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  • 1.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sharing Mission Experience in Tactical Organisations2012Ingår i: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers. 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej and Zeno Franco, ISCRAM , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tactical organisation can be seen as an adhocracy designed to perform missions in uncertain, ambiguous and complex environments. Flexibility, adaptability, resilience, innovation, creativity and improvisation have all been identified as key skills for successful outcome of these missions. To learn skills associated with such abilities previous research has shown that knowledge acquired through experience plays an important role. It is therefore important that individuals, teams and organisations share and learn from experiences to improve their ability to cope with novel situations. In literature there is a lack of consistency in how these abilities are discussed, we therefore propose the FAIRIC model to help define and differentiate between the concepts. By unravelling some of the similarities and differences we create a common vocabulary to discuss knowledge gained from experience. This can help classify different experiences and provide a more systematic way of gathering knowledge on situational factors that influence the success of different actions and more unified interpretations that can assist design of knowledge representations to share mission experience over boundaries of time and space.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Swedish Def Research Agency, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Diptee, Darryl
    Naval Postgrad Sch, USA.
    Approaches to team performance assessment: a comparison of self-assessment reports and behavioral observer scales2017Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, nr 2-3, s. 517-528Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human factors research popularly employs perception-based techniques to investigate team performance and its dependency to cognitive processes. Such studies frequently rely upon either observer-based or self-assessment techniques to collect data. In this study, we examined behavioral observer ratings and self-assessment ratings for measuring team performance in virtual teams, with team performance regarded as a combination of task outcome and team cognition. Juxtaposing self-assessments and observer ratings from a quasi-experiment comparing team performance rating techniques reveals that they indeed produce overall similar results, with both singling out teamwork effectiveness ratings as the strongest contributor to overall team performance. However, the comparisons show remarkably low correlation on individual questionnaire items. The most striking difference is that the team members self-assessments of workload are lower than the corresponding observer ratings. In particular, the self-assessments do not correlate at all with overall team performance, whereas the observers workload ratings are more consistent with contemporary research that suggests a strong correlation between workload and team performance, suggesting that observer-based techniques are more reliable than self-assessments for assessing workload. For other ratings, the results show that the two techniques are fairly equal, suggesting that the choice between methods to employ can be deferred to other considerations such as obtrusiveness, accessibility, and resource availability.

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  • 3.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Barrier analysis as a design tool in complex safety critical systems2010Ingår i: Design and Complexity, Montreál, Canada, 2010, Vol. 7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When constructing or improving large complex systems, design activities help establish the needs and goals of users, deepen the understanding of the system and facilitate ideation of new solutions. When service systems are large, dynamic and complex, the need for thorough design work is especially evident. However, design methods usually strive to describe and design best case scenarios and we argue they lack the perspective of safety needed when working in safety critical systems. In order to gain knowledge on how a perspective of risk and safety can benefit design in a safety critical domain, two different perspectives were adopted through the use of two different methods. The methods were service blueprinting and barrier analysis, adopted from service design and cognitive systems engineering respectively. The methods were implemented during the research phase of a service design project in a home healthcare system in Sweden. Service blueprinting is a method used by service designers to visualise services. Barrier analysis is aimed at identifying and categorizing artefacts and functions that prevent unwanted events from taking place, or that lessen the impact of their consequences. A comparative analysis of the two methods was performed, concluding that barrier analysis has the potential to benefit design work performed in complex and safety critical systems. The potential for barrier analysis to be more tightly integrated into current service design methods is discussed, but more research is needed in order to clarify this matter.

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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    CRISIS: Virtual-reality-based training for emergency management2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 5.
    Field, Joris
    et al.
    National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lemmers, Arjan
    National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR, The Netherlands.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Systems, Sweden.
    Instructor tools for virtual training Systems2012Ingår i: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis management exercises require a lot of preparation and planning to ensure that the training objectives are met. This is often a time consuming and expensive process and can be a major barrier to setting up frequent crisis management training sessions. The introduction of virtual training environments to supplement the live exercises enables the development of tools to support the instructors in their planning, management, observation and analysis of training exercises. This can simplify the planning process, and give instructors control over the configuration of the exercises to tailor them to the needs of individual trainees. In this paper we present a tool that supports instructors in the planning of virtual exercises, and can be used to provide templates for live exercises. This tool has been developed with ongoing feedback from instructors and crisis management personnel and forms part of a crisis management virtual training system.

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  • 6.
    Field, Joris
    et al.
    Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mohrmann, Frederik
    Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Boland, Edzard
    Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Flexible Procedures to Deal with Complex Unexpected Events in the Cockpit2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern airliner operations consist of an environment with multiple detailed procedures to cover critical abnormal events and with systems that are automated and highly reliable. Complex and unexpected events are rare and may thus present a challenge to the crew to deal with, putting demands on the resilience of the crew. In the EU Man4Gen project a “flexible procedure” was developed as a strategy to assist flight crew in dealing with unexpected events where an existing procedure was not available. This procedure is intended to assist crews in adapting their response to the situation and be more flexible in their application of their procedures and training to increase the effectiveness of their response. This paper describes the procedure and its development within the project based on two sets of flight simulator experiments with operational flight crew. The resulting flexible procedure consists of steps to help crews manage time criticality, manage (un)certainty and finally to plan for contingencies and changes. This forms the basis of the discussion of how procedures can be a source of resilience in the cockpit, rather than forming a barrier to it.

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  • 7.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pelfrene, Jelle
    Space Application Services.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schreiner, Rudolf
    Object Security.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Systems.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Systems.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Real-time Support for Exercise Managers’ Situation Assessment and Decision Making2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise managers and instructors have a particularly challenging task in monitoring and controlling on-going exercises, which may involve multiple response teams and organizations in highly complex and continuously evolving crisis situations. Managers and instructors must handle potentially incomplete and conflicting field-observation data and make decisions in real-time in order to control the flow of the exercise and to keep it in line with the training objectives. In simulation-based exercises, managers and instructors have access to a rich set of real-time data, with an increased potential to closely monitor the trainees’ actions, and to keep the exercise on track. To assist exercise managers and instructors, data about the on-going exercise can be filtered, aggregated and refined by real-time decision-support systems. We have developed a model and a prototype decision-support system, using stream-based reasoning to assist exercise managers and instructors in real-time. The approach takes advantage of topic maps for ontological representation and a complex-event processing engine for analyzing the data stream from a virtual-reality simulator for crisis-management training. Aggregated data is presented both on-screen, in Twitter, and in the form of topic maps.

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  • 8.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Foresight training as part of virtual-reality-based exercises for the emergency services2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the chaotic nature of accidents and crisis, emergency responses tend to unfold in a highly dynamic fashion. It is therefore of key importance that emergency service staff are continually trained on being mindful of risks and to spot early signs of things that could go wrong during an emergency response. This article suggests a way to adapt existing regimes for foresight training to the needs of emergency response organizations. Foresight training is currently being tried out in healthcare, and similar ideas, i.e. to base training on “what-if” discussions of typical high-risk scenarios, have also been implemented in the mining industry, and in the off-shore oil and gas industry. We follow this trend and suggest a way for foresight training to be integrated into virtual-reality-based emergency response exercises as part of the after action review (when the emergency response exercise is debriefed). The material for foresight training could be based on events that were encountered during the preceding exercise, as well as other typical high-risk situations, and subsequent discussions could, for example, be focused on the factors contributing to an elevated risk level and to what extent a negative development of events could be avoided through insightful actions. Hence, focus is on training to recognize typical risk factors and associate these with appropriate defensive steps.

  • 9.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation2014Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 143-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel-Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience-their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of plans made in advance. In this paper, we analyze the experiences of 14 members of Swedish field teams involved in the crises response, based on focus group discussions. We describe a cycle of preparing for role improvisation, of taking improvised roles, of working in them, and of getting out of them when they are no longer a benefit. The discussions revealed that although role improvisation was seen as necessary to get the work done, they also saw a need to manage negative side effects and vulnerabilities of role improvisation in various ways. We discuss training goals based on their experiences, to address perceived strengths and vulnerabilities of role improvisation. We also discuss factors affecting role improvisation, such as a resilience climate of shared attitudes. Our results can be useful for organizations that have or that plan to adopt flexible crisis response teams. Our results can also be of interests to a more general audience with an interest in how practices necessary for resilience can bring negative side effects, for instance, resilience loss in the organization after an initial adaptive stage.

  • 10.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of So Denmark.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations2012Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 45, s. 455-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation.

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  • 11.
    Marana, Patricia
    et al.
    Univ Navarra, Spain.
    Eden, Colin
    Stratchclyde Business Sch, Scotland.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Grimes, Clara
    ICLEI Local Govt Sustainabil European Secretariat, Germany.
    Hernantes, Josune
    Univ Navarra, Spain.
    Howick, Susan
    Stratchclyde Business Sch, Scotland.
    Labaka, Leire
    Univ Navarra, Spain.
    Latinos, Vasileios
    ICLEI Local Govt Sustainabil European Secretariat, Germany.
    Lindner, Rene
    DIN, Germany.
    Majchrzak, Tim A.
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Pyrko, Igor
    Aston Business Sch, England.
    Radianti, Jaziar
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakurai, Mihoko
    Int Univ Japan, Japan.
    Sarriegi, Jose M.
    Univ Navarra, Spain.
    Serrano, Nicolas
    Univ Navarra, Spain.
    Towards a resilience management guideline - Cities as a starting point for societal resilience2019Ingår i: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 48, artikel-id UNSP 101531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected crises and risks affect the urban population. Critical infrastructure dependency, climate change and social dynamics have captured the attention of city decision makers across different disciplines, sectors, and scales. Addressing these challenges mandates an increase in resilience. This article presents the development of the novel European Resilience Management Guideline (ERMG) developed by the European H2020 Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) project. It encompasses five supporting tools for city resilience. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, it describes the extensive co-creation methods used to establish, validate and test the five ERMG tools as collaborations among seven city stakeholders and researchers in Europe. Second, it explains concisely the features of each tool and its use and applicability in the city resilience building process. Third, it shows how EMRG supports strategic management in encouraging the visibility of risk dependencies, identifying vicious loops and potential cascading effects, and promoting collaboration between stakeholders to share resources. The article concludes with a discussion of SMR standardization activities to support the transfer of these research results to wider audiences. It covers guidance on local resilience planning and supporting efforts in building and operationalizing resilience at the city level.

  • 12.
    Passenier, David
    et al.
    VU Amsterdam, De Boelenlaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Pool, Daan
    TU Delft, Aerospace Engineering, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sharpanskykh, Alexei
    TU Delft, Aerospace Engineering, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Preparing to be Unprepared: Training for Resilience2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Training methods for operators working under high pressure and in dynamic, unpredictable settings could benefit from a focus on resilience. In such settings, formal training often focuses on procedural conformity to train for particular scenarios, but resilient performance taps into a wider experience base and often more tacit skills. In this paper, we formulate a research agenda to develop useful theoretical insights about training for resilience. Our discussion follows recent developments on organizational routines, which suggest that sources of inertia and conformity, such as strict procedural training, can also enable operators’ resourcefulness. Drawing from our diverse research experiences, we discuss the training needs for 1) developing or attenuating techniques for flexible procedural use, grounded in a rich qualitative understanding of practical experience; 2) the possibility to train skills that are more broadly applicable than specific training scenarios through simulation training methods; and 3) the development of training programs based on knowledge of “work-as-done” through Agent Based Modelling and Simulation methodologies and behavioral theories.

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  • 13. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making Sense of Adaptations: Resilience in High-Risk Work2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with variations, disturbances, and unexpected events in complex socio-technical systems people are required to continuously adapt to the changing environment, sometimes in novel and innovative ways. This thesis investigates adaptive performance in complex work settings across domains, with a focus on examining what enables and disables successful adaptations, and how contextual factors shape performance. Examples of adaptive performance studies include a crisis command team dealing with the loss of key personnel, a crew coping with unreliable system feedback in the cockpit, and a nursing team managing an overload of patients. The two main contributions of this thesis is the analysis of cases of people coping with variations and disturbances, and the development of conceptual models to report findings, structure cases, and make sense of sharp-end adaptations in complex work settings. The findings emphasise that adaptive performance outside procedures and textbook scenarios at the sharp end is a critical ability to cope with variation and unexpected events. However, the results also show that adaptations may come at the cost of new vulnerabilities and system brittleness. Analysing adaptive performance in everyday events informs safety management by making visible limitations and possibilities of system design, organisational structures, procedures, and training.

    Delarbeten
    1. Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 623-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

    Nyckelord
    Sensemaking; Surprise; Cockpit operations; Re-framing; Training
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132839 (URN)10.1007/s10111-016-0390-2 (DOI)000386502500001 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Man4Gen

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-06 Skapad: 2016-11-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    2. Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 78-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989 (URN)10.1177/1555343413498753 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893856937 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-07 Skapad: 2013-05-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Role improvisation, Crisis management, Resilience engineering, Organizational improvisation, Episode analysis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan teknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80311 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0186-3 (DOI)000313737400010 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-23 Skapad: 2012-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07
    4. A framework for learning from adaptive performance
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A framework for learning from adaptive performance
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Resilience engineering in practice. Vol. 2: Becoming resilient / [ed] Christopher P. Nemeth, Erik Hollnagel, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014, 2, s. 79-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Surrey: Ashgate, 2014 Upplaga: 2
    Nyckelord
    Political Science, Labor & Industrial Relations, Psychology, Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Technology & Engineering, Technical Writing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133849 (URN)9781472425157 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-12 Skapad: 2017-01-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-05Bibliografiskt granskad
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    presentationsbild
  • 14. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s complexsocio-technical systems it is not possible to foresee and prepare for allfuture events. To cope with the intricacy and coupling between people,technical systems and the dynamic environment people are required tocontinuously adapt. To design resilient systems a deepened understanding ofwhat supports and enables adaptive performance is needed. In this thesis two studiesare presented that investigate how adaptive abilities can be identified andanalysed in complex work settings across domains. The studies focus onunderstanding adaptive performance, what enables successful adaptation and how contextual factors affect the performance. The first study examines how acrisis command team adapts as they lose important functions of their teamduring a response operation.  The secondstudy presents a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday work wheresystems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie theframework are based on findings from focus group discussion withrepresentatives from different organisations, including health care, nuclear,transportation and emergency services. Main contributions of this thesis includethe examination of adaptive performance and of how it can be analysed as ameans to learn about and strengthen resilience. By using contextual analysis enablersof adaptive performance and its effects the overall system are identified. Theanalysis further demonstrates that resilience is not a system property but aresult of situational circumstances and organisational structures. Theframework supports practitioners and researchers in reporting findings,structuring cases and making sense of sharp-end adaptations. The analysismethod can be used to better understand system adaptive capacities, monitoradaptive patterns and enhance current methods for safety management.

    Delarbeten
    1. A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Role improvisation, Crisis management, Resilience engineering, Organizational improvisation, Episode analysis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan teknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80311 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0186-3 (DOI)000313737400010 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-23 Skapad: 2012-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07
    2. Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 78-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989 (URN)10.1177/1555343413498753 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893856937 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-07 Skapad: 2013-05-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance
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    omslag
  • 15.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams2013Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 79-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

  • 16.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Field, Joris
    National aerospace laboratories, NLR.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Instructor’s Tasks in Crisis Management Training2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference, 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In crisis management exercises the instructor’s performance is critical to the success of the training. It is their responsibility to monitor and evaluate the exercise, as well as appropriately adjust and adapt the scenario to the unfolding events. Despite the importance of the instructor’s skills in crisis management training little has been documented regarding successful methods or common pitfalls. The study presented in this paper is exploratory and aimed at investigating how instructors monitor and control large scale crisis management exercises. The results are intended to be used as a basis for further investigation on how instructors can be supported in virtual reality training systems. A summary of results from interviews is presented and followed by observations reports from two live exercises. Finally, key areas for instructor support in virtual-reality training systems are identified.

  • 17.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Training Systems Design: Bridging The Gap Between User and Developers Using Storyboards2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 29th Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2011, s. 205-212Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation -- Designing distributed training systems for crisis management (CM) requires an approach with the ability to address a great variety of needs and goals. Crisis responses involve multiple agents, each with different backgrounds, tasks, priorities, goals, responsibilities, organizations, equipment, and approaches. Identifying the different user training needs and translating these into user and functional requirement therefore poses great challenges.

    Research approach -- In this paper we present experiences of how to enable the collaboration between multiple stakeholders and partners when creating and adapting ideas throughout the design phase. The techniques have been used in a European project aimed at developing an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) environment for training crisis management.

    Findings/Design -- The focus of the paper is on the initial storyboard iterations and lo-fi prototypes, as this is a crucial stage for expressing ideas in a perceivable way without having to spend too much time and effort on creating detailed prototypes.

    Take away message -- Experiences using low-cost commercial software for creating storyboards are presented, as these provided the means to create, share, present, adapt and circulate ideas, facilitating the fusing of ideas, shared understanding and distributed working.

  • 18.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Wong, William
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rooney, Chris
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Scenario Design for Training Systems in Crisis Management : Training Resilience Capabilities2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the fourth resilience engineering symposium, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality (VR) based training systems can be used to increase resilience in Crisis Management (CM) teams. Today’s training systems largely focus on technical and procedural skills, enforcing limitations on the freedom of interaction the trainee has compared with the real world. Although these types of skills are crucial to successful response operations, the dynamic and unpredictable nature of a crisis also requires skills that are flexible, adaptive and creative. We present a variable uncertainty framework (VUF) for designing and configuring training scenarios which can be used to train capabilities such as flexibility and improvisation, aimed at increasing teams and organizations resilience. When designing a scenario using the VUF events are injected to stimulate specific training needs. By using a sense-making and command-and- control loop we will illustrate how specific training objectives can be targeted to train resilience capabilities.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Episode Analysis for Evaluating Response Operations and Identifying Training Needs2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Emergency Management (EM) teams are faced with dynamic and complex situations, often involving multiple teams and organizations working together under stressful circumstances. One of the key issues observed in emergency responses is inadequate. The communicative problems stem from various issues such as political, personal or jurisdictional problems. In order to improve communication and coordination, we need to gain a profound understanding of what the communication issues are and, further, we need to provide meaningful inter-organizational training regimes targeting these issues. We suggest episode analysis, a qualitative research method, to better understand the communication taking place during an emergency response. Episode analysis provides a way to code and analyze data involving multiple teams and organizations as well as a way to study more informal communicative functions that would otherwise be difficult to capture. Moreover, we suggest that episode analyses can be used to identify training needs and be helpful in creating meaningful training scenarios.

  • 20.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Linder, René
    DIN, Berlin, Germany.
    Sainz, Maider
    Tecnun University de Navarra, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain.
    Rosenqvist, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    City Resilience: Analysis of Strategies World-Wide2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, resilience has become an important goal for cities, particularly in the face of political uncertainty, climate change and increasing urbanisation. Resilience theory has yielded informative lessons and brought new perspective when preparing for, and responding to vulnerabilities cities face today, such as natural hazards and social inequalities. However, critical questions on how to operationalize resilience through political decision making and community engagement are still unanswered, and supporting methods and concrete action plans are needed. In this paper, we offer an overview of the result from three studies conducted as part of an ongoing H2020 research project, Smart Mature Resilience. The three studies inlucde a literature review of definitions and approaches in city resilience, analysis of city resilience strategies and requirements for standardization. Key findings from the studies are presented and implications of their findings for the development of resiliience management guidelines are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Division of Information and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    A framework for learning from adaptive performance2014Ingår i: Resilience engineering in practice. Vol. 2: Becoming resilient / [ed] Christopher P. Nemeth, Erik Hollnagel, Surrey: Ashgate, 2014, 2, s. 79-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Linköping.
    Resilience Strategies across Industries for Managing Everyday Risks2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH. Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work2014Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 78-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerosp Lab NLR, Netherlands.
    Sensemaking following surprise in the cockpit-a re-framing problem2016Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 623-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Re-framing is the process by which a person "fills the gap" between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are examined by investigating the re-framing process. The results show difficulties that pilots have in re-framing following surprise, including the identification of subtle cues and managing uncertainties regarding automated systems, coping with multiple goals, tasks and narrow time frames and identifying an appropriate action. A crew-aircraft sensemaking model is presented, outlining core concepts of re-framing processes and sensemaking activities. Based on the findings, three critical areas are identified that deserve further attention to improve pilot abilities to cope with unexpected events; (1) identification of what enables and obstructs re-framing, (2) training to build frames and develop re-framing strategies and (3) control strategies as part of the re-framing process.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands.
    Woods, David
    Ohio State University, USA.
    “Staying ahead of the aircraft ” and Managing Surprise in Modern Airliners2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th Resilience Engineering Symposium, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pilot’s task in commercial aircraft operations has changed from flying the aircraft by means of manual control, to increased monitoring of the cockpit. The increase of automation provides a high level of stability and reduces variations and disturbances, leaving crews with little exposure to surprise. Current training programs are similarly focused on dealing with anticipated problems and pre-determined responses, provide little opportunity to prepare for the unexpected and unforeseen. In this paper we frame the research agenda for investigating how pilots cope with surprise and confusion in modern aircraft. An interview study with pilots has been carried out, identifying areas for further investigation regarding manual control, procedure applicability, system knowledge and training for unexpected events. A crew-aircraft control model has been developed to frame the functions and processes to be further investigated.1

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    fulltext
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