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  • 1.
    Eneland, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Metoder för att undersöka effekterna av naturvårdshänsynen i skogsbruket efter den nya skogsvårdslagen2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har undersökt skillnaderna mellan den nuvarande skogsvårdslagen och den föregående. Undersökningen har bestått av två delar, där ena delen är en litteraturstudie av lagarna och den andra är en fältstudie av metoder för att mäta naturhänsynsförändring. Som komplement till fältstudien har en litteraturstudie av undersökningsparametranas naturvårdsnytta. Litteraturstudien av lagarna gick till på följande sätt, inledningen av båda lagarna och hänsynsparagraferna har lästs och jämförts. Fältstudie har gjorts efter metoder som har arbetats fram och sedan testats i fält. De undersökningsområden som har testats är stående död ved med undergruppen konstgjorda högstubbar, grova träd, hänsynsytor, trädslagsfördelning och boträd. Testningen skedde i trakterna kring Orsa i Dalarnas län. Resultatet blev att hälften av undersökningsområdena skulle kunna användas i en större studie efter några modifikationer. Andra hälften av undersökningsområdena kan det inte på grund av att referensdata saknas. Lagstudien visade att den största skillnaden mellan de båda lagarna ligger i att i den nuvarande har man jämställt miljömålet med produktionsmålet. Det finns även en attitydförändring till en större öppenhet mot naturvård i den nya lagen.

  • 2.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rutting, Tobias
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evolution of nitrogen cycling in regrowing Amazonian rainforest2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 8538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive regions of tropical forests are subjected to high rates of deforestation and forest regrowth and both are strongly affect soil nutrient cycling. Nitrogen (N) dynamics changes during forest regrowth and the recovery of forests and functioning similar to pristine conditions depends on sufficient N availability. We show that, in a chronosequence of Amazonian forests, gross nitrification and, as a result, nitrate-to-ammonium (NO3- : NH4+) ratio were lower in all stages of regrowing forests (10 to 40 years) compared to pristine forest. This indicates the evolution of a more conservative and closed N cycle with reduced risk for N leaking out of the ecosystem in regrowing forests. Furthermore, our results indicate that mineralization and nitrification are decoupled in young regrowing forests (10 years), such as that high gross mineralization is accompanied by low gross nitrification, demonstrating a closed N cycle that at the same time maintains N supply for forest regrowth. We conclude that the status of gross nitrification in disturbed soil is a key process to understand the mechanisms of and time needed for tropical forest recovery.

  • 3.
    Korkmaz, M.
    et al.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    Akyol, A.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    Turkoglu, T.
    Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ, Turkey.
    Bergner, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tolunay, A.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Turkey.
    PERSPECTIVE ON FOREST BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS FOR PROTECTED AREAS: A COMPARISON OF TURKISH AND SWEDISH FOREST EXPERT OPINIONS2018Ingår i: Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, ISSN 1589-1623, E-ISSN 1785-0037, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 3595-3609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of expert opinions on forest biodiversity indicators for protected areas, using a questionnaire given to forest experts in Turkey and Sweden. Experts were selected according to whether they had studied or worked in areas related to biodiversity, protected areas and sustainable forest management. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the differences between the opinions of Swedish and Turkish experts regarding the indicators. The experts from both countries considered "endemic species" and "naturalness" as the most important indicators, while "overused species", "forest distribution and regeneration", "carrying capacity in terms of important species of area" and "the existence of different conservation status of protected areas" were considered equally as the least important indicators. The most important difference between the two groups was related to the indicators "dead wood" and "hollow trees", which Swedish experts found more important than their Turkish counterparts. Two other large differences were that the Swedish experts found "litter layer" much more important and Turkish experts instead found "plant species composition" much more important. The differences between the two groups reveal different perspectives regarding the planning and management of protected areas in each respective country.

  • 4.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klorerade organiska föreningar (Clorg) bildas naturligt i mark och påverkar klorets kretslopp genom att de stannar kvar längre i marken. Detta stabila klor anses ha samma egenskaper som klor-36, som är en långlivad radioisotop med en halveringstid på 300 000 år. Klor-36 förekommer i olika typer av radioaktivt avfall och om klor-36 sprids i naturen finns det en potentiell risk för människor och djur genom biologiskt upptag. Syftet i denna avhandling är att öka kunskapen om fördelningen och cirkulationen av klorid (Cl-) och Clorg i terrestra miljöer med hjälp av studier i laboratoriemiljö samt en fältstudie i skogsmiljö. Resultaten visar att bildningshastigheten av Clorg är högst i barrskogsjord och rotzonen tycks vara en aktiv plats. Det finns också en större mängd Cl- och Clorg i barrskogsjordar än i betesmark och jordbruksmark. Den mest betydande faktorn som styr halterna av Cl- och Clorg är trädsort, medan geografiskt läge, atmosfäriskt nedfall, och jordmån är av mindre betydelse. Bildning och nedbrytning av Clorg sker med liknande hastigheter, men det tycks finnas två förråd av Clorg i jorden varav ett bryts ner snabbt och ett mer långsamt. Bildningshastigheten av Clorg är lägre i jordar med höga halter av kväve medan nedbrytningshastigheterna inte påverkas av kväve.

    Slutsatsen från studiernas resultat är att klor i hög grad är aktivt i mark och att Cl- och Clorg halterna bestäms av en dynamisk jämvikt mellan bildning och nedbrytning av Clorg. I studier av klor i terrestra miljöer bör trädsorters inverkan och nedbrytning av olika klorförråd beaktas då det kan ge varierande uppehållstider av Cl- och Clorg i mark. Denna information är viktig vid riskbedömningar av hur radioaktivt klor kan spridas och cirkulera vid en eventuell kärnkraftsolycka.

    Delarbeten
    1. Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content
    Visa övriga...
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 1504-1510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Chemical Society, 2012
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75467 (URN)10.1021/es203191r (DOI)000299864400030 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|2006-5387|

    Tillgänglig från: 2012-03-02 Skapad: 2012-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-05
    2. Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition
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    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 4921-4928Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    American Chemical Society, 2015
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118871 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00137 (DOI)000353610300017 ()25811074 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|EDF, France; French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden; "Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique" (FNRS) of Belgium

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-05 Skapad: 2015-06-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-05
    3. Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, s. 203-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Chlorine cycling, Chloride, Organic chlorine, Radioactive chlorine-36, Modelling
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Markvetenskap Miljö- och naturvårdsvetenskap Lantbruksvetenskap och veterinärmedicin Ekologi Skogsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125912 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.208 (DOI)000373274700022 ()26950634 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:  EDF, France; National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), France; Linkoping University, Sweden

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-08 Skapad: 2016-03-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 5.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, s. 203-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 6.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate-related forest policies and trends2015Ingår i: The future use of Nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 99-109Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the carbon cycle, forests have a place in climate-related forest policies and trends. By describing forest-related measures driven by international climate negotiations, such as the afforestation and reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), or the voluntary carbon market, this chapter illustrates how carbon has become an important but fuzzy commodity. The demand for carbon-focused measures is also seen in suggested activities in the Swedish context, shown with the Arctic Boreal Climate Development (ABCD) project. It can be said that due perhaps to the complexity involved in quantifying and accounting for carbon, other benefits such as energy substitution or improved hydrology from carbon-improving management strategies are being enhanced in the debate.

  • 7.
    Petersson, Linda K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgren, Jonas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Felton, Annika M.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Gotmark, Frank
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Salk, Carl
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Lof, Magnus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Changing land use and increasing abundance of deer cause natural regeneration failure of oaks: Six decades of landscape-scale evidence2019Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 444, s. 299-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many tree species worldwide are suffering from slow or failed natural regeneration with dramatic consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, it is difficult to disentangle the complex effects of factors influencing regeneration processes on long-lived tree species at large scales. In this study, we use long-term data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory (1953-2015) combined with deer hunting data (1960-2015) to reveal experimentally-intractable processes impeding oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in southern Sweden. Oak-dominated ecosystems are widespread in northern temperate regions, where oaks are foundation species with disproportionate importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Our study reveals that during the last six decades, oak tree numbers and standing volume have continuously increased, while natural regeneration of oak declined steeply after the early 1980s. We connect this decline to denser and darker forests, combined with increased abundance of deer. Land use changes during the six decades, such as abandonment of traditional practices and large-scale introduction of forest management oriented towards high volume production, led to continuously denser forests and thereby reduced the oak regeneration niche. In addition, the impact of changed game management was evident. This was particularly clear from a natural experiment on Gotland, a large island free of deer until roe deer were introduced in the late 20th century, at which point oak regeneration began a steep decline. At the stand level, natural oak regeneration could be expected to mainly occur in pulses after disturbance events, followed by a period of low regeneration success as the cohort ages. However, at a landscape scale one would expect a mix of successional stages that would even out such demographic patterns. A prolonged period of low regeneration at a landscape scale will eventually lead to a large gap in the oak size distribution as was observed in this study. This could eventually hurt the many species dependent on old and large oak trees. Active management to restore the oak regeneration niche, i.e. forest habitats with more light and less browsing pressure, therefore seems essential. The latter includes developing strategies that manage both deer populations and their available food across landscapes. Our study is the first to link oak regeneration failure to long-term changes in land use and increased deer populations at a landscape scale in this region. Furthermore, our study show how historical data can clarify confounded processes impacting long-lived forest species.

  • 8.
    Scharis, Inger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Rasmussen, Gregory S. A.
    Painted Dog Conservation, Hwange National Park, PO Box 72, Dete, Zimbabwe.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Using morphometrics to quantitatively differentiateAfrican wild dog footprints from domestic dogfootprints – a pilot study2016Ingår i: African Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0141-6707, E-ISSN 1365-2028, Vol. 54, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable population estimation and species inventories areimportant for wildlife conservation, but such estimationsare often difficult due to unreliable identification of thespecies in question. Furthermore, for predator conflictresolution, it is essential to be able to reliably identify thepredator. This study presents a new method to quantitativelydistinguish African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) footprintsfrom feral domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)footprints. Footprint photographs were digitally processedusing Photoshop and the NIH image processing softwareImageJ, and total pad area and angles between thecentroids of the backpad and the digits of the paw weremeasured. Pad angles showed statistically significantdifferences between the two species and, with the exceptionthat there was no significant difference in pad areabetween African wild dog females and domestic dog males,total pad areas were also diagnostic. Consequently, thecombination of total pad area and the angle betweenbackpad and digits are useful discriminators to reliablyidentify the species from an unknown footprint.

  • 9.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gomez, Eliot
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Ove
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden..
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electronic plants2015Ingår i: Science Advances, ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, nr 10, s. 1-8, artikel-id e1501136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directlymerged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  • 10.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Measurements and fluxes of volatile chlorinated organic compounds (VOCl) from natural terrestrial sources: Measurement techniques and spatio-temporal variability of flux estimates2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and especially chlorinated VOCs (VOCls) are regarded as en viron mental risk substances in water bodies due to their toxic characteristics. Even in the atmo­sphere they highly impact atmospheric chemistry, e.g. degrading the ozone layer. Several studies have convincingly identified a number of natural VOCl sources thereby challenging the view of VOCls as only produced by humans. Yet, fundamental knowledge is still missing concerning the emission, distribution and the natural abundance of VOCls, especially regarding the high spatial and temporal variability of emissions from terrestrial sources. In the nuclear industry, Cl­36 is a dose­dominating radionuclide in some waste, and this adds to the need to better understand the processes, transport and fate of chlorine in the bio sphere. In this report 38 studies on VOCl flux measurement estimates were reviewed to summarize the current knowledge on spatio­temporal variations of different VOCls and various measurement tech niques.

    Chloromethane is the most studied VOCl compound and chloroform, the second most studied. A few other studies have estimated fluxes of additional VOCls such as tetrachloromethane (CCl4), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), tetrachloroethane (C2H2Cl4), freons (CFCs), chloroethane (C2H5Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). Studies were conducted in climates and terrestrial ecosystems ranging from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest but most studies focus on the temperate climate region. Wetlands and coastal systems dominate the studied ecosystems. Flux chambers are the most common method for investigation of the soil­atmosphere exchange of VOCls, but a few studies used soil gas profiles and one the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) technique. Methodological uncer­tainties are mainly related to sample contamination, few replicates, chamber design, and chamber deployment (the time of measurement) effects on the soil­atmosphere exchange itself. Despite the many challenges in measuring VOCls and estimating the fluxes, a substantial part of the chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems, and especially from wetlands and coastal areas, is emitted to the atmosphere as VOCls. In inland forested ecosystems, the release of Cl to the atmosphere could be as much as 0.1 g m–2, which is 40 % of the wet deposition and there are studies that suggest that freshwater wetlands are much larger source of chlorine in the atmosphere than previously understood.

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