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  • 1.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dell'Amico, Alessandro
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Next Generation Simulation Software using Transmission Line Elements2010Ingår i: Fluid Power and Motion Control / [ed] Dr D N Johnston and Professor A R Plummer, Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control , 2010, s. 265-276Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A suitable method for simulating large complex dynamic systems is represented by distributed modelling using transmission line elements. The method is applicable to all physical systems, such as mechanical, electrical and pneumatics, but is particularly well suited to simulate systems where wave propagation is an important issue, for instance hydraulic systems. By using this method, components can be numerically isolated from each other, which provide highly robust numerical properties. It also enables the use of multi-core architecture since a system model can be composed by distributed simulations of subsystems on different processor cores.

    Technologies based on transmission lines has successfully been implemented in the HOPSAN simulation package, develop at Linköping University. Currently, the next generation of HOPSAN is developed using an object-oriented approach. The work is focused on compatibility, execution speed and real-time simulation in order to facilitate hardware-in-the-loop applications. This paper presents the work progress and some possible features in the new version of the HOPSAN simulation package.

  • 2.
    Braun, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    High Performance System Simulation Using Multiple Processor Cores2011Ingår i: The Twelfth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP'11 / [ed] Harri Sairiala & Kari T. Koskinen, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future research and development will depend on high-speed simulations, especially for large and complex systems. Rapid prototyping, optimization and real-time simulations require  simulation tools that can take full advantage of  computer hardware.  Recent developments  in the computer market indicate  a change in focus from increasing the speed of processor cores towards increasing the number of cores in each processor. HOPSAN is a simulation tool for fluid power and mechatronics, developed at Linköping University. It  is based upon the transmission line  modeling  (TLM)  technique. This method is very suitable for taking advantage of multi-core  processors.  This paper presents  the  implementation  of multi-core support in the next generation of HOPSAN. The concept is to divide the  model  into equally sized  groups of  independent components,  to make it possible to  simulate  them  in separate threads. Reducing overhead costs and finding an effective sorting algorithm constitute  critical steps for maximizing the benefits.  Experimental results show  a significant reduction in simulation time. Improvement of algorithms in combination with a continuous increase in the number of processor cores can potentially  lead to further  increases  in simulation performance. 

  • 3.
    Braun, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Improved Scheduling Techniques for Parallel Distributed-Solver System SimulationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Shortening simulation time is an important step towards efficient simulation-based product development. A long-used method is to exploit physically motivated time delays to split up the model into distributed solvers. In this way, the use of a centralized sequential solver can be circumvented. For maximum simulation performance, however, an efficient scheduling technique is also required. Four task scheduling methods for distributed-solver simulations has been implemented and evaluated. Experiments indicate that the best choice largely depend on model size, load distribution and granularity. Lock-based barrier synchronization provides the highest speed-up for small models. A fork-join implementation, with implicit synchronization and work-stealing scheduling, works better for models with a large total workload. It is common that workload and load distribution of a simulation model varies during execution depending on the current state of the simulation. Three of the implemented schedulers support dynamic load balancing during execution. Results show that task-stealing is the most efficient method for the specific test model. A possible continuation of this work is an automatic selection of the best scheduling technique based on knowledge about model properties and available computer resources.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hopsan NG, A C++ Implementation using the TLM Simulation Technique2010Ingår i: SIMS 2010 Proceedings, The 51st Conference on Simulation and Modelling, 14-15 October 2010 Oulu, Finland / [ed] sko Juuso, Oulu, Finland, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hopsan simulation package, used primarily for hydro-mechanical simulation, was first released in 1977. Modeling in Hopsan is based on a method using transmission line modeling, TLM. In TLM, component models are decoupled from each other through time delays. As components are decoupled and use distributed solvers, the simulation environment is suitable for distributed simulations. No numerical errors are introduced at simulation time when using TLM; all errors are related to modeling errors. This yields robust and fast simulations where the size of the time step does not have to be adjusted to achieve a numerically stable simulation. The distributive nature of TLM makes it convenient for use in multi-core approaches and high speed simulations. The latest version of Hopsan was released in August 2002, but now the next generation of this simulation package is being developed. This paper presents the development version of Hopsan NG and discusses some of its features and possible uses.

  • 5.
    Krus, Petter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design2012Ingår i: ICAS 2012 CD-ROM PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Professor I Grant, Optimage Ltd , 2012, s. Art.nr. ICAS2012-1.9.3-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has support for multi-core simulation for high speed simulation of multi domain systems.

    In this paper this is demonstrated on a flight simulation model with subsystems, such as control surface actuators.

  • 6.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mobile Robot Traversability Mapping: For Outdoor Navigation2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid getting stuck or causing damage to a vehicle or its surroundings a driver must be able to identify obstacles and adapt speed to ground conditions. An automatically controlled vehicle must be able to handle these identifications and adjustments by itself using sensors, actuators and control software. By storing properties of the surroundings in a map, a vehicle revisiting an area can benefit from prior information.

    Rough ground may cause oscillations in the vehicle chassis. These can be measured by on-board motion sensors. For obstacle detection, a representation of the geometry of the surroundings can be created using range sensors. Information on where it is suitable to drive, called traversability, can be generated based on these kinds of sensor measurements.

    In this work, real semi-autonomous mobile robots have been used to create traverasbility maps in both simulated and real outdoor environments. Seeking out problems through experiments and implementing algorithms in an attempt to solve them has been the core of the work.

    Finding large obstacles in the vicinity of a vehicle is seldom a problem; accurately identifying small near-ground obstacles is much more difficult, however. The work additionally includes both high-level path planning, where no obstacle details are considered, and more detailed planning for finding an obstacle free path. How prior maps can be matched and merged in preparation for path planning operations is also shown. To prevent collisions with unforeseen objects, up-to-date traversability information is used in local-area navigation and obstacle avoidance.

    Delarbeten
    1. Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July, IEEE Xplore , 2008, s. 1214-1221Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress for the pre-Runners project. The goal is to experimentally demonstrate the value of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in collaboration with a main vehicle in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles the main vehicle benefits from a priori information of the terrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile, and risks tolerant autonomous “prerunner”. The results presented, represent the first steps toward the important task of determining the traversable surfaces and communicating the results within the team. The information sharing between vehicles is based on Collaborative Smoothing and Mapping (C-SAM). The horizontal position is also estimated within the C-SAM. In parallel the vertical component and orientation is estimated by a filter fusing data from odometry, an imu and two lasers to allow computation of traversability maps to be shared within the team.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE Xplore, 2008
    Nyckelord
    Collaboration, SLAM, SAM, sensor data fusion, data association, Kalman filtering, traversability estimation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15323 (URN)978-3-8007-3092-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July
    Anmärkning

    DOI does not work: 10.1109/ICIF.2008.4632348

    Tillgänglig från: 2008-10-31 Skapad: 2008-10-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-09Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09 / [ed] Lars Asplund, 2009, s. 60-61Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents selected results of the preRunners project. The goal was to experimentally demonstrate the value of collaborating unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles a large vehicle benefits greatly from a priori information about theterrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile and risk tolerant autonomous “preRunner”.

    Nyckelord
    Outdoor robotics, Mapping, Traversability, SLAM, C-SLAM
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52684 (URN)
    Konferens
    Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09, Västerås, Sweden, September 8
    Projekt
    PreRunners
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-01-08 Skapad: 2010-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Local Navigation using Traversability Maps
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Local Navigation using Traversability Maps
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: 7th Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, IAV2010, Lecce, Volume 7, Part 1 / [ed] Indiveri, Giovanni, Pascoal, Antonio M., 2010, s. 324-329Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In outdoor robotics it is important to be able to ascertain the traversability of thes urrounding terrain. This paper presents a system where continuously generated traversability maps, useful for obstacle avoidance, are generated, stored and later reused to perform detailed local path planning. The detailed plan can be used as a temporary replacement for parts of a global plan that may lack knowledge about impassable obstacles or troublesome areas. The paper also describes an algorithm useful for on-line alignment and merging of previously stored traversability maps. Being able to align and merge maps is vital as the estimated global poses of multiple overlapping maps stored at different times may differ.

    Nyckelord
    Obstacle avoidance, local navigation, traversability, path planning
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Reglerteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60739 (URN)10.3182/20100906-3-IT-2019.00057 (DOI)978-3-902661-87-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, September 6-8, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy, Volume7, Part 1
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-10-25 Skapad: 2010-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-09-22
    4. Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception
    2011 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow.

    Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information. User functions that base their decisions on the multi-layered map can then retrieve any subset of the stored information making them scalable in terms of processor and memory use.

    The advantages of using a shared multi-layer spatial data storage are several:

    Sensors and user functions are decoupled. This can make it easier and more cost efficient to implement additional functions.

    Data quality is enhanced. Since fusion techniques can be used to generate estimates of physical properties from several sensors, the fused data is based on all available information.

    Using models that describe a certain entity, properties that are not even measured can be estimated by the system.

    This work describes an experimental semi-autonomous ground vehicle system, where on-line generated maps containing multiple layers of information are used for obstacle avoidance and planning of a suitable path between waypoints. The system is primarily simulated using physical vehicle models in a suitable environment, but limited real-world experiments with a subset of functions are also performed. 

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Robotteknik och automation Farkostteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70851 (URN)10.4271/2011-01-2244 (DOI)
    Konferens
    SAE 2011 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress, 13-14 September 2011, Rosemont, Illinois USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-20 Skapad: 2011-09-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-12-03Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 7.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project2009Ingår i: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09 / [ed] Lars Asplund, 2009, s. 60-61Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents selected results of the preRunners project. The goal was to experimentally demonstrate the value of collaborating unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles a large vehicle benefits greatly from a priori information about theterrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile and risk tolerant autonomous “preRunner”.

  • 8.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July, IEEE Xplore , 2008, s. 1214-1221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress for the pre-Runners project. The goal is to experimentally demonstrate the value of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in collaboration with a main vehicle in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles the main vehicle benefits from a priori information of the terrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile, and risks tolerant autonomous “prerunner”. The results presented, represent the first steps toward the important task of determining the traversable surfaces and communicating the results within the team. The information sharing between vehicles is based on Collaborative Smoothing and Mapping (C-SAM). The horizontal position is also estimated within the C-SAM. In parallel the vertical component and orientation is estimated by a filter fusing data from odometry, an imu and two lasers to allow computation of traversability maps to be shared within the team.

  • 9.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Job-Scheduling of Distributed Simulation-Based Optimization with Support for Multi-Level Parallelism2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56): October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 187-197Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organizations, the utilization of available computer power is very low. If it could be harnessed for parallel simulation and optimization, valuable time could be saved. A framework monitoring available computer resources and running distributed simulations is proposed. Users build their models locally, and then let a job scheduler determine how the simulation work should be divided among remote computers providing simulation services. Typical applications include sensitivity analysis, co-simulation and design optimization. The latter is used to demonstrate the framework. Optimizations can be parallelized either across the algorithm or across the model. An algorithm for finding the optimal distribution of the different levels of parallelism is proposed. An initial implementation of the framework, using the Hopsan simulation tool, is presented. Three parallel optimization algorithms have been used to verify the method and a thorough examination of their parallel speed-up is included.

  • 10.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Degerman, Pär
    Scania CV AB.
    Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow.

    Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information. User functions that base their decisions on the multi-layered map can then retrieve any subset of the stored information making them scalable in terms of processor and memory use.

    The advantages of using a shared multi-layer spatial data storage are several:

    Sensors and user functions are decoupled. This can make it easier and more cost efficient to implement additional functions.

    Data quality is enhanced. Since fusion techniques can be used to generate estimates of physical properties from several sensors, the fused data is based on all available information.

    Using models that describe a certain entity, properties that are not even measured can be estimated by the system.

    This work describes an experimental semi-autonomous ground vehicle system, where on-line generated maps containing multiple layers of information are used for obstacle avoidance and planning of a suitable path between waypoints. The system is primarily simulated using physical vehicle models in a suitable environment, but limited real-world experiments with a subset of functions are also performed. 

  • 11.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Local Navigation using Traversability Maps2010Ingår i: 7th Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, IAV2010, Lecce, Volume 7, Part 1 / [ed] Indiveri, Giovanni, Pascoal, Antonio M., 2010, s. 324-329Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In outdoor robotics it is important to be able to ascertain the traversability of thes urrounding terrain. This paper presents a system where continuously generated traversability maps, useful for obstacle avoidance, are generated, stored and later reused to perform detailed local path planning. The detailed plan can be used as a temporary replacement for parts of a global plan that may lack knowledge about impassable obstacles or troublesome areas. The paper also describes an algorithm useful for on-line alignment and merging of previously stored traversability maps. Being able to align and merge maps is vital as the estimated global poses of multiple overlapping maps stored at different times may differ.

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