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  • 1.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Thomas E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Pre-trauma Salivary Cortisol Levels and General Health Ratings in Relation to Post-trauma Changes in Cortisol and Psychological Distress after UN-service in BosniaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The psychobiology of post-traumatic distress is known to some extent, however the pre-trauma psychobiology is not. The aims of the present study were to relate pre- and post-trauma salivary cortisol levels and general health to post-traumatic distress in a Swedish UN-battalion in Bosnia.

    Methods: Salivary 8 AM and I 0 PM cortisol levels and "General Health Questionnaire" ratings were collected from 145 subjects before the six months' mission, at return and two and six months after mission. During follow-up, the ratings were extended by the "Impact of Events Scale" (IES) and "Post Traumatic Symptom Scale".

    Results: Low pre-trauma morning and evening salivary cortisol levels were statistically significantly related to high scores in all rating scales six months after mission and to increasing IES scores during follow-up. Low morning and high evening post-trauma salivary cortisol levels were related to high ratings of psychological distress six months after mission

    Conclusions: Pre-trauma salivary cortisol levels seem to be related to posttrauma psychological distress, however not to the extent that salivary cortisol levels in a simple way could be used for predictive screening.

  • 2.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Thomas E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Salivary cortisol, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and general health in the acute phase and during 9-month follow-up2001Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 50, nr 12, s. 986-993Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Because traumatic events are unpredictable, there are few studies of psychobiological states immediately following such events. Our study aimed to determine the relation of salivary cortisol to psychologic distress immediately after a traumatic event and then during follow-up.

    Methods: Measurement of morning and evening salivary cortisol and ratings of psychologic distress (using the Impact of Events Scale [IES], the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire) were performed with 31 United Nations soldiers at three time points—5 days and 2 and 9 months—following a mine accident in Lebanon.

    Results: Five days after the accident, 15 subjects reported substantial posttraumatic distress according to the IES, as well as significantly lower morning and higher evening cortisol levels compared with the low-impact group. Within 9 months, the posttraumatic distress of the high-impact group was reduced, accompanied by an increase in morning and a decrease in evening cortisol levels. There were significant relationships between evening cortisol and all rating scales at the first and third time points.

    Conclusions: Subclinical posttraumatic stress following an adverse event can be measured biologically via salivary cortisol levels soon after the event.

  • 3.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Eriksson, Thomas E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Twelve Months Follow-up of Salivary Cortisol in Relation to Psychological Distress and General Health in Swedish UN-personnel after Severe Combat Exposure during Six Months Mission in BosniaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our group has presented evidence of relationships between salivary cortisol levels and psychological distress before, during and after trauma-related stress. The aim of the present study was to confirm the part of evidence of relationships between salivary cortisol and posttraumatic distress and their change over time.

    Methods: Salivary cortisol levels at 8 AM and 10 PM and self-ratings were collected from 106 subjects six and twelve months after a six months UNmission in Bosnia. The rating instruments were the "Impact of Event Scale" (IES), the "Post Traumatic Symptom Scale" and the "General Health Questionnaire".

    Results: Significant statistical interactions were found between changes in mean cortisol levels and IES scores over time. Decreasing evening cortisol levels over time were significantly related to decreasing IES scores and vice versa. Morning cortisol levels showed negative, and evening cortisol positive correlations with all rating scores.

    Conclusions: The evidence from previous studies on trauma related stress, that salivary cortisol is related to the development of posttraumatic stress reactions, the morning cortisol in reverse (negative) direction to that (positive) of evening cortisol, were confirmed.

  • 4.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan.
    Holm, AC
    Eriksson, TE
    Lundin, T
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed & Surg, Ctr Clin Chem, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Salivary cortisol and posttraumatic stress reactions methodological and applied studies before and after trauma2002Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 45, nr 1-2, s. 89-89Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Mental unhealth among young adults in primary health care2008Ingår i: European Psychiatry - the journal of the association of european psychiatrists,2008, 2008, s. 248-248Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 6. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Fysiologiska kliniken.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten för Närsjukvården i Östergötland.
    Själen i primärvården - psykisk ohälsa hos unga vuxna och deras upplevelser av vården2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Dobrov, Eugen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    "Reasons For Living" - Translation, psychometric evaluation and relationships to suicidal behaviour in a Swedish random sample2004Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 277-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective role of positive beliefs and expectations against suicide has been studied using the Reasons For Living inventory (RFL). The RFL has shown to be useful in research and suggested for use in clinical practice. A Swedish translation of the RFL was examined for psychometric properties, reliability, latent structure and convergent validity in a Swedish general population. The RFL was distributed with the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ) to 1366 randomly selected subjects aged 20-65 years in the county of Östergötland. The results were based on 506 complete replies. The Cronbach a of the total RFL was 0.92, ranging from 0.72 to 0.93 in the six scales of RFL. The intercorrelations between the scales were weak and the scale to total RFL score moderate to high. The factor structure and item loadings of the inventory showed great similarities with the American one with exception for the scales Responsibility to Family and Child-related Concerns, which formed one common factor. The convergent validity was supported by significant relationships to the items of the SBQ. It is concluded that the Swedish translation of the RFL inventory in a Swedish general sample possesses great similarities to the American original RFL. Thus, it is suggested as an instrument for research and clinical usage in Sweden. © 2004 Taylor & Francis.

  • 8.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation2004Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 131-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to test the statistically significant differences in WRI ratings between those who were working (n=6) and those who were not (n=42) 2 years after their investigations. Five of the 17 items in WRI had a tentative predictive validity of return to work. The content area personal causation in WRI, had the best predictive validity. The results emphasize the importance of considering the unique individual's beliefs and expectations of his/her effectiveness at work when assessing clients' work ability and planning for further rehabilitation.

  • 9.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave2010Ingår i: WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 125-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims were to describe and analyze how people with experience of long term sick leave perceive that factors in their work environment support or interfere with work performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Method: The 53 participants were interviewed with the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The WEIS ratings and belonging notes were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis respectively. Differences in WEIS ratings between; women and men; participants with somatic and mental diseases; and participants working and on full-time sick leave were tested. Results: The most supportive factors concerned social interactions at work, and the value and meaning of work. The factors perceived as most interfering concerned work demands and rewards. The social relations at work were perceived as more supportive by the working group than by those on full-time sick leave. The participants with somatic diseases perceived physical work factors as more interfering than did participants with mental diseases, who in turn perceived the value and meaning of work as more interfering. Conclusion: Knowledge about the interaction between the worker and the work environment could reveal useful information about the complex phenomenon of reducing sick leave. The WEIS seems useful in providing information about how alterations and accommodations in the work environment could support individual workers.

  • 10.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years2010Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 163-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

  • 11.
    Fall, Per-Arne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Geriatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Geriatriska kliniken.
    Ekman, R.
    Granérus, Ann-Kathrine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Geriatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    ECT in Parkinson's disease: Changes in motor symptoms, monoamine metabolites and neuropeptides1995Ingår i: Journal of Neural Transmission. Parkinson's disease and dementia section., ISSN 0936-3076, Vol. 10, nr 2-3, s. 129-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was given to 16 non-depressed, non-demented patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). In all the patients an antiparkinsonian effect was seen, lasting for 18 months in one patient, 3-5 months in seven patients, and a few days to four weeks in eight patients. After ECT the levels of homovanillic acid and neuropeptide Y in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly increased. The eight patients with long lasting motor improvement after ECT had significantly lower CSF-3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol compared to the group with short lasting improvement. Five patients developed transitory mental confusion after ECT. In these patients, and in no others, a high albumin-ratio was found already before ECT was given - an indication of blood CSF barrier damage. Our results suggest that ECT is valuable in patients with drug refractory PD or PD with intolerance to antiparkinsonian drugs.

  • 12.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill
    Practice models in Swedish psychiatric occupational therapy2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 107-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical settings, occupational therapists need models both from their own field, occupational therapy, and from other fields in order to offer the clients adequate treatment. It is unknown which theoretical approaches and practice models influence Swedish occupational therapists' daily work. In this study a questionnaire (n=334) was used to investigate approaches and models used in Swedish psychiatric care service and in psychiatric occupational therapy service. The results showed that the psychosocial approach influenced both psychiatric care and psychiatric occupational therapy most. The most frequently used practice model was the Model of Human Occupation. However, 75% of the respondents did not identify theoretical thinking based on models from their own field behind their actions. Many practitioners seemed to use knowledge developed by other disciplines more often. Years of clinical experience in the profession or education did not seem to have any impact on the ability to identify the practice models that were used. The results indicate that education in occupational therapy must emphasize knowledge in its own field more than has been done up to now.

  • 13.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Arbetsterapi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Clinical perspective on the Swedish version of the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills: Stability of assessments2004Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 417-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ratings according to the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills, Swedish version (ACIS-S) are related to the settings in which the skills are assessed, and whether the client's comprehension of the setting is related to the ACIS-S rating scores. The ACIS-S is an observation rating scale applied immediately after each of two to six different social sessions that the client takes part in. The selection of settings relies on the client's judgement of them as being meaningful. In total, nine occupational therapists and 16 clients participated in the study. A total of 71 ratings were made in a mean of 4.4 settings per client. The results indicate that the client's rated comprehension of the settings is not significantly related, in general, to the ACIS-S rating scores given by the occupational therapist. However, the clients ACIS-S scores may vary a lot over settings. In the present study, 13- of the 20-items showed ratings of both the existence and the absence of problems in the same skill - but in different settings - in half or more of the client group. This may rise questions for the practitioners how to implement the ACIS-S in clinical practice, for example, how many and which kind of settings and how many times? Further research in the field is recommended. © 2004 Nordic College of Caring Sciences.

  • 14. Isaksson, Björn
    et al.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk farmakologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Rosén, I
    Jeppsson, I
    Hepatic encephalopathy verified by psychometric testing and EEG in cirrhotic patients: Effects of mesocaval interposition shunt or sclerotherapy2005Ingår i: HPB, ISSN 1365-182X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 65-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The aim of this randomised prospective study was to evaluate hepatic encephalopathy after mesocaval interposition shunt operation and after repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy. Methods. Forty-five patients with bleeding oesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis were randomised to the two treatment groups, 24 to the shunt group and 21 to the sclerotherapy group. The patients were evaluated preoperatively regarding blood tests, hepatic encephalopathy as measured by electroencephalogram with spectral analysis and by a battery of psychometric tests. The direction of portal flow in the shunt group was investigated by shunt phlebography and ultrasonography with Doppler. During follow-up the same investigations were performed twice at median 6.7 and 14.7 months after operation. Results. No statistically significant difference was found during follow-up regarding blood tests and electroencephalography with spectral analysis. Although the preoperative psychometric tests showed that the shunt group performed significantly better than the sclerotherapy group, the first follow-up showed that the shunt group performed statistically worse than the sclerotherapy group in seven of the tests: Synonyms (measuring verbal ability), Block Design Test (measuring visuo-spatial ability), Memory for Design Test, Error Score (measuring memory function), Revised Visual Retention Test, correct answers and the same test error answers (measuring visuo-spatial memory, ability and immediate memory), Digit Symbol Test (measuring perceptual ability) and Trial Making Test B (measuring cognitive motor abilities). Conclusions. Patients treated by mesocaval interposition shunt showed a progressive general reduction in psychometric performance compared with patients treated with repeated sclerotherapy, in whom a general intellectual improvement was observed. This finding corresponds to the reverse direction of the preoperative portal flow to a hepatofugal pattern at first follow-up and at 12 months among two-thirds of the patients. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  • 15.
    Lowén, Mats B. O.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mayer, E.
    Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Tillisch, K.
    Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Labus, J.
    Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Naliboff, B.
    Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Radiofysikavdelningen US.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Emotra AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ström, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Engström, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Walter, Susanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Magtarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Deficient habituation to repeated rectal distensions in irritable bowel syndrome patients with visceral hypersensitivity2015Ingår i: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 646-655Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show evidence of altered central processing of visceral signals. One of the proposed alterations in sensory processing is an altered engagement of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. The aim was to test the hypothesis that IBS patients with (IBS-S) and without visceral hypersensitivity (IBS-N) differ in their ability to engage endogenous pain modulation mechanism during habituation to repeated visceral stimuli.

    Methods Brain blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response was measured during repeated rectal distension and its anticipation in 33 IBS patients with and without visceral hypersensitivity and 18 healthy controls (HCs). BOLD response to early and late phase of the distension series was compared within and between groups.

    Key Results While BOLD response was similar during the early phase of the experiment, IBS-S showed greater BOLD response than IBS-N and HCs during the late phase of the distension series. IBS-S showed increasing BOLD response both to the anticipation and delivery of low intensity rectal distensions in brain regions including insula, anterior and mid cingulate cortex. IBS-N showed decreasing BOLD response to repeated rectal distensions in brain regions including insula, prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Conclusions & Inferences These findings are consistent with compromised ability of IBS-S to respond to repeated delivery of rectal stimuli, both in terms of sensitization of sensory pathways and habituation of emotional arousal. The fact that both IBS subgroups met Rome criteria, and did not differ in terms of reported symptom severity demonstrates that similar symptom patterns can result from different underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  • 16.
    Ohrt, T
    et al.
    Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Neurosci & Locomot Psychiat, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Cognitive distortions in panic disorder and major depression: Specificity for depressed mood1999Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 459-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire (ATQ) are two widely used instruments in research on cognitive distortion in psychopathology. To investigate the specificity of the DAS and the ATQ for major depression and for depressive symptoms in panic disorder, 23 patients with panic disorder were examined with the DAS and the ATQ before and after an 8-week treatment period. Patients from a previous study on cognitive distortion in major depression were used for comparison of pretreatment ratings. The results support the hypothesis of specificity of cognitive distortions of type dysfunctional attitudes in accordance with the DAS and negative spontaneous thoughts in accordance with the ATQ for major depression and a sensitivity of negative spontaneous thoughts to absolute and relative levels of mild depressive symptoms in patients with panic disorder.

  • 17. Oreland, Lars
    et al.
    Garpenstrand, H
    Damberg, M
    Alm, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    af Kinteberg, B
    The correlation between platelet MAO activity and personality - the effect of smoking and possible mechanisms behind the correlation.1999Ingår i: Neurobiology (Copenhagen), ISSN 0300-8819, Vol. 7, s. 191-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Pettersson, Bill
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Urologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Varenhorst, Eberhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Urologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Momentary increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide is involved in hot flashes in men treated with castration for carcinoma of the prostate2001Ingår i: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 166, nr 5, s. 1720-1723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In women the vasodilatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y seem to be involved in menopausal hot flashes. We assessed whether plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y change during hot flashes in men after castration.

    Materials and Methods

    We evaluated 10 men 61 to 81 years old who underwent castration due to cancer of the prostate and had frequent hot flashes for changes in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y during 1 day at the outpatient clinic. At least 5 blood samples were obtained between flashes and 4 were obtained during each flash. The samples were analyzed for calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y using radioimmunoassay technique. Hot flashes were objectively recorded by measuring peripheral skin temperature and skin conductance.

    Results

    Plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide increased 46% (95% confidence interval 21 to 71) during flashes in the 6 men in whom it was measurable. This change was statistically significant (p = 0.028). The concentration of neuropeptide Y was below the detection limit. Skin conductance and temperature increased significantly during flashes.

    Conclusions

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is involved in the mechanisms of hot flashes in men who underwent castration due to prostate carcinoma. Thus, there may be a similar mechanism of hot flashes in women and in men deprived of sex steroids.

  • 19.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk kemi.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Hot flushes in healthy aging men differ from those in men with prostate cancer and in menopausal women2012Ingår i: Gynecological Endocrinology, ISSN 0951-3590, E-ISSN 1473-0766, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 72-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to be involved in hot flushes in women and in castrated men. Therefore, we studied whether the plasma concentrations of CGRP changed during flushes in a group of healthy aging men. Twelve men (49-71 years) with no history of current or former prostate cancer or hormonal treatment reporting greater than= 20 flushes/week were investigated. Blood samples were drawn during and between flushes for analysis of CGRP and also androgen concentrations, that is, testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were analysed. Skin temperature and skin conductance were monitored. Thirty-five flushes were reported by 10 men. The plasma concentrations of CGRP did not increase during flushes. No significant change in skin temperature or conductance was found. CGRP is probably not involved in the mechanisms of flushes in healthy aging men. Therefore, flushes in aging healthy men seem to be different from flushes in men and women deprived of sex steroids where CGRP increases during flushes.

  • 20.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Valid electrodermal hyporeactivity for depressive suicidal propensity offers links to cognitive theory2009Ingår i: ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0001-690X, Vol. 119, nr 5, s. 338-349Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies from three independent laboratories report varying relationships between electrodermal hyporeactivity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients. The aims of this study were to explain that variation, to assess the discriminative validity of electrodermal hyporeactivity for suicide and suicide attempts and to suggest a tentative explanation model.

    A meta-analysis was performed of 279 depressed patients and 59 healthy subjects.

    The sensitivity was 96.6% and specificity 92.9% of electrodermal hyporeactivity for suicide and 83.3% and 92.7%, respectively, for suicide and/or violent attempts. The shares of hyporeactives were strongly significantly and greatly larger in high than in low suicidal propensity groups, P-value ranging from 4.7 x 10(-8) to 1.1 x 10(-14).

    The high discriminative validity and the emerging links over a proposed interest-limiting precognitive set to cognitive theory of suicide encourage clinical application of tests of electrodermal reactivity. The study offers a series of testable hypotheses constituting a new platform for suicidological research in depression.

  • 21.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Kjellman, Bengt
    Arned, Marie
    Lindwall-Sundel, K
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Wetterberg, Lennart
    Light treatment of seasonal affective disorder in combination with citalopram or placebo with 1-year follow-up.1999Ingår i: International Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0268-1315, E-ISSN 1473-5857, Vol. 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken. Emotra AB Ltd, Sweden.
    Wahlin, Karl
    Karl Wahlin AB, Sweden.
    Ranstam, Jonas
    Mdas AB, Sweden.
    Improper study design precludes valid effect estimates in important suicide prevention research2019Ingår i: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 28, nr 3, artikel-id e1786Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The observational study design for estimating accuracy of diagnostic tests for suicide risk in clinical work is not ideal, due to the effects of directed suicide prevention to the high-risk group. This is an example of the confounding by indication and protopathic bias, which lead to misinterpretation of the accuracy terms sensitivity and specificity. The simple arithmetic mechanism presented here, forces the conclusion that the accuracy estimates sensitivity and specificity, applied in open prospective trials of surmised diagnostic tests for suicide risk, cannot be normally interpreted as accuracy estimators. Further, the related concept "prediction of suicide" is shown to be fundamentally illogical and should not be used in the present context. All these statements reveal a far-reaching problem within the suicide prevention research: Conclusions regarding the usefulness of diagnostic tests of suicide risk in the vast previous research since decades deserve reinterpretation. Diagnostic tests per se, can possess highly qualitative properties in estimating important suicidological aspects regarding a patient, but, when studied in an open design study, it cannot be demonstrated. This problem concerns rating scales and any biological and psychological tests in medicine, when confounding factors, for example, suicide prevention, influence the outcome because of the test result per se.

  • 23.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Wolfersdorf, M
    State Hospital, Germany .
    Straub, R
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Steyer, J
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Hodgkinson, S
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Kaschka, W P.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Jandl, M
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Electrodermal hyporeactivity as a trait marker for suicidal propensity in uni- and bipolar depression2013Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 1925-1931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A meta-analysis of studies investigating electrodermal activity in depressed patients, suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity is sensitive and specific for suicide. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAims: To confirm this finding and to study electrodermal hyporeactivity relative to type and severity of depression, trait anxiety, its stability and independence of depressive state. Method: Depressed inpatients (n = 783) were tested for habituation of electrodermal responses and clinically assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the STAI-Trait scale for trait anxiety. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The high sensitivity and raw specificity of electrodermal hyporeactivity for suicide were confirmed. Its prevalence was highest in bipolar disorders and was independent of severity of depression, trait anxiety, gender and age. Hyporeactivity was stable, while reactivity changed into hyporeactivity in a later depressive episode. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The findings support the hypothesis that electrodermal hyporeactivity is a trait marker for suicidal propensity in depression.

  • 24.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Wolfersdorf, M.
    State Hospital, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Straub, R.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Steyer, J.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Hodgkinson, S.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Kaschka, W.P.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Jandl, M.
    University Hospital Ulm, Germany .
    Wahlin, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A paradox in suicide statistics in estimating specificity of tests for suicide - reply to Mushquash and co-workers and Culver2014Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 54, s. 142-143Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Walter, Susanna A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk kemi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Pre-experimental stress in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: high cortisol values already before symptom provocation with rectal distensions2006Ingår i: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1069-1077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is known to affect symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) probably by an alteration of visceral sensitivity. We studied the impact of maximal tolerable rectal distensions on cortisol levels in patients with IBS, chronic constipation and controls, and evaluated the effect of the experimental situation per se. In twenty-four IBS patients, eight patients with chronic constipation and 15 controls salivary cortisol was measured before and after repetitive maximal tolerable rectal balloon distensions and at similar times in their usual environment. Rectal sensitivity thresholds were determined. IBS patients but not controls and constipation patients had higher cortisol levels both before and after the experiment compared with similar times on an ordinary day in their usual environment (P = 0.0034 and 0.0002). There was no difference in salivary cortisol level before compared with after rectal distensions. The IBS patients had significantly lower thresholds for first sensation, urge and maximal tolerable distension than controls (P = 0.0247, 0.0001 and <0.0001) and for urge and maximal tolerable distension than patients with constipation (P = 0.006 and 0.013). IBS patients may be more sensitive to expectancy stress than controls and patients with constipation according to salivary cortisol. Rectal distensions were not associated with a further significant increase in cortisol levels.

  • 26.
    Walter, Susanna A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Gastroenterologi och hepatologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Kirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sympathetic (electrodermal) activity during repeated maximal rectal distensions in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation2008Ingår i: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, ISSN 1350-1925, E-ISSN 1365-2982, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 43-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, stress and autonomic dysfunction. Sympathetic activity during repeated events indicates excitatory or inhibitory mechanisms such as sensitization or habituation. We investigated skin conductance (SC) during repetitive rectal distensions at maximal tolerable pressure in patients with IBS and chronic constipation. Twenty-seven IBS patients, 13 constipation patients and 18 controls underwent two sets of isobaric rectal distensions. First, maximal tolerable distension was determined and then it was repeated five times. Skin conductance was measured continuously. Subjective symptom assessment remained steady in all groups. The baseline values of SC were higher in IBS patients than in patients with constipation and significantly lower in constipation patients than in controls. The maximal SC response to repetitive maximal distensions was higher in IBS patients compared with constipation patients. The amplitude of the initial SC response decreased successively with increased number of distensions in patients with IBS and constipation but not in controls. Irritable bowel syndrome and constipation patients habituated to maximal repetitive rectal distensions with decreasing sympathetic activity. Irritable bowel syndrome patients had higher sympathetic reactivity and baseline activity than constipation patients. A lower basal SC in constipation patients compared with controls suggests an inhibition of the sympathetic drive in constipation patients.

  • 27.
    Åström, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri.
    Paulin, Birgitta
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Inner images and delineations of parental figures reported by psychotherapeutic outpatients2006Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 103, nr 3, s. 931-945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotherapeutic outpatients (10 men, 20 women) were tested with the Inner Images of Parental Figures. Each subject imagined first his mother and then his father. Questions were asked about size, look, and spatial and emotional distance of the imagined parent. The patient was then asked to describe the personality of each parent by underlining at least 20 of 85 adjectives in a list called Family Climate Scale. This originally consisted of four factors, Closeness, Spontaneity, Distance, and Chaos, but the two administered were Factor I (positive traits) and Factor II (negative traits). Emotional distance correlated positively with Factor I and negatively with Factor II. For the maternal figure there was a correlation with distance in metres and Factor I scores. The Inner Images of Parental Figures may be a valuable complement in psychotherapy, mapping out emotional relations between patients and their parents. © Perceptual and Motor Skills 2006.

  • 28.
    Åström, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Graphometric variables of one's signature: I. Basic measures2007Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 105, nr 3 I, s. 733-752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on statistical properties and interrelationships of graphometric variables of the signatures of outpatients, 100 men and 119 women, remitted from somatic and psychiatric clinics for possible psychotherapy or for tests of IQ, personality, or brain lesions. The patients' signature on test forms were used. The type of handwriting was classified into Common, Print and Block letters, quantified in breadth, length, and area and grades of slant of minuscules ("lower-case letters") and majuscules ("upper- case"). Analysis indicated sex and age played roles in style of handwriting and size of letters, writing styles differed on most graphometric variables, and meaningful patterns of interrelationships among graphometric variables were specified by factor analysis. © Perceptual and Motor Skills 2007.

  • 29.
    Åström, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Psykiatri. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Graphometric variables of one's signature: II. Correlations with measures of perception, cognitive function, and personality2008Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 107, nr 1, s. 197-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on interrelations between graphometric variables of the signature and measures of perception, cognitive function, and personality. Signatures from a sample of psychiatric and somatic outpatients (N=205) were analyzed into 23 graphometric variables and correlated with tests of IQ, cognitive and perceptual function, and personality. The results of a factor analysis of the graphometric, perceptual, and cognitive variables were very much like results from previous studies. Relationships with the graphometric variables can be described in five categories of intelligence, psychomotility, flexibility and speed of closure, and personality. Graphometric signs of Extraversion and Neuroticism were identified, and the two capitals in the signature indicated different psychological meanings. Measurements of the signature offered important personality information. © Perceptual and Motor Skills 2008.

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