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  • 1.
    Pekarek Doehler, Simona
    et al.
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Maschler, Yael
    University of Haifa, Israel.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för språk, interaktion och professionell kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Jan
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Complex syntax-in-interaction: Emergent and emerging clause-combining patterns for organizing social actions2020Ingår i: Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action / [ed] Yael Maschler, Simona Pekarek Doehler, Jan Lindström, Leelo Keevallik, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, 1, s. 1-22Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Maschler, Yael
    et al.
    University of Haifa, Israel.
    Pekarek Doehler, Simona
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Lindström, Jan
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action2020 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume explores how emergent patterns of complex syntax – that is, syntactic structures beyond a simple clause – relate to the local contingencies of action formation in social interaction. It examines both the on-line emergence of clause-combining patterns as they are ‘patched together’ on the fly, as well as their routinization and sedimentation into new grammatical patterns across a range of languages – English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Mandarin, and Swedish. The chapters investigate how the real-time organization of complex syntax relates to the unfolding of turns and actions, focusing on: (i) how complex syntactic patterns, or routinized fragments of ‘canonical’ patterns, serve as resources for projection, (ii) how complex syntactic patterns emerge incrementally, moment-by-moment, out of the real-time trajectories of action, (iii) how formal variants of such patterns relate to social action, and (iv) how all of these play out within the multimodal ecologies of action formation.The empirical findings presented in this volume lend support to a conception of syntax as fundamentally temporal, emergent, dialogic, sensitive to local interactional contingencies, and interwoven with other semiotic resources.

  • 3.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för språk, interaktion och professionell kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Grammatical coordination of embodied action: The Estonian ja 'and' as a temporal coordinator of Pilates moves2020Ingår i: Emergent Syntax for Conversation: Clausal Patterns and the Organization of Action / [ed] Yael Maschler, Simona Pekarek Doehler, Jan Lindström, Leelo Keevallik, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020, 1, s. 221-244Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the Estonian coordinating conjunction ja ‘and’ in video- recorded Pilates classes, focusing on the instructors’ practical problem of making the students perform proper movement sequences. It shows how grammatical coordination emerges within a multimodal activity in which the instructor’s talk both directs and responds to student performance. As opposed to the frequent juxtaposition of clauses without connectors, explicit coordination with ja isused for the overall structuring of the class as well as the temporal extensionof talk to achieve synchronicity of vocal and embodied behavior. In contrast to formal theories that consider grammar as a device for coherent expression of pre-planned propositions, this study argues that grammatical structure emerges as part of practical action across participants and modalities.

  • 4.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ogden, Richard
    University of York, United Kingdom.
    Sounds on the margins of language at the heart of interaction2020Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What do people do with sniffs, lip-smacks, grunts, moans, sighs, whistles, and clicks, where these are not part of their language’s phonetic inventory? They use them, we shall show, as irreplaceable elements in performing all kinds of actions—from managing the structural flow of interaction to indexing states of mind and much more besides. In this introductory essay we outline the phonetic and embodied interactional underpinnings of language and argue that greater attention should be paid to its nonlexical elements. Data are in English and Estonian.

  • 5.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för språk, interaktion och professionell kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för logopedi, otorhinolaryngologi och audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    How to take the floor as a couple: Turn-taking in Lindy Hop jam circles2019Ingår i: Visual Anthropology, ISSN 0894-9468, E-ISSN 1545-5920, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 423-444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the tacit norms of embodied turn-taking in a specific dance activity, Lindy Hop jam circles. Building on an extensive tradition of scrutinizing turn-taking in conversation, it shows how dancing couples negotiate the right to a next turn by visual means. Using multimodal interaction analysis, the article dissects the behavior of the exiting couple, the next dancing couple, and the spectators. The analysis shows that music is but one factor in turn-taking, and that maximally three publicly visible steps are necessary for a successful entrance: displaying “couplehood,” displaying imminent entrance, and occupying the exclusive central space. In a case of competition the dancers’ speed and determination are decisive.

  • 6.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hakulinen, Auli
    Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Helsinki University, Finland.
    Epistemically reinforced kyl(lä)/küll-responses in Estonian and Finnish: Word order and social action2018Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 123, s. 121-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at responsive actions built with different word orders, targeting the element kyl(lä) in Finnish and küll in Estonian, two close relatives. Depending on the action sequence and syntax, kyl(lä)/küll expresses intensity or speaker certainty, thus epistemically “reinforcing” the proposition. Historically the same lexical item, even though a noun, meaning roughly ‘abundance, plentiness’ (German ‘Menge’, ‘Reichtum’), kyl(lä)/küll currently occurs in conventionalized patterns which reveal the interface of word order and social action. In both languages, the intensifying kyl(lä)/küll initiates reactive assessments. In Finnish, it is also used as an epistemic adverb that marks speaker certainty, building affirming answers in both unit-initial and unit final positions. In Estonian, the epistemic küll initially formats consoling responses, while in unit-final positions, it is a regular part of a formulaic (dis)affirmation and functions almost like a clitic.  The paper argues that word order regarding what have traditionally been seen as syntactically peripheral elements, such as adverbs and particles, can be constitutive of units implementing social actions. It suggests that the sequential analysis of action is a perfect method for revealing subtle semantic and pragmatic differences between the uses of historically close items in related languages.

  • 7.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making up one’s mind in second position: Estonian no-preface in action plans2018Ingår i: Between Turn and Sequence: Turn-initial particles across languages / [ed] John Heritage, Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 315-338Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses preferred responses that are delayed by the initial particle no in Estonian. It demonstrates that the turn-initial time-space may be employed for a display of “making up one’s mind”, either weighing matters outside the conversation or something already discussed in the talk. The paper argues that besides the dichotomous choice between the preferred and the dispreferred answer format, there are individual contingencies to consider in committing to future actions as made relevant in requests, proposals and suggestions. The particle no prefaces preferred second actions that are associated with high contingency for the concerned parties, or are framed as such. Examples of high contingency include receiving a guest, attending a potentially unpleasant meeting, and faking a signature. The no-prefacing pattern is valid across response types, from partial to full repeats and independently formatted responses which reflect other social dimensions of talk-in-interaction, such as independent agency, commitment, and degree of assent/confirmation. By marking a transition from prior resistance to current compliance with a no-preface, the speaker makes salient that she is currently considering whether to proceed to a complying or non-complying answer, as well as indexes a more global transition between these two standpoints. The resulting turn gives an appearance of a carefully considered and therefore socially cohesive response.

  • 8.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sequence Initiation or Self-Talk? Commenting on the Surroundings While Mucking out a Sheep Stable2018Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 313-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates comments on the physical surroundings while a group of people are shoveling dung in a sheep stable. In this setting, where the auditory space is mostly open for talk, some comments launch a conversational sequence, while others are treated as self-talk. The article discusses how the speakers body posture, speech volume, and gaze, as well as the nature of the referent, contribute to attracting a response. Comments treated as self-talk are typically uttered with low volume, while the speaker is bending forwards with his or her gaze toward the ground. Comments that launch a sequence and achieve a focused interaction are instead spoken out loud, with the speakers body oriented toward the other participants, and deploy the recipients current attention focus. Furthermore, the timing of the comment just before an upcoming activity junction from shoveling to a brief rest increases the chances of a conversational sequence being developed. The data are in Estonian with an English translation.

  • 9.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The temporal organization of conversation while mucking out a sheep stable2018Ingår i: Time in Embodied Interaction: Synchronicity and sequentiality of multimodal resources / [ed] Arnulf Deppermann, Jürgen Streeck, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 97-122Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on talk-oriented activities, there seems to be a consensus that turn-taking is organized to minimize gaps between turns. This study looks at a conversational sequence that evolved in a multi-party setting during a joint cleaning of a sheep stable, and analyzes how nextness is accomplished in a nonproblematic manner after extensive silences. It argues that due to the non-cognitive but physically straining nature of the activity in a confined space, chatting is almost constant but response relevance is reduced. It discusses the moral orders of talk and work in this multiactivity setting, where urgency is not an issue, and suggests that data collection for sequence analysis be more attentive to the systematic differences between talk-oriented and other settings.

  • 10.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    What Does Embodied Interaction Tell Us About Grammar?2018Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 51, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article navigates the findings of conversation analysis, interactional linguistics, and related multimodal studies to summarize what we know about the grammar-body interface. It shows how grammar is fitted to sequences and trajectories of embodied activities, as well as deployed interchangeably with bodily displays, resulting in truly multimodal patterns that emerge in real time. These findings problematize both the paradigmatic and syntagmatic structures documented in verbal-only linguistics. They call for a reconceptualization of grammar as an assembly of routinized methods for the organization of vocal conduct, capable of incorporating aspects of participants bodily behavior. Data are in Estonian, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Swedish.

  • 11.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Habicht, Külli
    Tartu University, Estonia.
    Grammaticalization, (inter)subjectification, and sequencing of actions: the Estonian epistemic (question) particle ega2017Ingår i: Linguistica Uralica, ISSN 0868-4731, E-ISSN 1736-7506, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 81-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the semantic-pragmatic and syntactic development of the negation verb/word ei + the adverb kaas ’together, also’ into an epistemic marker and particle ega. Ega has been described as a coordinating conjunction, a marker of negation and a question word in Estonian grammars and we will show how these diverse usages come together on a timeline from the earliest written sources to present-day conversation. Ega has first been grammaticalized into a conjunction and then into an emphatic epistemic marker indicating speaker certainty as well as opposition with prior discourse. It is now being reanalyzed as a question word in cases where the negative proposition concerns matters that belong to the interlocutor’s area of competence. The study shows that inter- actional sequencing of actions may provide a crucial clue for the process of (inter)subjectification. It also proposes a novel cline of grammaticalization for a question word, and thus illustrates the benefits of combining the methods of conversation analysis and historical linguistics. 

  • 12.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Linking performances: The temporality of contrastive grammar2017Ingår i: Linking Clauses and Actions in Social Interaction / [ed] R. Laury, M. Etelämäki & E. Couper-Kuhlen, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2017, s. 54-72Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Negotiating deontic rights in second position: young adult daughters' imperatively formatted responses to mothers' offers in Estonian2017Ingår i: Imperative turns at talk: the design of directives in action / [ed] Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Liisa Raevaara and Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen, Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, s. 271-295Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks at offer sequences in Estonian with an analytical focus on answers in the imperative form. “Telling someone to do something” has traditionally been considered an initiating action, typically an order. In this study, however, Estonian speakers are shown to produce “orders” in second position, i.e., in response to an initiating action. These imperative responses are grammatically fitted to first actions in at least two ways. First, they reuse the verbs in the first actions, thus constituting one type of verb repeat response that is common in Estonian conversation. Second, they are grammatically restricted to positions after turns formatted in 1st person, termed my-side offers in this study. With the adjacency pair my-side offer – imperative response participants are shown to navigate the landscape of interpersonal deontics. It is a crucial feature of my-side offers that the speaker defines the future from her own perspective, formulating what she herself will do, albeit with clear consequences for, and obligations by, the recipient. The originator of the offer thus claims deontic rights over the future course of activities that concern both parties, and displays a strong expectation of acceptance by the other. Imperative responses, however, challenge these rights. Instead of merely accepting the offer, they redefine the current speaker as the deontic authority. The analysis is based on phone calls between mothers and young adult daughters – a relationship where entitlement to services, as well as respective deontic rights, can be an issue. It is overwhelmingly mothers who produce offers in these calls, and daughters who answer them in the imperative form. The paper argues that the daughters thereby reclaim agency and rights to independently decide upon their future in the ongoing process of becoming a responsible adult. 

  • 14.
    Laanesoo, Kirsi
    et al.
    Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Noticing Breaches with Nonpolar Interrogatives: Estonian Kes (“Who”) Ascribing Responsibility for Problematic Conduct2017Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 286-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article targets action formation in multimodal sequences. It shows how nonpolar interrogatives in Estonian are used for noticing breaches in others’ embodied conduct, focusing on kes (“who”)-interrogatives. In contrast to information questions with kes, a “noticing of a breach” does not seek an informative answer, which would be an identification of the grammatical actor of the action depicted in the interrogative. The actor is instead the addressee of the turn, often called by name, and thus clear to everyone present. These “rhetorical” kes-interrogatives formulate a just-observed conduct as problematic, and attribute responsibility for it. Since they call for either a remedy of the (embodied) conduct or a contesting of the blame as the next action, noticing breaches marginally qualify as directive actions. At the same time, they do not explicitly provide any guidelines for the future. The study argues that to determine function in language, it is necessary to study grammatical structures in their temporally emerging and embodied activity contexts. The data are Estonian with English translation.

  • 15.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Språkvetenskap och interaktionsforskning2017Ingår i: Varför språkvetenskap?: kunskapsintressen, studieobjekt och drivkrafter / [ed] David Håkansson, Anna-Malin Karlsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, s. 91-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Abandoning dead ends: The Estonian junction marker maitea 'I dont know'2016Ingår i: JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS, ISSN 0378-2166, Vol. 106, s. 115-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the claim ma ei tea, lit. I not know, often pronounced as maitea in Estonian conversation. In contrast to earlier findings on I dont know as an epistemic hedge and non-answer (based on, among others, English data) the current study shows that maitea accomplishes a specific non-epistemic function in Estonian conversation, as a means of recovering from dead ends in real time. It is deployed for abandoning units-in-progress and discarding stalled topical sequences, and then contingently launching new ones. The paper demonstrates how the meaning of maitea emerges differently in sequential contexts where displays of knowledge have been made relevant, as opposed to when they have not, and thus contributes to the theoretical understanding of meaning as a situated achievement, in particular when it comes to ephemeral cognitive concepts such as "knowing". (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Estonian no(o)(h) in turns and sequences: families of function2016Ingår i: NU/NÅ: A family of discourse markers across the languages of Europe and beyond / [ed] Peter Auer and Yael Maschler, Berlin Boston: De Gruyter , 2016, s. 213-242Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Hakulinen, Auli
    et al.
    Helsingfors Universitet, Finland.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Suomen ja viron kyl(lä)/küll ja kieltolausen sanajärjestys. [Finnish and Estonian kyl(lä)/küll and the word order of negative clauses.]2016Ingår i: Lähivôrdlusi. Lähivertailuja, ISSN 1736-9290, E-ISSN 2228-3854, Vol. 26, s. 84-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks comparatively at the Finnish kyl(lä) and Estonian küll, which function as an epistemic adverb and a particle in both languages, and have a common origin in the noun ‘abundance’. Even though the word is mostly used to formulate positive answers, it also occurs in negative utterances. This is the focus of the current paper, which at the same time touches on the complex area of word order. 

    Even though both languages feature more or less free pragmatic word order, the patterns for negative utterances which contain both the negation word ei and kyl(lä)/küll are varied, especially regarding the placement of adverbs and particles. On the basis of conversational data the study establishes four patterns for Finnish((X+)ei,en+X+kyl(lä);ei+X+kyllä#;ei+V+kyl(lä)+Y;X+ei+ kyl(lä) +Y, where X denotes one or several noun phrases and Y an adverbial) and three patterns for Estonian (X + ei + V (+X) + küll + other; ei + V + küll# (+ other); X/Y + küll + ei + V + other), where only the last one is frequent. Accordingly, Finnish reveals more flexibility in word order and negation-initial patterns, while in Estonian ei regularly follows küll, which is impossible in Finnish. The negation word and the finite verb have to occur near each other in Estonian but not in Finnish.

    In order to analyze the interactional functions of these patterns, the conversation analytic method is used which makes it possible to reveal participants’ local understanding of each prior action. The study shows that there are two relatively small functional areas where the word order patterns coincide in Finnish and Estonian: in a concessive use ((X+) ei, en + V + kyl(lä)/küll), and when kyl(lä)/küll is used as an utterance-final epistemic marker. The latter pattern, however, is extremely rare in Estonian, and has developed a special implication of ‘as a matter of fact’ in Finnish. 

    In other functions, the word order is different. In particular, in answers to polar questions the ordering of the negation word and kyl(lä) or küll is the opposite, with negation preceding kyl(lä) in Finnish and following küll in Estonian. While in Finnish the word kyl(lä) functions as an epistemic reassurance for the recipient, in Estonian the küll + ei pattern is typically used for building contrast with the prior and setting the initial element into focus. Regardless of the phonological and historical similarity, the syntactic patterns for this adverb/ particle are different, which may reflect more overarching differences in word order between the two languages – something that remains to be explored. At least when it comes to kyl(lä) and küll, Finnish word order is more flexible, while Estonian displays a distinct grammaticalized pattern. Accordingly, the function of the “same” epistemic word emerges in a more content-related manner in Finnish, where it expresses speaker certainty, and as more of a syntactic device in Estonian, where it marks another element in the clause as being contrasted. This illustrates the decisive role of interactional and syntactic context in (the development of) word meaning. 

  • 19.
    Weatherall, Ann
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    When Claims of Understanding Are Less Than Affiliative2016Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 167-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation analysis has established that the smooth progression of interaction and the accomplishment of action rest on joint understanding, which is implicitly built by a next turn of talk. In this article we examine explicit claims to intersubjective understanding from a range of settings from the institutional to the mundane. Our target expressions have the general form; I + understand + YOU + PSYCHOLOGICAL FORMULATION such as I understand your concern and I see that this is frustrating you. We propose these expressions do pro forma affiliationthat is, they make a show of affiliating, even if in fact there is no affiliation. By explicitly claiming and demonstrating an understanding of the other speakers subjectivity, our target expression orients to misalignment between the parties, makes a show of other-attentiveness and bridges a shift that advances a speakers interactional agenda. Our contribution is to show the strategic function of a previously undocumented pro-social grammatical-conversational structure. Data are in English, and in Estonian and Swedish with English translation.

  • 20.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Coordinating the temporalities of talk and dance.2015Ingår i: Temporality in Interaction / [ed] Arnulf Deppermann, Suzanne Günthner, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, s. 309-336Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the coordination of vocal and bodily behavior in the multilayered activity of dance teaching, where teachers simultaneously explain and perform. The aim is to show how talk is adjusted to the rhythm and character of the dance on the one hand, and how dance is fitted into the evolving grammar on the other. The study focuses on the emergence of specialized grammar that is capable of incorporating embodied demonstrations. The temporalities of talk and dance are mutually adjusted and intertwined in the teachersí actions, resulting in inherently multimodal patterns of sense-making that are applied for various instructive and other social tasks. Calling into question the analytic boundary between grammar and the body, the paper argues that projection cross-cuts modalities.

  • 21.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.
    Pajusalu, Karl
    Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.
    Estonian as a heritage language in Sweden: Acoustic and perceptual characteristics of the quantity system2014Ingår i: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 357-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the Estonian three-way phonological quantity distinction by the second generation Swedish Estonians. Production of the three phonological quantities has been measured in the informal interviews with four speakers, all active members of the Estonian exile community. Comparisons with native Estonians show that three of the four Swedish Estonians had retained the length difference between quantity 2 and 3 in all disyllabic word types. All four displayed native-like pitch contours while two were somewhat inconsistent. The same speakers and four additional ones were then tested for perception of the quantities with re-synthesized speech stimuli. For Estonians in Estonia the temporal cue and the pitch cue are effective in combination, while the Swedish Estonian group shows extensive variability. Some speakers only display the effect of the temporal cue, similarly to fluent Estonian L2 speakers. Others have reduced the three-way system to a binary one. In this pilot study we can thus observe either incomplete acquisition in a foreign environment or language attrition in the first Swedish-born generation.

  • 22.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Getting Ready to Move as a Couple: Accomplishing Mobile Formations in a Dance Class2014Ingår i: Space and Culture, ISSN 1206-3312, E-ISSN 1552-8308, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 107-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article focuses on how students in a Lindy Hop dance class move into a complex mobile formation as a sequentially relevant response to a directive embedded in the teachers verbal and embodied instructions of the next task for practice. This sequence of actions accomplishes a transition from a stationary constellation of observing students to a mobile circle of practicing dance couples. The article describes in detail how instruction is turned into practice in an emergent way, in and through the simultaneous accountable production and reception of qualitative instruction, practice proposals, structuring instructions, and count-ins. The analysis shows how student behavior is oriented to the couple as a relevant mobile formation and how couples gradually become more synchronized with each other.

  • 23.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Having a ball: immaterial objects in dance instruction2014Ingår i: Interacting with objects: language, materiality, and social activity / [ed] Maurice Nevile, Pentti Haddington, Trine Heinemann, Mirka Rauniomaa, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, s. 249-268Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at how immaterial objects are manipulated into being for pedagogical purposes. Dance teachers employ objects to visualize subtle tactile and kinaesthetic experiences. The objects emerge in a situated manner within activity metaphors where alternative bodily activities are juxtaposed with the dance movement, taking for granted that these alternative activities are tacitly known or more basic. The objects have a temporally limited existence within activity metaphors that involve verbal explanations as well as embodied demonstrations of both the dance and the alternative activity. Furthermore, participants are shown to orient differently to mere object-implying gestures as opposed to fully-fledged whole-body enactments. In the latter, objects may be maintained collectively across time.

  • 24.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Turn organization and bodily-vocal demonstrations2014Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 65, s. 103-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on turns in interaction that involve a bodily-vocal demonstration: an embodied demonstration that is accompanied by a non-lexical vocalization. It shows how the temporal organization of these demonstrations contributes to participant treatment of them as a part of a turn-constructional unit, mostly as its completion. It is also suggested that a bodily-vocal demonstration may function as a separate turn-constructional unit, with a transition relevance point before it, and other participants refraining from action before its completion. Vocalizations, occasionally with coherent pitch contours of intonation units, are argued to render bodily displays vocal space within turns-at-talk. After a bodily-vocal demonstration, the turn-constructional unit can be recompleted with verbal devices, displaying further similarity to verbal-only turns. The analysis calls into attention the relevance of embodied behavior to the emergence of units in conversation.

  • 25.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Accomplishing continuity across sequences and encounters: No(h)-prefaced initiations in Estonian2013Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 57, s. 274-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiating actions, such as the introduction of a topic or the initiation of a sequence in a conversation, are social accomplishments. The study focuses on the Estonian no(h)-preface in turns that initiate action sequences and often also a locally new topic in a human encounter. It argues that these no(h)-prefaced turns accomplish continuity beyond the current event and thereby index a long-term involvement between the participants. By marking the turn as warranted by an earlier action trajectory, the no(h)-preface contributes to achieving continuity of action across intervening sequences and encounters. The data come from 70 hours of recordings primarily of phone calls.

  • 26.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Here in time and space: decomposing movement in dance instruction2013Ingår i: Interaction and mobility: language and the body in motion / [ed] Pentti Haddington, Lorenza Mondada, Maurice Nevile, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2013, s. 345-370Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How do people use language, gestures and the materialenvironment around themfor interacting in mobile situations? Interaction and Mobility brings together international scholars who use video-recordings from real-life everyday settings to study how people interact in diverse mobile situations as part of activities such as walking, driving, flying, dancing and gaming. This book isvaluablefor anyone interested in multimodal interaction and mobility.

  • 27.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mundane reaction words in swedish estonian2013Ingår i: Keelemees Raimo Raag 60 / [ed] Tiina Söderman, Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus , 2013, s. 50-65Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Modern Languages , Uppsala University , Sweden .
    The interdependence of bodily demonstrations and clausal syntax2013Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 1-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Units in interaction are emergent real-time phenomena that can be accomplished by the coordinated deployment of language and the body. Focusing mostly on data from dance classes, this study looks at how incomplete syntax projects a continuation realized by the body, and systematically accounts for clausal syntax that can incorporate an embodied demonstration. It is argued that the classic list of types of turn-constructional units by Sacks et al. (1974) needs to be expanded with a syntactic-bodily one, and that the syntax of embodied demonstrations has to be included in the grammatical description of language.

  • 29.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Compromising progressivity: 'no'-prefacing in Estonian2012Ingår i: Pragmatics: Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association, ISSN 1018-2101, E-ISSN 2406-4238, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 119-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative polar particles have generally been characterized as items for expressing disagreement or responding negatively to polar questions. What has been lacking in these accounts is attention to embodied activities. This paper studies the usage of the Estonian negative particle ei as a preface in real-time activities, showing that it halts the ongoing action, often for the sake of achieving intersubjective understanding and establishing epistemic authority. The paper shows how other matters besides logic and truth-conditions define the meaning of the negative particle. Analysis of linguistic function demands transgressing the boundaries of language and scrutiny of co-present interaction in its temporal emergence. The paper argues that several discourse functions of ei are also more accurately described from the vantage point of its usage in multimodal face-to-face settings than from the logical properties that the item happens to display in limited sequential contexts after yes/no interrogatives.

  • 30.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Eestikeelse telefonivestluse erijooned [Särdrag i estniska telefonsamtal]2011Ingår i: Keel ja Kirjandus, ISSN 0131-1441, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 389-391Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grammar for adjusting assumptions: the Estonian enclitic -gi/-ki in interaction2011Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 2879-2896Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article shows how a bound morpheme, the enclitic -gi/-ki in Estonian, functions in the domain of interpersonal relations and mutual knowledge calibration in conversation. Speakers use the enclitic with verbs in order to adjust some assumption previously held by themselves or by their interlocutors. When formulating contributions in talk, participants always display assumptions about matters at hand as well as about what they believe other participants know. Furthermore, when accomplishing a first action in a sequence, they display an assumption that the next speaker will align in her action. All these assumptions are subject to adjustment by other participants who may present themselves as more knowledgeable on the subject matter or more entitled to provide opinions about it. The enclitic is used in reactive turns to indicate better epistemic access and higher authority in relation to a prior speaker, which may result in a disaligning action.

  • 32.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Institutionen för moderna språk,Uppsala universitet.
    Interrogative "complements" and question design in Estonian2011Ingår i: 'Subordination' in Conversation: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective / [ed] Ritva Laury & Ryoko Suzuki, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, s. 37-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Some interrogative subject and object complement clauses are not treated as subordinate in Estonian interaction. They are interactionally profiled, as participants answer them as questions. Grammatically, they behave like independent clauses, displaying inversion and the turn-final question particle vä/ve. The main clauses considered in the chapter, ütle/öelge ‘say!’, räägi ‘talk/tell!’, ei tea ‘not know’, and uvitav ‘interesting’, instead function as (epistemic) particles projecting and designing questions in a sequentially and interpersonally sensitive way

  • 33.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Pragmatics of the Estonian heritage speakers in Sweden2011Ingår i: Finnisch-Ugrische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0341-7816, Vol. 35, s. 55-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pro-forms as projective devices in interaction2011Ingår i: Discourse processes, ISSN 0163-853X, E-ISSN 1532-6950, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 404-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align with the ongoing talk and to initiate subsequent contributions in a timely manner. The study looks at how Estonian pro-forms are systematically used to project either a word (phrase) or a clause in interaction. The patterns discussed are not universal and it will be suggested that projecting word (phrases) with pro-forms is a characteristic of a nonprepositional language with no articles, and that pro-form projection can be especially useful in a free word order language. As many pro-forms do not end up with a co-referential word, projection provides a better account of their function. The article underlines the necessity of studying grammar as a temporal phenomenon.

  • 35.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    The contemporary pragmatics of the Estonian clause combiner and particle ega2011Ingår i: Congressus XI Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum. Piliscsaba 9-14.8.10. pars VI. / [ed] Sándor Csúcs, Nóra Falk, Viktória Tóth, Gábor Zaicz, Piliscsaba: Reguky Társaság , 2011, s. 197-205Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    The terms of not knowing2011Ingår i: The Morality of Knowledge in Interaction / [ed] Tanya Stivers, Lorenza Mondada, Jacob Steensig, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, s. 184-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In some sequential positions in conversation, knowledge displays are systematically due. Information questions make the recipient accountable for providing an informative answer and mai tea (‘I don’t know’ in Estonian) serves as an account for not doing so. This paper looks at mai tea in responsive turns in everyday conversation in Estonian, showing parallels in Swedish and Russian.

     

    Prior conversation analytic studies on “no knowledge” responses have been based on institutional interaction (Clayman 2001; Drew 1992; Hutchby 2002) where knowledge as well as the right to extort it are distributed according to the participants’ institutional roles. In everyday interaction a “no knowledge” response is treated as a joint responsibility. Insofar as questions should be addressed to knowing recipients, a mai tea response implies that the question was irrelevant, inapposite or posed to a wrong recipient. The answerer can affiliatively show her understanding of the design of the question by giving a further account. In the case of stand-alone mai tea, which constitutes a disaffiliative action, the questioner is responsible for redesigning the question. The epistemic claim is thus used for handling interactional contingencies. The paper looks at how participants manage the accountability for not knowing, and how this plays out in terms of speaker-recipient affiliation.

  • 37.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Bodily quoting in dance correction2010Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 401-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on research into reported speech and enactments, this study explores a new aspect of  quoting by looking at how dance teachers ascribe body movements to students. Whether words or movements are quoted depends on the activity the participants are engaged in and what they aim to accomplish. Within corrective teaching sequences at dance classes bodily quotes serve to contrast incorrect performance with the correct one and display features such as decomposition, highlighting, and exaggeration. They afford simultaneous production of demonstration and description. The paper argues that a quote can only be understood as such within the local context and, even in the case of bodily quoting, with adequate ascription. Quoting other bodies is an inherently multimodal achievement, where vocal as well as bodily resources are implemented to construct a coherent course of action. The study is based on video-recorded data in three languages, Swedish, Estonian and English.

  • 38.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Clauses emerging as epistemic adverbs in Estonian conversation2010Ingår i: Linguistica Uralica, ISSN 0868-4731, E-ISSN 1736-7506, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 81-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper shows how four combinations of 1st person pronoun + epistemic verb emerge as adverbs in contemporary spoken Estonian, arguing that word classes have fuzzy boundaries. Excerpts from naturally occurring conversations demonstrate how ma tean ‘I know’, ma usun ‘I believe’, ma arvan ‘I think’, and mai tea ‘I don’t know’ are used in varying positions in relation to the commented clause with the prosody that usually suggests their integration into these units. The items display somewhat divergent semantics as compared to their components, expressing degrees of epistemic certainty and uncertainty as well as personalized stance.

  • 39.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Construction of identity in the Estonian refugee community in Sweden2010Ingår i: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 177-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constructionist approaches underline that identity is constantly negotiated. It emerges in everyday actions and behavioral patterns, fleeting comments by the participants in the social events. Values and attitudes are promoted and confronted. This paper studies membership categorization and pragmatic code-switching in the Swedish Estonian refugee community, demonstrating the fragile balance between the ‘Estonian’ and the ‘Swedish’. The speakers orient to Estonian Estonian as the target variety, while frequently using Swedish for sense-making. The analysis is based on audio and video recordings of Swedish Estonian club activities and research interviews. 

  • 40.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Everyday Construction of Identity in the Estonian Refugee Community in Sweden2010Ingår i: Journal of Baltic Studies, ISSN 0162-9778, E-ISSN 1751-7877, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 177-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constructionist approaches underscore that identity is constantly negotiated. It emerges as values and attitudes are promoted and confronted in everyday actions, behavioral patterns and fleeting comments by participants in social events. This article analyzes membership categorization and pragmatic code-switching in the Swedish Estonian refugee community, demonstrating the fragile balance between 'Estonian' and 'Swedish'. The speakers orient to Estonian Estonian as the target variety of language, while frequently using Swedish for sense-making. The analysis is based on audio and video recordings of Swedish Estonian club activities and research interviews.

  • 41.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska språk.
    Hinnangu grammatikast [On the grammar of assessments]2010Ingår i: Eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse ajakiri, ISSN 1736-8987, E-ISSN 2228-1339, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 147-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [et]

    Artikkel käsitleb lauseid, mis algavad hinnangusõnaga ja mida on traditsiooniliselt käsitletud aluslauseliste tarinditena. Võttes arvesse morfosüntaktilisi, semantilisi, järjendilisi ja intonatsioonilisi piiranguid, argumenteeritakse, et pigem tuleks tarindit analüüsida kui kommentaari ja lause kombinatsiooni. Kommentaar sisaldab hinnangusõna või -fraasi ja lause hinnatavat. Hinnangulausel on seega eesti keeles oma eripärane grammatiline vorm. Tarindi peamiseks eeliseks on võimalus kommenteerida eelnevat, minnes samas kohe edasi järgmise vaatenurga või teema juurde. Materjal pärineb nii suulistest kui kirjalikest allikatest ja peamiselt suhtluskeskkondadest, st suulisest vestlusest ja interneti jututubadest.

  • 42.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Marking boundaries between activities: The particle nii in Estonian2010Ingår i: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 157-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a practice of marking transitions to a next activity in Estonian interaction. The particle nii is implemented at boundaries between activities or phases of activities, showing that a pragmatic particle need not be implemented only in regard to verbal matters, such as topic or turn sequence. Nii marks the prior activity or its phase as being closed down and the next one as imminent. Sequences of verbal and non-verbal actions in audio and video recordings disclose the multimodal nature of the boundaries marked by nii. Boundary marking entails a number of interactional capacities, including summoning, claiming authority, setting the agenda, making salient transitions within an individual course of action, marking the expectedness of the sequencing of activities, and changing opportunities for participation.

  • 43.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Minimal answers to yes/no questions in the service of sequence organization2010Ingår i: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 283-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In conversation analytic and interactional studies, some responses are analyzed as being minimal. This article explores minimality in regard to two types of answers that appear to be used interchangeably as minimal responses to yes/no questions in Estonian. The answers represent typologically different formats, particles and echo answers (verb repeats). It is argued that minimality should be defined in a sequentially sensitive manner and that the two answer formats are used to display speaker’s understanding of the status of the social action implemented in the preceding question. The data come from audio recordings of phone calls and face-to-face interaction.

  • 44.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Pro-adverbs of manner as markers of activity transition2010Ingår i: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 350-381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the phenomenon that pro-adverbs of manner are cross-linguistically used to mark transitions from one activity to another. In Estonian, the pro-adverb nii is used for this purpose. Among Estonian refugees in Sweden, an activity transition is frequently marked with soo. Both nii and soo originally had the same semantic meaning ‘like this/that, in this way, so’, even though soo merely in its source language German. The article argues that the deictic pro-adverbs of manner are especially suitable for the task of marking activity transitions because they can be applied at the boundaries of verbal as well as non-verbal activities. The reason for the existence of this pattern seems to lie in the general necessity in human interaction to jointly move from one activity to another and the exophoric deictic capacity of pro-adverbs. The study explores audio- and video-recorded examples with regard to the sequencing of social actions accomplished by the participants in the verbal as well as the bodily domain.

  • 45.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Social action of syntactic reduplication2010Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 800-824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduplication has been shown to carry the semantic meaning of increased intensity, duration or emphasis. This study demonstrates that syntactic reduplication in Estonian is regularly used in responsive positions in action sequences. Instances of syntactic reduplication constitute specific social practices such as affiliative and disaffiliative urging, challenging the prior speaker, reinforcing answers to yes/no questions, and providing a non-elicited confirmation. It is a sedimented linguistic pattern grounded in the social actions it recurrently performs. Different reduplicative actions furthermore display characteristic prosodic features, involving initial prominence in affiliative actions and delayed pitch peak in disaffiliative ones. Mock repeats and disconfirming answers are produced with double pitch peaks. Grammar and prosody are complementary means of achieving social action in particular positions in interactive sequences. The paper shows that sequential and social contingencies may be essential in understanding a grammatical pattern.

  • 46.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    The interactional profile of a placeholder: the Estonian demonstrative see2010Ingår i: Fillers, Pauses and Placeholders / [ed] Nino Amiridze, Boyd H. Davis & Margaret Maclagan, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins , 2010, s. 139-172Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fillers are used to delay the next due unit in talk. The study argues that there may be interactional advantages in the delay of key items in turns, such as easing the processing for the recipient, announcing structural boundaries of conversation, and displaying orientation to the sensitiveness of the action. The subject matter of the paper is the Estonian pronoun and demonstrative see, which is also used as a placeholder. See projects a noun as the next due item and locally organizes the actions of the participants so that either the speaker or the recipient will produce it. Its particular interactional affordance is enabling the ordering of elements of noun phrases in ways that breach the rules of grammatical well-formedness.

  • 47.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Balti keelepoliitika õigustuseks [Justifying language policies in the Baltics]2009Ingår i: Sirp, ISSN 1406-6254, Vol. 40, nr 0kt 30, s. 5-5Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [et]

    Gabrielle Hogan-Brun, Uldis Ozolins, Meilutė Ramonienė, Mart Rannut, Language Politics and Practices in the Baltic States. Current Issues in Language Planning, Volume 8, Issue 4 January 2008, lk 469–631.    Oleme veendunud, et väljaspool Balti riike elavad inimesed ei saa õieti aru, miks meie keelepoliitika on just selline, nagu ta on. Sealjuures on seda kogu taasiseseisvusaja saatnud erakordselt suur rahvusvaheline tähelepanu. Sellest ajendatuna on neli keele- ja poliitikateadlast kirjutanud monograafia, mille eesmärgiks on asetada kolme Balti riigi viimase aja keelepoliitika ajaloolisse konteksti. Raamatu üks põhieesmärke ongi väidelda, et keelealaste otsuste tegemisel ei ole võimalik lähtuda ainult käesolevast hetkest, vaid peab arvestama ka ajaloolist tausta. Seisukoht, mis kodusele lugejale on intuitiivselt endastmõistetav. 

  • 48.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Finsk-ugriska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Collaborating towards Coherence: Lexical Cohesion in English DiscourseSanna-Kaisa Tanskanen, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2006, 192 pp., $1582009Ingår i: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 1071-1073Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Käskiv kõneviis nõustuvas voorus ja vastuste tüpoloogia [Imperative in complying turns and the typology of answers]2009Ingår i: Emakeele seltsi aastaraamat, ISSN 0206-3735, Vol. 54, s. 94-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Imperative has traditionally been treated as a grammatical feature characteristic of first pair parts in adjacency pairs, expressing orders, requests, challenges, and demands. These actions make relevant compliance as the next action. In a number of languages, however, among them in Estonian, imperative is also used in second pair parts. It occurs as a response to a proposal that is expressed in first person but implies collaboration on behalf of the recipient. As a rule, the verb from the first pair part of the adjacency pair (proposal) is repeated in the complying imperative response. The sequence proposal in 1st person – compliance in 2nd person imperative constitutes a grammatical configuration that results form the particular interactional goals of the speakers. Without taking into consideration the specifics of social actions and their sequencing the configuration is impossible to characterize, as the syntax of the proposals varies.

    As an alternative to the generic response with particle jaa/jah, a verb repeat is a more independent action that enhances the social and deontic force of the answer. By complying with a verb, the speaker makes a stronger commitment to the proposed activity.

    Verb repeats, albeit not in the imperative, are also possible as responses to proposals in other persons in Estonian. In addition, they occur as responses to yes/no questions. The latter pattern has been described as a typological feature in world’s languages. It seems that the possibility of imperative responses co-occurs with verb repeat responses to questions. In varieties of Estonian that have been in close contact with languages that do not reuse verbs in the same way, such as Swedish, verbs are instead replaced with ’do’ in the second pair part.

    The study is based on spoken language corpora.

  • 50.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    The grammar-interaction interface of negative questions in Estonian2009Ingår i: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 22, s. 139-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Grammatically negative questions have been considered tricky because out of context it is basically impossible to predict whether they are conducive of a positive or negative answer (e.g. Sadock and Zwicky 1985). Furthermore, some of them convey reverse polarity affirmations rather than ask for information (Koshik 2002). The current study looks systematically at all negative polar questions found in Estonian spoken language corpora and shows that in actual usage, they are predominantly conducive of a confirming answer. However, a confirming answer may in some cases be either in a positive or negative form. Conduciveness of a negative question as well as its linguistic format depend on the action the question implements in a conversational sequence. The paper shows that each of the five negative question formats in Estonian regularly implement different kinds of social action ranging from challenging and topic initiation to requests for information and confirmation.

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