD8+ S6F1+) and B cells (CD19+) were increased, whereas the proportion of T-suppressor/inducer cells (CD4+ CD45RA+) was decreased during first trimester pregnancy of RSA women compared with pregnant normal controls. T and B lymphocyte subsets did not correlate with pregnancy outcome on either IVIG or placebo group.

    CONCLUSIONS: In RSA patients, the immune system seems to be activated in contrast to the suppression noted in normal pregnancy.

  • 11.
    Ledent, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Semple, John W.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    White Blood Cell Subsets in Buffy Coat-Derived Platelet Concentrates: The Effect of Pre- and Poststorage Filtration2000Ingår i: Vox Sanguinis, ISSN 0042-9007, E-ISSN 1423-0410, Vol. 79, nr 4, s. 235-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Our objective was to study the effect of storage time on the filtration of platelet concentrates (PCs). We compared the total number of white blood cells (WBC), as well as the distribution of WBC subsets, in units filtered before and after storage.

    Materials and Methods: Buffy coat-derived PCs were filtered either fresh or after 5 days of storage, and total WBC were enumerated by flow cytometry. WBC subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry with three-color fluorescence.

    Results: The total number of white cells before filtration was significantly higher in fresh units compared with stored units, whereas in postfiltration samples the number of white cells was significantly lower in the fresh compared with the stored units. Although absolute numbers were significantly reduced, filtration also induced significant changes in the proportions of subsets in both fresh and stored units; the percentage of T cells was decreased, whereas the percentage of B cells and monocytes was increased after filtration.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that prestorage WBC filtration of platelet concentrates is superior in reducing the absolute numbers of WBC. However, both pre- and poststorage WBC filtration significantly affect the proportions of WBC in the final product, decreasing the number of T cells while apparently increasing the proportion of MHC class II-positive cell populations.

  • 12. Lithander, Eva
    et al.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Kontroll av blod och blodgivare.2003Ingår i: Smittskyddsboken / [ed] Karl Ekdahl och Johan Giesecke, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003, 1, s. 134-138Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste 10 åren har medfört stora förändringar av betydelse för svenskt smittskydd. Genom ökat resande och invandring har vårt infektionspanorama blivit mer internationellt. Tidigare okända smittsamma sjukdomar (senast SARS) har identifierats samtidigt som polio officiellt förklarats utrotad i Europa. En ökande andel av bakterier och virus har blivit resistenta mot antibiotika men andelen barn som vaccineras mot framför allt mässling har börjat sjunka ned mot kritiska nivåer. Samtidigt har den avsiktliga spridningen av antrax i USA blixtbelyst samhällets sårbarhet och de möjliga konsekvenserna av bioterrorism. Medlemskapet i EU har också inneburit förändringar av hur övervakning av smittsamma sjukdomar sköts i Sverige. De ökade krav som dessa förändringar ställer på alla de personer som på ett eller annat sätt arbetar med smittskyddsfrågor har satt behovet av utbildning i fokus.Smittskyddsboken ska ge en samlad översikt över alla de aktörer och insatser som tillsammans gör att det svenska smittskyddet står sig så väl i alla internationella jämförelser. Tanken är också att boken ska vara tillräckligt detaljerad för att kunna fungera som en praktisk handbok för flertalet av de smittskyddsspörsmål som kan dyka upp. I stället för ingående sjukdomsbeskrivningar har vi i ett appendix listat alla de viktigaste smittsamma sjukdomarna, även här med fokus på smittvägar, inkubationstider och möjliga smittskyddsåtgärder.

  • 13.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Johansson, C
    Stenhammar, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Photopheresis at onset of type 1 diabetes: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial2001Ingår i: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 85, nr 2, s. 149-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background - In recent years photopheresis, an extracorporeal form of photochemotherapy using psoralen and ultraviolet A irradiation of leucocytes, has been claimed to be an effective form of immunomodulation. Aim - To evaluate its effect in type 1 diabetes we performed a double blind, controlled study using placebo tablets and sham pheresis in the control group. Methods - A total of 49 children, aged 10-18 years of age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes were included, 40 fulfilled the study and were followed for three years (19 received active treatment with photopheresis and 21 placebo treatment). Results - The actively treated children secreted significantly more C peptide in urine during follow up than control children. C peptide values in serum showed corresponding differences between the two groups. The insulin dose/kg body weight needed to achieve satisfactory HbA1c values was always lower in the photopheresis group, there was no difference between the groups regarding HbAlc values during follow up. The treatment was well accepted except for nausea (n = 3) and urticaria (n = 1) in the actively treated group. There were no differences regarding weight or height, or episodes of infection between the two groups during follow up. Conclusion - Photopheresis does have an effect in addition to its possible placebo effect, shown as a weak but significant effect on the disease process at the onset of type 1 diabetes, an effect still noted after three years of follow up.

  • 14.
    Martinsson, Lotta
    et al.
    Transfusionsmedicin LMC.
    Sunström, Kristina
    Transfusionsmedicin IMK, LMC.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Hypocalcemic symptoms during plateletpheresis using COBE spectra: a comparison of a peroral combination of 600 mg calcium + 300 mg magnesium + 100 IE vitamin D3 vs. 1000 mg calcium in symptomatic donors.2005Ingår i: Trasfusion and Apheresis Science,2005, 2005, s. 203-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15. Norda, Rut
    et al.
    Stegmayr, Bernd G
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Karkus, Jan
    Jonsson, Svante
    Söderström, Tommy
    Knutsson, Folke
    Wikström, Björn
    Berséus, Olle
    Therapeutic apheresis in Sweden: update of epidemiology and adverse events.2003Ingår i: Transfusion and apheresis science, ISSN 1473-0502, E-ISSN 1878-1683, Vol. 29, s. 159-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Anestesiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    A randomized controlled trial of transfusion-related acute lung injury: Is plasma from multiparous blood donors dangerous?2001Ingår i: Transfusion, ISSN 0041-1132, E-ISSN 1537-2995, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 317-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and other posttransfusion reactions may be caused by granulocyte and/or HLA antibodies, which are often present in blood from multiparous donors. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plasma from multiparous donors with those of plasma from donors with no history of transfusion or pregnancy (control plasma) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Intensive care patients, judged to need at least 2 units of plasma, were randomly assigned to receive a unit of control plasma and, 4 hours later, a plasma unit from a multiparous donor (=3 live births) or to receive the plasma units in opposite order. The patients were closely monitored, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded. Blood samples for analysis of blood gases, TNFa, IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble E selectin, and C3d complement factor were collected at least on four occasions (before and after the transfusion of each unit). RESULTS: Transfusion of plasma from multiparous donors was associated with significantly lower oxygen saturation and higher TNFa concentrations than transfusion of control plasma. The mean arterial pressure increased significantly after the transfusion of control plasma, whereas plasma from multiparous donors had no effect on it. Five posttransfusion reactions were observed in 100 patients, in four cases after the transfusion of plasma from multiparous donors. CONCLUSION: Plasma from multiparous blood donors may impair pulmonary function in intensive care unit patients.

  • 17.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    The frequency of anti-C + anti-G in the absence of anti-D in alloimmunized pregnancies2001Ingår i: Transfusion Medicine, ISSN 0958-7578, E-ISSN 1365-3148, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 207-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-D+C are often initially identified in sera from alloimmunized women. Anti-G may be present in these samples, mimicking anti-D+C, and therefore the differentiation of anti-D, -C and -G may be important. Sera from 27 alloimmunized women, initially identified as containing anti-D + anti-C, were analysed by adsorption/elution studies in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) using R0r (D+C-G+) and r'r(D-C+G+) red blood cells (RBC). Additionally, 15/27 samples were tested by adsorption in the presence of PEG and subsequently warm elution, using rGr (D-C-G+) RBC. Anti-G + anti-C, without anti-D, were identified in 4/27 samples (14.8%) and none of the newborn children needed postpartum treatment. The combination of D+G, D+C and D+C+G antibodies occurred in 25.9%, 11.1% and 48.1% of the women, respectively. Overall, anti-G was detected in 24/27 samples (88.9%). Pregnant women shown to have anti-G+C but not anti-D should receive Rh immune globulin. Additionally, the finding of apparent anti-D+C during pregnancy in D-negative spouses may lead to paternity testing and therefore a correct antibody identification is necessary.

  • 18.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Hildén, Jan-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    A case of severe Rh (D) alloimmunization treated by intensive plasma exchange and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin2006Ingår i: Transfusion and apheresis science, ISSN 1473-0502, E-ISSN 1878-1683, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 131-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In extremely severe Rh (D) alloimmunization, during pregnancy, early diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid hydrops fetalis. Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is of utmost importance in the prevention of fetal anemia but it is usually feasible only after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, additional treatment options in early pregnancy are needed. Study design and methods: A 27-year-old severely D + C immunized woman was admitted at 8 weeks of gestation in her fifth pregnancy with an extremely high concentration of anti-D. Her first pregnancy was uneventful but resulted in D + C alloimmunization. The next two pregnancies were unsuccessful, because of hydrops fetalis resulting in fetal death in pregnancy week 20 and 24, respectively, despite treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and IUT treatment. A fourth pregnancy was terminated with legal abortion. The patient was eager and persistent to accomplish a successful pregnancy. Therefore, a combination of treatments consisting of plasma exchange (PE) three times/week and IVIG 100 g/week was started in pregnancy week 12. PE was performed 53 times and totally 159 L of plasma was exchanged. Results: The anti-D concentration was 12 μg/mL (IAT titer 2000) before start of treatment by PE and IVIG in pregnancy week 12. The concentration of anti-D was gradually reduced to approximately 3 μg/mL after only two weeks of treatment and was maintained at that level until pregnancy week 22. In pregnancy week 26 and 27, signs of hydrops were detected by ultrasonography and IUT were performed at each occasion. Sectio was inevitable at pregnancy week 28 + 1 and a male baby was born: Hb 58 g/L (cord sample) and 68 g/L (venous sample), weight 1385 g, Apgar score = 4-5-7, Bilirubin 56-150 mmol/L (4 h). Exchange transfusion was performed on day two and day five. Phototherapy was also implemented for eight days. The newborn's recovery thereafter was uneventful and complete. Conclusion: A combination of PE and IVIG may be an efficient treatment possible to start in early pregnancy in patients with extremely severe Rh (D) alloimmunization, with a history of hydrops fetalis in previous pregnancies. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Jablonowska, Barbara
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Kirurgiska kliniken i Östergötland med verksamhet i Linköping, Norrköping och Motala.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Kirurgiska kliniken i Östergötland med verksamhet i Linköping, Norrköping och Motala.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Circulating interferon-gamma- and interleukin-4 - secreting cells in recurrent spontaneous abortions. 1999Ingår i: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology, ISSN 8755-8920, Vol. 41, s. 257-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Lotta, Martinsson
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Kristina, Sundström
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Hypocalcemic symptoms during plateletpheresis using the COBE Spectra: A comparison of oral combination of 600 mg calcium + 300 mg magnesium + 100 IU vitamin D3 vs. a 1000 mg calcium in symptomatic donors2007Ingår i: Transfusion and apheresis science, ISSN 1473-0502, E-ISSN 1878-1683, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 291-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to find an effective treatment for hypocalcemic symptoms during plateletpheresis and to evaluate if a combination of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D3 is more effective in comparison to routine calcium supplementation. Material and methods: A study group consisting of 10 donors, having a history of previous hypocalcemic symptoms during plateletpheresis, donated platelets twice in a one-month period. During the first donation combination tablets (600 mg Ca + 300 mg Mg + 100 IU vitamin D3) were used to treat hypocalcemic symptoms while routine treatment calcium carbonate tablets (1000 mg Ca) were used during the second donation. If symptoms persisted after 10 min the same dose was repeated. A control group, with no supplementation, consisting of five donors, with no history of hypocalcemic symptoms, were included. Donor subjective symptoms were graded and recorded on four occasions: at the start of plateletpheresis, when symptoms appeared, 10 min after the first tablet and at the end of donation. Samples for analysis of ionized calcium (iCa), magnesium and potassium were also taken at the same occasions. Results: All donors from the study group experienced minor or medium hypocalcemic symptoms and needed a second dose of supplementation. Calcium carbonate tablets completely relieved the hypocalcemic symptoms in six donors, it had no effect on three donors and one donor experienced aggravated symptoms. The combination tablets completely relieved the symptoms in three donors, one donor experienced a partial relief and six donors had no relief of symptoms. There were no significant differences in iCa, potassium and magnesium levels were noted in the study group irrespective of which tablets were used for treatment of hypocalcemic symptoms. After plateletpheresis the median iCa levels declined by 30% and potassium levels declined by 3-11% in all donors while the magnesium levels were not significantly affected. There was no correlation between the presence of symptoms and the changed levels of iCa or magnesium. Conclusion: Addition of magnesium and vitamin D3 to calcium seems to have no beneficial effect in the treatment of hypocalcemic symptoms in plateletpheresis donors. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Smolowicz, AG
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin.
    Villman, K
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Tidefelt, U
    Kinetics of peripheral blood stem cell harvests during a single apheresis. 1999Ingår i: Transfusion, ISSN 0041-1132, E-ISSN 1537-2995, Vol. 39, s. 403-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Stegmayr, B. G.
    et al.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Umeå.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Njurmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fehrman, I.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Huddinge.
    Kurkus, J.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Lund.
    Norda, R.
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, County Hospital of Örebro.
    Olander, R.
    Department of Nephrology, County Hospital of Örebro.
    Sterner, G.
    Department of Vascular and Renal Diseases, University Hospital of Malmö.
    Thysell, H.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Lund.
    Wikström, B.
    Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Uppsala.
    Wirén, J. E.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, County Hospital of Jönköping.
    Plasma exchange or immunoadsorption in patients with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A Swedish multi-center study1999Ingår i: International Journal of Artificial Organs, ISSN 0391-3988, E-ISSN 1724-6040, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 81-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A therapeutic removal of antibodies may be achieved by immunoadsorption (IA) or by plasma exchange (PE). The aim of this prospective randomised study was to compare the efficacy of these different techniques with regard to treatment of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPG) having at least 50% crescents. Forty-four patients with a RPG were included for treatment either by IA or PE (with albumin as substitution for removed plasma). All patients were additionally treated with immunosuppression. A median of 6 sessions of PEs were performed in 23 patients compared with 6 IAs in 21 patients. Goodpasture's syndrome (GP) was present in 6 patients (PE 3, IA 3). All of them started and ended in dialysis, two died. Among the remaining 38 patients (26 men, 12 women) 87% had antibodies to ANCA. Creatinine clearance for PE versus IA were at a median at start 17.1 and 19.8 ml/min, and at 6 months 49 and 49 ml/min, respectively. At 6 months 7 of 10 patients did not need dialysis (remaining: IA 0/5 and PE 2/5, n.s.). The extent of improvement did not differ between the groups. Three patients died during the observation period of 6 months (IA 2; PE 1, on HD). Although no difference was found between the IA or the PE group this study shows that the protocol used was associated with an improved renal function in most patients (except for Goodpasture's syndrome) whereas 70% of them could leave the dialysis program.

  • 23. Stegmayr, B
    et al.
    Ptak, J
    Wikström, B
    Mokvist, K
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Axelsson, CG
    Griskevicius, A
    Audzijoniene, J
    Centoni, P
    Liumbruno, G
    Nilsson Sojka, B
    World aphreresis registry - Report of 2004 data2005Ingår i: Transfusion and Apheresis Science,2005, 2005, s. 245-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24. Tynell, Elsa
    et al.
    Norda, Rut
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Sanner, Margareta
    Andersson, Soren
    Bjorkman, Anders
    False-reactive microbiologic screening test results in Swedish blood donors - how big is the problem? A survey among blood centers and deferred donors2007Ingår i: Transfusion, ISSN 0041-1132, E-ISSN 1537-2995, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 80-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Screening of blood donors for markers of transfusion-transmissible infectious agents leads to a varying number of false-reactive test results and sometimes thereby temporary or permanent deferral of donors and also to loss of collected units. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on false-reactive screening test results in 2002 and 2003 were collected from 19 blood centers in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to donors deferred because of false-reactive screening test results to investigate their perception of the information and their reaction to the deferral. RESULTS: Testing of 21,189 samples from new donors and 423,543 donations from regular and/or repeat donors produced 1,059 false-reactive test results, mostly from hepatitis C virus antibody testing, and 299 deferrals. Six different human immunodeficiency virus tests led to between 0.02 and 0.2 percent false-reactive results. The deferral rate varied considerably between different counties. Of 204 deferred donors contacted, 180 (88%) answered the questionnaire. More than 80 percent were worried about their test results and worry was more common among those who did not feel sufficiently informed. CONCLUSION: The results imply that there is a need for a more standardized approach to the screening of blood donors and donations with the aim of minimizing the number of false-reactive screening test results. They also emphasize the importance of appropriate information and support to deferred donors.

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