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  • 1.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Team situation awareness using graphical or textual databases in dynamic decision making1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] T. R. G. Green, 1999Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment we explore the effects of using a graphical and textual database for sharing information within a team that are to control a dynamic system. The task involves fighting a simulated fire. Four people are to cooperate in a layered organisation, with one layer being the operative and the second layer the supervisory. The operative layer involves two fire chiefswho are commanding two fire units each. The supervisory unit consists of two persons that are to co-ordinate the fire chiefs. The supervisory unit receives all information from the fire chiefs but has to construct an overall picture, a so-called situation awareness, of the development of the whole area. The supervisory unit constructs this situation awareness which is meant to be supported by the graphical and textual databases respectively. We hypothesised that the graphical condition would be more successful than the textual database in registering the current situation, since the graphical database allows direct mapping. On the other hand, we hypothesised that the textual condition might be better in supporting the future planning and prediction of system dynamics. We analyse 18 quartets, 72 subjects by both performance measures and a questionnaire. There were no significant performance differences between conditions, but there is a major learning effect, especially for the textual condition. In accordance with our hypothesis we found that participants in the graphical condition did better mapping the map with the "real" world, at least in the first session. More successful groups worked more ahead of the fire than did less successful groups. From the questionnaire it seems that the subjects learn more about co-ordination and trusting their fellow team members than about the internal dynamics of the simulated fire. In fact, the teams learn things about system dynamics that are wrong. We therefore suggest that team SA might be more of a co-ordination problem than a problem of acquiring knowledge about system dynamics.

  • 2.
    Baroutsi, Nicoletta
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Björn JE
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nählinder, Staffan
    FOI.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Turcotte, Isabelle
    Laval University.
    Tremblay, Sebastien
    Laval University.
    Assessing development of team training in emergency management2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th ISCRAM, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Microworld systems for emergency management training1998Ingår i: Co-Operative Process Management: Cognition and Information Technology / [ed] Yvonne Wærn, London: Taylor & Francis, 1998Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes a research project that deals with the design and construction of computer simulation in decision training systems, in particular with the development of simulation systems for training of commanders and staff in emergency decision making and crisis management. This description focuses on the emergency management characteristics that influence the design and construction of a proper emergency management training system. The underlying assumption in this work is this: Decision training systems, for emergency management, can be more effective if pedagogical strategies are integrated into the computer simulations. To examine how emergency management training can be generated, we have developed C3Fire - a microworld simulation system.The rnicroworld generates a task environment for a forest fire fighting staff, where we can train a staff in commanding and controlling the fire-fightingunits. The goal of the rnicroworld is to have an experimental platform where we can study distributed decision making and situation awareness, and at the same time experiment with different control strategies in order to obtain certain specified pedagogical goals. This work is based on empirical studies of an existing military training system used to train infantry battalion staffs.

  • 4.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monitoring distributed teamwork training2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In team collaboration training, especially when the training is distributed on the net, it exists a problem of identifying the students' collaboration and work processes. An important design task when developing distributed interactive simulation systems for team training is therefore to define a proper monitoring functionality that will help training managers to evaluate the training. Thus a goal of a computer-based monitoring system is to give training managers help in understanding and assessing the performance of the trainees.

    This thesis deals with the design and implementation of monitoring strategies for distributed collaboration training. The aim has been to explore different automatic monitoring strategies, and how they can help a training manger in their task of understanding the students' collaboration during a training session.

    To explore possible monitoring strategies, a distributed, net-based micro-world simulation and training system, C3Fire, has been developed and three series of experiments has been performed. C3Fire provides a Command, Control and Communication training environment that can be used for team collaboration training of emergency management tasks. The training domain, which is forest fire fighting, acts as a micro-world, which creates a good dynamic environment for the trainees.

    In the three performed studies a total of 192 persons have participated as students. A 132 of these were computer-literate undergraduate students and 60 professional military officers. In these studies four monitoring goals have been explored: the effectiveness of the teams, the information distribution in the organisation, the students situation awareness, and the students work and collaboration methods. 

    Delarbeten
    1. Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making
    Visa övriga...
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings to Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 2001Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses methodological issues of micro-world research within the domain of dynamic decision-making. Using the C3Fire micro-world as an example, several studies are presented and discussed. It is concluded that there are several advantages of using micro-world simulations in the development of information systems, but also that there still exist fundamental problems, such as measuring team performance.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61998 (URN)
    Konferens
    Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 14-16 November, Granada Spain
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-18 Skapad: 2010-11-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-06-02
    2. Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld
    2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scaled worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications / [ed] Samuel G. Schiflett, Linda R. Elliott, Eduardo Salas, Michael D. Coovert, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2004, s. -363Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This text identifies and discusses emerging challenges and opportunities arising from advanced-technology simulation-based microworld analogues of operational environments. These "scaled worlds" have been used and advocated for many years. A major transformation is expected in research and training using new, more advanced versions of these systems. Technology now affords new capabilities using PC-based systems. Complex and distributed expert decision making and team performance can be elicited and rehearsed through affordable and easily distributed systems. These new systems will transform the nature of research and training on two fronts: (1) the content internal (i.e. laboratory control) and external validity, and (2) who can do the research and/or training, as these new systems offer more opportunities/options. Organizations and universities are rapidly building internet-based systems to train, educate and/or utilize individuals who may be distributed across the globe. Researchers across the globe will also use these new capabilities, forging new and multi-discipline research as new alliances and collaborations are enabled. Research previously restricted to highly realistic and restricted high-fidelity systems will be open to more participants and these new processes and systems will create new opportunities. Such systems will offer more realism, control and feedback to researchers and trainers. Distributed systems can link multiple nodes, allowing many participants to perform within a shared scenario. Scenarios are more easily constructed and controlled. Opportunities using these internet-based systems are clear, as evidenced by high funding and investments in advanced internet-based training systems. Universities, corporations and DoD organizations are rapidly escalating their use of such systems for collaborative research, education, distributed training and distance learning. These simulation-based systems will rapidly change the nature of research, education and training for most performance domains. Low to medium fidelity environments capture knowledge and performance requirements while retaining high levels of experimental control and generalizability. This book goes further than others on simulation-based training and research (which focus on highly realistic systems) by addressing the issues of scale, fidelity and purpose in more abstracted scaled world systems. It brings together experts who use these systems, from a variety of perspectives. Their contributions document emerging trends and issues with regard to development, utilization and validation of these emerging "scaled world" systems.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Datavetenskap (datalogi)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23802 (URN)3325 (Lokalt ID)978-0-7546-3509-3 (ISBN)0-754-6-3509-0 (ISBN)3325 (Arkivnummer)3325 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-07 Skapad: 2009-10-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Web-based micro-world simulation for emergency management training
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Web-based micro-world simulation for emergency management training
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 561-572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-world simulation and exercise monitoring will have an important role in future group distance exercise (GDE) systems. Micro-world simulations can be used for training basic co-ordination and collaborative work in emergency management and command-and-control situations. An important design task when developing distributed interactive simulation systems for GDE is to define a proper monitoring functionality that will help the training managers to evaluate the exercises. In our research, we have developed C3Fire, a web-based distributed interactive simulation system. This paper presents results from using the C3Fire micro-world and our work on exercise monitoring.

    Nyckelord
    Web-based simulation, distance education, exercise monitoring, micro-world simulation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49319 (URN)10.1016/S0167-739X(00)00039-X (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12
    4. Designing web-based simulation for learning
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Designing web-based simulation for learning
    2000 (Engelska)Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 171-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Web-based simulation can be a powerful tool in education and training. The nature of simulation-based learning combined with the availability of the web make learning supported by web-based simulation a powerful strategy. In simulation-based learning, learners can experience environments that would be too costly, time-consuming, complex or dangerous to provide through other means. This article discusses some basic properties of learning using web-based simulation with the focus on different types of learning goals (instructional goals) and on proper instructional strategies (pedagogical strategies) for web-based simulation. We exemplify the classifications discussed with three web-based systems, developed by the authors, that represent different types of web-based simulation. Chernobyl — a nuclear power plant simulation. C3Fire — a micro-world supporting command and control training. ERCIS — a group distance-exercise system supporting equipment handling, action-protocol performance and group interaction.

    Nyckelord
    web-based simulation, distance education, instructional strategies, simulation-based learning
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49564 (URN)10.1016/S0167-739X(99)00112-0 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12
    5. Microworld systems for emergency management training
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Microworld systems for emergency management training
    1998 (Engelska)Ingår i: Co-Operative Process Management: Cognition and Information Technology / [ed] Yvonne Wærn, London: Taylor & Francis, 1998Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes a research project that deals with the design and construction of computer simulation in decision training systems, in particular with the development of simulation systems for training of commanders and staff in emergency decision making and crisis management. This description focuses on the emergency management characteristics that influence the design and construction of a proper emergency management training system. The underlying assumption in this work is this: Decision training systems, for emergency management, can be more effective if pedagogical strategies are integrated into the computer simulations. To examine how emergency management training can be generated, we have developed C3Fire - a microworld simulation system.The rnicroworld generates a task environment for a forest fire fighting staff, where we can train a staff in commanding and controlling the fire-fightingunits. The goal of the rnicroworld is to have an experimental platform where we can study distributed decision making and situation awareness, and at the same time experiment with different control strategies in order to obtain certain specified pedagogical goals. This work is based on empirical studies of an existing military training system used to train infantry battalion staffs.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London: Taylor & Francis, 1998
    Nyckelord
    Process control, Informationsteknik IT
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86694 (URN)0-7484-0713-8 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-21 Skapad: 2012-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-04-09
    6. C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment
    2001 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings to the 42nd Conference on Simulation and Moddeling, Simutalion in Theory and Practice, SIMS 2001, 2001Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In development of future control systems, the problem of validating design decisions has been recognised. It has been proposed that the use of simulations can bridge the gap between the more ecologically valid field studies and strictly experimental studies in developmental research. Currently, a project aimed at designing and evaluating a new command and control environment is being conducted at the Swedish National Defence College (SwNDC). Novel artefacts and concepts aimed at supporting command and control has been developed and must now be tested. For this purpose, as specialised version of the C3Fire micro-world has been developed. This paper describes the C3Fire micro-world and the properties that make it possible to use the micro-world in the examination of networked command and control concepts in the ROLF environment.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61999 (URN)
    Konferens
    42nd Conference on Simulation and Modelling, Simulation in Theory and Practice, 8-9 October 2001, Porsgrunn, Norway
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-18 Skapad: 2010-11-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-06-02
    7. The team decision-making study: cooperation and situation awareness within and between time-scales in dynamic decision-making
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The team decision-making study: cooperation and situation awareness within and between time-scales in dynamic decision-making
    1997 (Engelska)Ingår i: C3fire: a microworld supporting emergency management training / [ed] Rego Granlund, Linköping: Linköping Universitet , 1997Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This appendix describes the team decision-making study that was performed using C3Fire. This is an example of what type of study can be performed by using the C3Fire Microworld. It is a compressed version of the work report 'Cooperation & Situation Awareness within and between time scales in Dynamic Decision Making' (Artman 1996c).

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping Universitet, 1997
    Serie
    Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 598
    Nyckelord
    Computer supprted education, Simulation based learning, Agents, Decision training, Databehandling Tillämpningsprogram Systemprogram, Artificiell Intelligens AI
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86700 (URN)91-7871-890-2 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-21 Skapad: 2012-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-04-09
    8. Team situation awareness using graphical or textual databases in dynamic decision making
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Team situation awareness using graphical or textual databases in dynamic decision making
    1999 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics / [ed] T. R. G. Green, 1999Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment we explore the effects of using a graphical and textual database for sharing information within a team that are to control a dynamic system. The task involves fighting a simulated fire. Four people are to cooperate in a layered organisation, with one layer being the operative and the second layer the supervisory. The operative layer involves two fire chiefswho are commanding two fire units each. The supervisory unit consists of two persons that are to co-ordinate the fire chiefs. The supervisory unit receives all information from the fire chiefs but has to construct an overall picture, a so-called situation awareness, of the development of the whole area. The supervisory unit constructs this situation awareness which is meant to be supported by the graphical and textual databases respectively. We hypothesised that the graphical condition would be more successful than the textual database in registering the current situation, since the graphical database allows direct mapping. On the other hand, we hypothesised that the textual condition might be better in supporting the future planning and prediction of system dynamics. We analyse 18 quartets, 72 subjects by both performance measures and a questionnaire. There were no significant performance differences between conditions, but there is a major learning effect, especially for the textual condition. In accordance with our hypothesis we found that participants in the graphical condition did better mapping the map with the "real" world, at least in the first session. More successful groups worked more ahead of the fire than did less successful groups. From the questionnaire it seems that the subjects learn more about co-ordination and trusting their fellow team members than about the internal dynamics of the simulated fire. In fact, the teams learn things about system dynamics that are wrong. We therefore suggest that team SA might be more of a co-ordination problem than a problem of acquiring knowledge about system dynamics.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86703 (URN)
    Konferens
    Ninth European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, ECCE-9, University of Limerick, Ireland
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-21 Skapad: 2012-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-12-21
    9. The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment
    2000 (Engelska)Ingår i: In the 5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 2000Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing development of the ROLF 2010 Joint Mobile Command and Control concept has led to several research questions about the usage of new technology in distributed decision making (see for example Artman & Persson, forthcoming). The ROLF-environment provides the decisionmakers with public as well as private representations (e.g. computer screens) and a wide range of communication tools. The focus of this article is the way in which the participants in such decision making should use the main public screen, the Visioscope™. The "more is more"-thought implies that the commander should benefit from getting as much information as possible. This means, for instance that direct updating without intervention of the commanders should give them a better view of the situation than if they were forced to update the Visioscope™ themselves. This latter approach would enforce a processing of the sequential and spatial organisation of the objects with which they are working. A series of tests are therefore being performed at the National Defence College in order to study the effects of the two conditions.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62024 (URN)
    Konferens
    5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 26-28 May 2000, Stockholm, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-18 Skapad: 2010-11-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-06-02
  • 5.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Web-based micro-world simulation for emergency management training2001Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 561-572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-world simulation and exercise monitoring will have an important role in future group distance exercise (GDE) systems. Micro-world simulations can be used for training basic co-ordination and collaborative work in emergency management and command-and-control situations. An important design task when developing distributed interactive simulation systems for GDE is to define a proper monitoring functionality that will help the training managers to evaluate the exercises. In our research, we have developed C3Fire, a web-based distributed interactive simulation system. This paper presents results from using the C3Fire micro-world and our work on exercise monitoring.

  • 6.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Artman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The team decision-making study: cooperation and situation awareness within and between time-scales in dynamic decision-making1997Ingår i: C3fire: a microworld supporting emergency management training / [ed] Rego Granlund, Linköping: Linköping Universitet , 1997Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This appendix describes the team decision-making study that was performed using C3Fire. This is an example of what type of study can be performed by using the C3Fire Microworld. It is a compressed version of the work report 'Cooperation & Situation Awareness within and between time scales in Dynamic Decision Making' (Artman 1996c).

  • 7.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Designing web-based simulation for learning2000Ingår i: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 171-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Web-based simulation can be a powerful tool in education and training. The nature of simulation-based learning combined with the availability of the web make learning supported by web-based simulation a powerful strategy. In simulation-based learning, learners can experience environments that would be too costly, time-consuming, complex or dangerous to provide through other means. This article discusses some basic properties of learning using web-based simulation with the focus on different types of learning goals (instructional goals) and on proper instructional strategies (pedagogical strategies) for web-based simulation. We exemplify the classifications discussed with three web-based systems, developed by the authors, that represent different types of web-based simulation. Chernobyl — a nuclear power plant simulation. C3Fire — a micro-world supporting command and control training. ERCIS — a group distance-exercise system supporting equipment handling, action-protocol performance and group interaction.

  • 8.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monitoring distributed collaboration in the C3Fire microworld2004Ingår i: Scaled worlds: Development, Validation, and Applications / [ed] Samuel G. Schiflett, Linda R. Elliott, Eduardo Salas, Michael D. Coovert, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2004, s. -363Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This text identifies and discusses emerging challenges and opportunities arising from advanced-technology simulation-based microworld analogues of operational environments. These "scaled worlds" have been used and advocated for many years. A major transformation is expected in research and training using new, more advanced versions of these systems. Technology now affords new capabilities using PC-based systems. Complex and distributed expert decision making and team performance can be elicited and rehearsed through affordable and easily distributed systems. These new systems will transform the nature of research and training on two fronts: (1) the content internal (i.e. laboratory control) and external validity, and (2) who can do the research and/or training, as these new systems offer more opportunities/options. Organizations and universities are rapidly building internet-based systems to train, educate and/or utilize individuals who may be distributed across the globe. Researchers across the globe will also use these new capabilities, forging new and multi-discipline research as new alliances and collaborations are enabled. Research previously restricted to highly realistic and restricted high-fidelity systems will be open to more participants and these new processes and systems will create new opportunities. Such systems will offer more realism, control and feedback to researchers and trainers. Distributed systems can link multiple nodes, allowing many participants to perform within a shared scenario. Scenarios are more easily constructed and controlled. Opportunities using these internet-based systems are clear, as evidenced by high funding and investments in advanced internet-based training systems. Universities, corporations and DoD organizations are rapidly escalating their use of such systems for collaborative research, education, distributed training and distance learning. These simulation-based systems will rapidly change the nature of research, education and training for most performance domains. Low to medium fidelity environments capture knowledge and performance requirements while retaining high levels of experimental control and generalizability. This book goes further than others on simulation-based training and research (which focus on highly realistic systems) by addressing the issues of scale, fidelity and purpose in more abstracted scaled world systems. It brings together experts who use these systems, from a variety of perspectives. Their contributions document emerging trends and issues with regard to development, utilization and validation of these emerging "scaled world" systems.

  • 9.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    Department of Operational Studies, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    C3Fire: a microworld for collaboration training in the ROLF environment2001Ingår i: Proceedings to the 42nd Conference on Simulation and Moddeling, Simutalion in Theory and Practice, SIMS 2001, 2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In development of future control systems, the problem of validating design decisions has been recognised. It has been proposed that the use of simulations can bridge the gap between the more ecologically valid field studies and strictly experimental studies in developmental research. Currently, a project aimed at designing and evaluating a new command and control environment is being conducted at the Swedish National Defence College (SwNDC). Novel artefacts and concepts aimed at supporting command and control has been developed and must now be tested. For this purpose, as specialised version of the C3Fire micro-world has been developed. This paper describes the C3Fire micro-world and the properties that make it possible to use the micro-world in the examination of networked command and control concepts in the ROLF environment.

  • 10.
    Granlund, Rego
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    Department of Operational Studies, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Artman, Henrik
    RoyInteraction and Presentation Lab, NADA, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matsson, Peter
    Department of Leadership, Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploration of methodological issues in micro-world research: experiences from research in team decision making2001Ingår i: Proceedings to Cognitive Research With Microworlds CRWM 2001, 2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses methodological issues of micro-world research within the domain of dynamic decision-making. Using the C3Fire micro-world as an example, several studies are presented and discussed. It is concluded that there are several advantages of using micro-world simulations in the development of information systems, but also that there still exist fundamental problems, such as measuring team performance.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Feedback in Shared Digital Maps2001Ingår i: European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control, X: X , 2001, s. 65-69Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation.
    How Professionals make Expert Decisions2004Ingår i: How Professionals make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004, s. -423Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making

  • 13.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The communicative aspects of distributed dynamic decision making in the ROLF-environment2000Ingår i: In the 5th Conference on Natural Decision Making, 2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing development of the ROLF 2010 Joint Mobile Command and Control concept has led to several research questions about the usage of new technology in distributed decision making (see for example Artman & Persson, forthcoming). The ROLF-environment provides the decisionmakers with public as well as private representations (e.g. computer screens) and a wide range of communication tools. The focus of this article is the way in which the participants in such decision making should use the main public screen, the Visioscope™. The "more is more"-thought implies that the commander should benefit from getting as much information as possible. This means, for instance that direct updating without intervention of the commanders should give them a better view of the situation than if they were forced to update the Visioscope™ themselves. This latter approach would enforce a processing of the sequential and spatial organisation of the objects with which they are working. A series of tests are therefore being performed at the National Defence College in order to study the effects of the two conditions.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Mats
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Matsson, Peter
    Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    C3Fire in Command and Control Research2003Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 191-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New and envisioned technological means and abilities for exerting command and control have increased the interest of man-machine research in a military context. Although there are many current proposals for how new command and control systems should be designed, many of the proposed properties that are considered advantageous have never been tested or could even be impossible to test in real-world situations. In spite of that, proposed design solutions are generally held valid in many Western countries where developments of major command and control system projects are in progress. An important question is how microworlds can be used for research on team decision-making. The use of microworlds gives us the possibility to create controlled settings and the opportunity to use advanced monitoring tools to study the subjects. Our studies indicate that the microworld concept, even though the simulation is fairly simple, reflects some of the crucial aspects of team-work in dynamic settings. The article presents results from a study in command and control using the C3Fire microworld (http://www.c3fire.org). Results and methodological issues are discussed.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Research on Decision Making and New Technology - Methodological Issues2004Ingår i: How Professionals Make Expert Decisions / [ed] Henry Montgomery, Raanan Lipshitz, Berndt Brehmer, Mahaw, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 2004, s. -423Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is the fruit of the 5th conference on Naturalistic Decision Making which focused on the importance of studying people who have some degree of expertise in the domain in which they make decisions. The substantive concerns pertain to how individuals and groups make decisions in professional and organizational settings, and to develop suitable methods for studying these questions rigorously. This volume appeals to practitioners in business and government, as well as academics and students who are interested in naturalistic decision making.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Studying cultural aspects of emergency management using the C3Fire microworld2006Ingår i: SIMsafe2006,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Predicting group faultlines in multicultural C2 operations2007Ingår i: 12th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium ICCRTS,2007, Newport, RI: ICCRTS , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 18.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Empirical studies of cultural barriers to collaborative decision making in international emergency services operations2006Ingår i: the 18th International Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology,2006, the International Association for CrossCultural Psychology , 2006, s. 54-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Bridging Cultural Barriers to Collaborative Decision Making in On-Site Operations Coordination Centers2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides both summaries and detailed discussions of the theoretical foundations, methods, and findings of empirical research aimed at identifying barriers to collaborative decision-making in multicultural On-Site Operations Coordination Centers (OSOCC). The research was conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Linköping University and Högskolan i Skövde and was sponsored by the International Department of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The experiments were controlled but dynamic laboratory studies of communication, collaboration, and decision making by culturally homogeneous teams of four that were assembled ad-hoc and on-site. The teams- task was to manage and conduct emergency operations within the C3Fire microworld. C3Fire recorded all communication among team members and all the actions they took. Participants individually completed a battery of self-report instruments about their values and beliefs. Results are summarized in a list of 30 dimensions of demographic and cultural diversity that are likely to be found whenever small multinational teams are formed ad-hoc and on-site. The potential impact of these dimensions is explained using the analogy of faultlines. Alignments of dimensions of diversity have the potential to generate friction and split a team into subgroups. Activated faultlines are barriers to communication, collaboration, and decision making. The report concludes with discussions of the implications of group faultlines and dimensions of cultural diversity for the SRSA-s training programs for OSOCC personnel, for the Swedish society, and for the scientific community.

  • 20.
    Trnka, Jiri
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Using Low-Fidelity Simulations to Support Design of Decision-Support Systems for Command and Control Applications2008Ingår i: Distributed Multimedia Systems,2008, Skokie, IL, USA: Knowledge Systems Institute , 2008, s. 158-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern decision-support systems for command and control may lead to radical organizational and technological changes. This paper describes a methodology to support designers and developers of such system in order to identify this type of changes in the design process. The methodology is based on a shorter series of low-fidelity simulations. The analyses do not focus on individual actions of the decision-support system operators, but instead on impacts of the systems on situated and joint actions of the command and control teams in terms of communication and coordination. The simulation series presented in the paper shows how the use of a decision-support system combining real-time data from various sensors led to changes in the content and structure of the communication as well as the resource coordination. Findings from the discussed simulations suggest that more attention should be given to possible impacts of decision-support systems on the joint actions of the command and control teams, as well as how these teams- actions are situated within the larger command and control system. 

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