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  • 1.
    Christodoulidis, Emilios
    et al.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Dukes, Ruth
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Supiot, Alain
    Inst Etud Avancees Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ewing, K D
    Kings Coll London, London, England .
    Novitz, Tonia
    Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Roedl, Florian
    Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Dialogue and Debate: Labour, Constitution and A Sense of Measure: A Debate with Alain Supiot2010Ingår i: Social and Legal Studies, ISSN 0964-6639, E-ISSN 1461-7390, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 217-252Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 2.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    East Carolina University, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Austerity, labour market segmentation and emigration: the case of Lithuania2015Ingår i: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 236-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called ‘Baltic model’ of austerity sometimes receives uncritical praise from advocates of tightened austerity. This model has achieved an almost uncontested vogue among international finance officials and European Union policy makers who portray it as a ‘socially costless’ template for other crisis economies. The article examines the impact of austerity on Baltic Lithuania, a peripheral newer EU member state, and suggests that the harsh austerity measures adopted by its government in order to restore fiscal balance have been far from socially costless. Austerity has accelerated fragmentation of the labour market into a differentially advantaged primary (largely public) sector, and an increasingly informalised secondary (low-skill manufacturing and services) sector, stimulating extraordinarily high levels of emigration as the population, especially younger persons, depart from the country. We describe this here as the formation of a new austeriat.

  • 3.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    East Carolina University, North Carolina, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exodus from Lithuania: State, social disenfranchisement and resistance in an era of austerity2012Ingår i: Building justice in post-transition Europe?: processes of criminalisation within Central and Eastern European societies / [ed] Kay Goodall, William Munro and Margaret Malloch, London: Routledge, 2012, 1, s. 56-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    After the collapse of the Berlin wall in 1989 and disintegration of the Soviet Union, scholars focused on the problems of legal transitions within the newly emerging democracies. Two decades on, these states are in 'post-transition' conditions; having undergone and continuing to experience political, economic and constitutional upheavals to varying degrees. This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on this largely unexamined topic. Part I of the book sets the scene with a socio-historical overview and a theoretical chapter; both of which contextualise the book within current debates and provide the theoretical direction of the book as a whole. The later chapters set out contrasting perspectives and consist of themed essays on individual legal systems, investigating these through approaches ranging from socio-legal study to political economy. The book aims to refine important directions for the comparative conceptual study of criminal law policy and processes of criminalisation in emerging democratic states. The result is a significant contribution to the understanding of this subject in the fields of criminology, law, philosophy and political science. The book will appeal to academics, policy-makers and practitioners who are attempting to grapple with the area of "transitions" in the fields of criminology, law, philosophy and political science. As a distinctively interdisciplinary text, it brings together analysis of both the social processes of creating (and abandoning) criminal law and a philosophical reflection. The book provides a comprehensive and critical analysis which points to future directions in criminalisation in the emerging democratic states of Eastern Europe.

  • 4.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Policing political protest in Lithuania2012Ingår i: Crime, law and social change, ISSN 0925-4994, E-ISSN 1573-0751, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 403-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes policing political protest in post-independent Lithuania. It argues that since the early 2000s, policing of political protest as an issue has increased in importance as Lithuania has experienced political mobilization and radicalization among groups disadvantaged by post-socialist reforms. It is suggested that police responses reveal precursor tendencies towards growing authoritarianism which has become more visible in the most recent period. In 2008, the onset of deep economic crisis across the region has generated rising social unrest (including outbreaks of street riot) as a result of government adoption of severe austerity measures. The article examines the growing centralization and militarization of policing and the increasing criminalization of public protest, as well as the restriction and litigation of organized dissent by authorities. At the same time, it also points to the internal contradictions of austerity programs which lack popular legitimacy both at the level of the state and society, including more vocal and militant labor unions; increasing challenges to the drift towards a new authoritarianism by the courts; and, paradoxically, the emergence of growing labor unrest within police force itself, with the potential to undermine authoritarian tendencies in policing ‘from within.’ The wider implications of (re)turn to post-communist authoritarianism to public order policing are discussed.

     

  • 5.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    East Carolina University, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    'Safety Crime' in Neoliberal Post-communist Society: The collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of disaster, both immediate and underlying, that resulted in 54 fatalities in Riga in November 2013 are analyzed in this paper. The collapse of the Maxima supermarket is seen as a safety failure resulting from longer-term deregulation in Latvia encouraged by external advisors such as the World Bank and the EU, and the specific crisis-induced drive to minimize regulation by local political actors, especially in the aftermath of ongoing austerity. The paper raises the issue of what is a ‘safety crime’ in the context of post-communist Baltic states, and asks whether the notion of ‘corporate killing’ or corporate manslaughter is applicable to the circumstances of the disaster. The paper suggests the need to establish accountability for social harms caused by the unfettered pursuit of private profit over public safety.

  • 6.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    University of East Carolina, NC, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Lithuanian labor market under the impact of crisis: the formation of the new austeriat2014Ingår i: The contraditions of austerity: the socio-economic costs of the neoliberal Baltic model / [ed] Jeffrey Sommers and Charles Woolfson, London and New York: Routledge, 2014, s. 87-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The great economic recession was experienced with particular severity in the Baltic states. In response, Baltic governments introduced harsh austerity programmes known as ‘internal devaluation.’ The article argues that austerity measures combined with the effects of previous massive EU financial transfers have accelerated the fragmentation of the labour market into a differentially advantaged primary (largely public) sector, and an increasingly ‘informalized’ secondary (largely low-skill manufacturing and services) sector. Taking Lithuania as an example, it is argued that the production of a segmented labour market has acted as a major stimulus to high levels of emigration from Lithuania, shaping anticipatory educational choices and preferences, despite signs of economic recovery. This sustained outflow of migrants appears counterintuitive to the expected outcomes of simple “push” and “pull” explanations. In the absence of state policy to address a gathering sociodemographic crisis that is the specific but largely unacknowledged legacy of radical austerity measures, this chapter examines the constitutive dynamics of the latest wave of emigration from Lithuania.

  • 7.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    East Carolina University, NC 27858 USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The lmoral discourses of post-crisis neoliberalism: a case study of Lithuanias Labour Code reform2017Ingår i: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 132-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes the neoliberal reconfiguration of labour rights in Lithuania, a newer European Union member state, in which the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis were particularly severe and where radical austerity measures were subsequently imposed. Now, after six years, in an attempt to resolve the exhaustion of previous austerity-based solutions for economic recovery, a new Labour Code is being introduced which will further weaken labour protections and labour rights. This article analyses conflicting positions in current debates over Labour Code reform. It attempts to map the mobilization of strategic discursive resources in an unfolding dialogical moral politics of Labour Code reform in the current conjuncture of postcrisis. Theoretically, this article draws upon the seminal work of the early Soviet Marxist scholar V. N. Voloshinov in proposing a dialogical method which foregrounds the interconnections of language, class and ideology.

  • 8.
    Juska, Arunas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The moral discourses of ‘post-crisis’ neoliberalism: a case study of Lithuania’s Labour Code reform2016Ingår i: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 132-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes the neoliberal reconfiguration of labour rights in Lithuania, a newer European Union member state, in which the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis were particularly severe and where radical austerity measures were subsequently imposed. Now, after six years, in an attempt to resolve the exhaustion of previous austerity-based solutions for economic recovery, a new Labour Code is being introduced which will further weaken labour protections and labour rights. This article analyses conflicting positions in current debates over Labour Code reform. It attempts to map the mobilization of strategic discursive resources in an unfolding dialogical ‘moral’ politics of Labour Code reform in the current conjuncture of ‘postcrisis’. Theoretically, this article draws upon the seminal work of the early Soviet Marxist scholar V. N. Voloshinov in proposing a dialogical method which foregrounds the interconnections of language, class and ideology.

  • 9.
    Kallaste, Epp
    et al.
    Estonian Center for Applied Research CentAR, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Negotiated responses to the crisis in the Baltic countries2013Ingår i: Transfer - European Review of Labour and Research, ISSN 1024-2589, E-ISSN 1996-7284, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 253-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the negotiated responses to the crisis at different levels of social dialogue in the Baltic countries. The Baltic countries form a relatively coherent group of small open economies that can be classified as belonging to the neoliberal type of central and eastern European capitalism. Their responses to the crisis were consistent with such classification: flexible labour markets absorbed the main impacts of the crisis through rapid increases in unemployment, as well as nominal and real drops in wages. A negotiated response was either not sought at all by governments or was of minor importance at all levels of interaction between the social partners. If anything, national-level social dialogue deteriorated, remaining at a low level even after the crisis had peaked. Based on qualitative examples from Estonia and Lithuania we show that, at company level, responses to the crisis varied.

  • 10.
    Kallaste, Epp
    et al.
    Estonian Center for Applied Research CentAR, Tallinn.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    The Paradox of Post-Communist Trade Unionism: “You can’t want what you can’t imagine”2009Ingår i: Economic and Labour Relations Review, ISSN 1035-3046, E-ISSN 1838-2673, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 93-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores employee attitudes towards trade union membership in the context of the post-communist Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It reports on a comparative empirical social survey of attitudes towards representation. We suggest that in addition to those employees who are union members and fall within an identifiable ‘representation gap’, there is an sizeable group of ‘undecided’ employees who could be persuaded to join trade unions, if they could see the relevance of collective representation. We argue that this relatively large group could be specific to the Central and East European countries, and employees who fall within the commonly understood representation gap in other countries can be found within this undecided group in Baltic countries. Trade unions therefore face a considerable challenge in proving their relevance to such employees, a problem that has wider resonances in a European context and may be more difficult to resolve in the Central and East European countries.

  • 11.
    Likic-Brboric, Branka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Slavnic, Zoran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Informalisering: migration och arbete i ett utvidgat Europa2013Ingår i: Migrationens och etnicitetens epok: kritiska perspektiv i etnicitets- och migrationsstudier / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt och Anders Neergaard, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, s. 261-279Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Likic-Brboric, Branka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Norrköping, Sweden.
    Slavnic, Zoran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Norrköping, Sweden.
    Labour migration and informalisation: east meets west2015Ingår i: International migration and ethnic relations: critical perspectives / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt and Anders Neergaard, London: Routledge, 2015, s. 227-248Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– Against a theoretical discussion of informalisation, the purpose of this paper is to trace wider commonalities and migratory interconnections that are leading to informalised or deteriorated employment conditions both East and West in the enlarged Europe. Design/methodology/approach– The paper examines the ways in which informalisation has come increasingly to typify employment relations both East and West via contrastive case studies from Sweden and Latvia. Findings– The paper illustrates how a growing tendency towards informalisation of work and economy comes about as a consequence of dual tendencies towards informalisation both “from above” and “from below”. Migrant labour has a part in this process, especially in the post-EU enlargement period, increasingly enabling free movement of labour from the former socialist countries to the West. Research limitations/implications– The implications of the paper are that the harmonisation of labour standards in the enlarged EU is not necessarily in an upward direction and that wider EU labour markets may be increasingly segmented as processes of informalisation grow in scope. Practical implications– Policy-makers concerned with preserving labour standards and norms of decent work may consider the implications of the interconnected processes of informalisation and migration, in particular, with regard to “undeclared work”. Social implications– The paper raises issues concerning the European social model and its viability. Originality/value– The paper bridges research on informalisation of the economy and labour migration in the context of EU enlargement.

  • 13.
    Likic-Brboric, Branka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Slavnic, Zoran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Labour migration and informalisation: East meets West2013Ingår i: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 33, nr 11/12, s. 677-692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Against a theoretical discussion of informalisation, the purpose of this paper is to trace wider commonalities and migratory interconnections that are leading to informalised or deteriorated employment conditions both East and West in the enlarged Europe.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the ways in which informalisation has come increasingly to typify employment relations both East and West via contrastive case studies from Sweden and Latvia.

    Findings – The paper illustrates how a growing tendency towards informalisation of work and economy comes about as a consequence of dual tendencies towards informalisation both “from above” and “from below”. Migrant labour has a part in this process, especially in the post-EU enlargement period, increasingly enabling free movement of labour from the former socialist countries to the West.

    Research limitations/implications – The implications of the paper are that the harmonisation of labour standards in the enlarged EU is not necessarily in an upward direction and that wider EU labour markets may be increasingly segmented as processes of informalisation grow in scope.

    Practical implications – Policy-makers concerned with preserving labour standards and norms of decent work may consider the implications of the interconnected processes of informalisation and migration, in particular, with regard to “undeclared work”.

    Social implications – The paper raises issues concerning the European social model and its viability.

    Originality/value – The paper bridges research on informalisation of the economy and labour migration in the context of EU enlargement.

  • 14.
    Neergaard, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sweden: A model in dissolution?2017Ingår i: Trade Unions and Migrant Workers: New Contexts and Challenges in Europe / [ed] Marino, Stefania, Judith Roosblad and Rinus Penninx, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, s. 200-223Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This timely book analyses the relationship between trade unions, immigration and migrant workers across eleven European countries in the period between the 1990s and 2015. It constitutes an extensive update of a previous comparative analysis – published by Rinus Penninx and Judith Roosblad in 2000 – that has become an important reference in the field. The book offers an overview of how trade unions manage issues of inclusion and solidarity in the current economic and political context, characterized by increasing challenges for labour organizations and rising hostility towards migrants. The qualitative analysis of trade union strategies towards immigration and migrant workers is based on a common analytical framework centred on the idea of ‘dilemmas’ that trade unions have to face when dealing with immigration and migrant workers. This approach facilitates comparative analysis and distinguishes patterns of union policies and actions across three groups of countries, identifying some explanations for observed similarities and differences. In addition, the book also includes theoretical chapters by expert scholars from a range of disciplinary fields including industrial relations, migration studies and political economy.This comprehensive comparative analysis is an essential resource for academics across a range of disciplines as well as policy-makers, practitioners and organizations involved in trade unions and migrant inclusion and integration. 

  • 15.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics Riga.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Efter Laval: framtiden för europeiska arbetsvillkor2008Ingår i: Socialistisk Debatt, ISSN 0246-1491, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA.
    Woolfson, CharlesLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Contradictions of Austerity: The Socio-Economic Costs of the Neoliberal Baltic Model2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The great financial crisis of 2008 and the ensuing global economic and financial turmoil have launched a search for "models" for recovery. The advocates of austerity present the Baltic States as countries that through discipline and sacrifice showed the way out of crisis. They have proposed the "Baltic model" of radical public sector cuts, wage reductions, labor market reforms and reductions in living standards for other troubled Eurozone countries to emulate. Yet, the reality of the Baltic "austerity fix" has been neither fully accepted by its peoples, nor is it fully a success. This book explains why and what are the real social and economic costs of the Baltic austerity model.

    We examine each of the Baltic States by connecting national level studies within a European and global political economy, thereby delivering comparative breadth that supersedes localized understandings of the crisis. Thus for each of the three Baltic states, individual chapters explore the different economic and social dimensions of neo-liberal post-communism and the subsequent wider global economic and financial crisis in which these newly financialized economies have found themselves especially vulnerable. The "austerity model" adopted by Baltic national governments in response to the crisis reveals the profound vulnerabilities created by their unwavering commitment to liberalized economies, not least in terms of the significant "exit" of their labor forces and consequent population loss. 

    This book looks beyond basic financial metrics claiming a success story for the Baltic austerity model to reveal the damaging economic and social consequences, first of neo-liberal policies adopted during transition, and latterly of austerity measures based on "internal devaluation." Combined these policies undermine the possibility of longer-term recovery and even social and economic sustainability, not to mention prospects for successful integration in the now-faltering European project that has departed from its "Social Model" roots.

  • 17.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA.
    Woolfson, CharlesLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The contraditions of austerity: the socio-economic costs of the neoliberal Baltic model2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The great financial crisis of 2008 and the ensuing global economic and financial turmoil have launched a search for ‘models’ for recovery. The advocates of austerity present the Baltic states as countries that, through discipline and sacrifice, showed the way out of crisis. They have proposed the ‘Baltic model’ of radical public sector cuts, wage reductions, labor market reforms and reductions in living standards for other troubled eurozone countries to emulate. Yet, the reality of the Baltic ‘austerity fix’ has been neither fully accepted by its peoples, nor is it fully a success. This book explains why and what are the real social and economic costs of the Baltic austerity model.

    We examine each of the Baltic states by connecting national-level studies within a European and global political economy, thereby delivering comparative breadth that supersedes localized understandings of the crisis. Thus, for each of the three Baltic states, individual chapters explore the different economic and social dimensions of neoliberal post-communism, and the subsequent wider global economic and financial crisis in which these new open-market economies have found themselves especially vulnerable. The ‘austerity model’ adopted by Baltic national governments in response to the crisis reveals the profound vulnerabilities created by their unwavering commitment to free market solutions, not least in terms of the significant ‘exit’ of their labor forces.

    Today ‘recovery’ appears to be on the horizon. We look beyond basic financial metrics claiming a success story for the Baltic austerity model to reveal the damaging economic and social consequences, first of neoliberal policies adopted during transition, and latterly of austerity measures based on ‘internal devaluation.’ Combined, these policies undermine the possibility of longer-term recovery, and even social and economic sustainability, not to mention successful integration in the now-faltering wider European project.

  • 18.
    Sommers, Jeffrey
    et al.
    University of Milwaukee-Wisconsin, USA.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Juska, Arunas
    Univeristy of East Carolina, NC, USA.
    Austerity as a global prescription and lessons from the neoliberal Baltic experiment2014Ingår i: Economic and Labour Relations Review, ISSN 1035-3046, E-ISSN 1838-2673, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 397-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the 2008 economic crisis and its outcomes for the Baltic states. It then gives a genealogy of European economic policy responses to the crisis, tracing them from the emerging ‘freshwater’ school of economics (e.g. University of Chicago) that arose in opposition to Keynesian theory. The more immediate cause of the 2008 crisis, long in the making, was its reliance on private debt to sustain economic demand in light of profit-enhancing wage suppression. Following the 2008 financial shock, European Union policymakers crafted policy that placed the burden of adjustment on labour. A programme of austerity was chosen in much of the European Union, at odds with the post-war European ‘social model’. This represented a retreat from the notion of a European project that encouraged liberalisation of economic policy but at the same time could be harmonised with a social dimension to create a distinctive ‘Social Europe’. Nowhere was this austerity more vigorously applied than in the Baltic states. Its effects are examined here, along with lessons to be derived from that experience.

  • 19.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dog den svenska modellen i Vaxholm? Laval-målets följder för den svenska arbetsmarknaden2011Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 2-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Upphandlingar och nerköp : Om lagstadgad social dumpning i byggnadsbranschen –ett debattinlägg2012Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    When tender turns tough: posted workers and the tendering regime in the Swedish construction industry2012Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 525-533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcome of the so-called Laval case and related judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has led to a debate about the future of the European social model. Although several analyses have focused on the downside of the judgments, in particular on the risk of ‘wage dumping’, one important but overlooked aspect is the connection to tendering regimes. This lacuna is crucial to labour recruitment practices in the construction industry because of the important role of public authorities as buyers of large construction services within the European Union. The research question is whether rigidity in how public authorities are required to tender contracts strengthens downward pressure on wages and induces a deterioration in working conditions. Case study material from Sweden is used in the context of extensive previous research and preliminary findings from an ongoing research project. Because of the short time span since the rulings of the ECJ there is only anecdotal evidence for establishing a mutually reinforcing connection between the system for awarding tenders in Swedish construction and the wider impacts of Laval on the labour market. Nevertheless, new evidence suggests that labour recruitment and human resource management practices are being shaped by a tendering regime governed by requirements of ‘cost flexibility’.

  • 22.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Baltic trade union responses to the global economic and financial crisis2011Ingår i: International Union Rights, ISSN 1018-5909, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 4-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Woolfson, Charles
    University of Latvia and University of Glasgow.
    Discourses of Labor Protest2006Ingår i: Atlantic Journal of Communications, ISSN 1545-6870, E-ISSN 1545-6889, Vol. 14, nr 1&2, s. 70-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the emergent discourses of labor protest which have accompanied the transition process from communism to the market economy. Building on the groundbreaking theoretical paradigm of V.N. Voloshinov and contemporary attempts by Marxist scholars to develop a materialist sociolinguistics, the gradual emergence of class-based labor discourses in the new market economies of Central and Eastern Europe is examined. A number of recent labor protests in ex-soviet Lithuania are examined. The complex articulation of labor identities is charted. Their legitimization, as social actors with “independent” demands, in the context of transitional Lithuanian society, is analyzed through the discourses of protest. Discourses of labor protest have emerged in contestation and tension with seemingly contradictory attempts to impose a “supraclass” ideology. The imposition of both neo-liberal ideology which seeks to exclude organized labor from an independent role in civil society, and at the same time, the cultivation of the language of social partnership, which seeks to incorporate labor in national tripartite structures, are complementary attempts to forestall the emergence of more radical class-based discourses. The emergence of dialogic discourses between labor and capital, and the forms of their social resonance, reveal much about the current limits of labor protest in the new market economies. Such discourses also reveal much about possible future forms of labor contestation, as the new market economies of Central and Eastern Europe are incorporated into the newly enlarged European Union.

  • 24.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Employee “voice” and working environment in post-communist New Member States: An empirical analysis of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania2008Ingår i: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 314-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines employee ‘voice’ in workplace health and safety in three Baltic New Member States by means of a cross-national survey. The data point to unresolved problems of voice in the context of rather poor working environments. These present opportunities for collective renewal by trade unions, but paradoxically are more likely to be addressed by employers in the context of significant labour shortages created by a post-European Union accession labour ‘exit’.

  • 25.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    'Hard times' in Lithuania: Crisis and 'discourses of discontent' in post-communist society2010Ingår i: Ethnography, ISSN 1466-1381, E-ISSN 1741-2714, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 487-514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the intersection of global recession with the underlying crisis of neo-liberalism in Baltic Lithuania, and the disappointment of expectations regarding the promised benefits of free market capitalism for the citizens of post-communist society. Drawing on an empirical analysis of Lithuania, a new European Union member state and former Soviet republic, the post-communist trajectory of neo-liberal economic and social development is critiqued. Global economic and financial crisis has resulted in a social and economic ‘shock’. It occurred in an environment already marked by disappointment, alienation and high outward migration. Through an analysis of ‘voice’ expressed in ‘discourses of discontent’, the article attempts to chart the impact of ‘hard times’. It predicts a new ‘exit’ in the form of a surge of outward migration resulting from the failures of ‘voice’, and the concerning possibility of ‘internal exit’.

  • 26.
    Woolfson, Charles
    School of Law, University of Glasgow.
    Labour Migration, Neo-liberalism and Ethno-politics in the New Europe: The Case of Latvia2009Ingår i: Antipode, ISSN 0066-4812, E-ISSN 1467-8330, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 952-982Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The accession of the new EU member states of Eastern Europe has highlighted ambivalence towards migration both within the older member states, but less frequently discussed, in the new. The former Soviet republic of Latvia serves as a case-study.  Outward migration is a factor undermining social and economic progress, while generating pressures towards inward migration to meet labour shortages. Confounding appropriate political and policy responses is the sensitive issue of ‘ethnic balance’, a troubled ‘legacy’ of Latvian history. In the context of changes in the global migratory landscape there is potential for a renewed of regime of discrimination based on ethno-politics with wider European resonance

  • 27.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Glasgow University.
    Labour Standards and Labour Migration in the new Europe: Post-communist legacies and perspectives2007Ingår i: European journal of industrial relations, ISSN 0959-6801, E-ISSN 1461-7129, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 199-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-communist New Member States of Eastern Europe have experienced significant forms of labour exploitation, with deterioration in labour standards and the working environment. This is leading to increasing labour force ‘exit’ on a scale not hitherto anticipated. Migrant workers from the Baltic states, paid lower wages and with poorer working conditions, have been at the centre of a number of high-profile labour disputes in the EU-15. This article uses Latvia as a case study in order to discuss the implications of increasing labour migration for the New Member States and for labour standards in the wider EU.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 28.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Migration, austerity and new challenges to social sustainability in the Baltic States: A conversation with Charles Woolfson2013Ingår i: Immigration in times of emigration: Challenges and opportunities of migration and mobility in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Anna Horgby and Veronica Nordlund, Stockholm: Global utmaning , 2013, 1, s. 19-25Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Without immigration, populations across all the Baltic Sea states shrink. What happens when demographic pressures push countries of previously and persistently high emigration to rethink their immigration policies? In the Baltic Sea region, immigration still constitutes a largely unused resource for development and strengthened competitiveness. We have to start viewing human migration and mobility as the resources for welfare improvement that they have the potential to be. But in order to tap into this resource, it is crucial to manage the challenges associated with migration, mobility and integration.This report captures a selection of some of the most thought-provoking expert contributions to the project "Migration as part of a policy for increased competitiveness" - a collaboration of think tanks and research institutes working with issues of migration and integration in the Baltic Sea region. In eleven chapters that refl ect the wealth and range of knowledge that has been shared and discussed in the course of this project, the report covers themes such as multiculturalism, the dangers of austerity politics, and the Europeanisation of migration policy. It also gives an accessible overview of recent developments in migration and integration policy in the Baltic States, Sweden and Poland."I applaud this endeavour to promote cooperation and increased understanding of the Baltic Sea region"s migration and integration challenges and opportunities ahead."Jan Niessen, Director of the Migration Policy Group, Brussels

  • 29.
    Woolfson, Charles
    University of Glasgow.
    New Modes of Regulation for Health and Safety: Post-enlargement policy perspectives for the European Union2006Ingår i: NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, ISSN 1048-2911, E-ISSN 1541-3772, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 155-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent joining of ten new member states to the European Union, eight of which are former communist countries, has reopened inherent tensions in current European Union (EU) policy-making on safety and health in the workplace. These spring from seemingly incompatible objectives; the need to ensure broad EU member state compliance with regulation, around agreed minimum standards through active regulatory enforcement, and the promotion of “softer” voluntary initiatives in the management of workplace risks and hazards in order to create “a culture of prevention.” The present EU strategy which ends in 2006, seeks to secure a balance between both sets of objectives. However, with respect to the post-communist new member states of Central and Eastern Europe, the appropriateness of the current strategy is doubtful. This article therefore focuses on the implications of the expansion of the European Union in May 2004 in the context of the elaboration of the new “soft law” modes of regulatory governance at the EU level. In turn, this provokes the question: will the “new” European policy for occupational health and safety from 2007 onwards, be “new,” or simply more of the same? If the latter, it is suggested that the future for working environment standards in Europe as a whole may be significantly compromised.

  • 30.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Precarious work in times of crisis: regulatory discourses and labour standards2011Ingår i: Vulnerable Workers: health, safety and well-being / [ed] M. Sargeant and M. Giovanone, Farnham: Gower Publishing Ltd., 2011, 1, s. 75-91Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in labour precarity which has accompanied the global economic and financial crisis is itself part of a longer term historical trend towards the increasing vulnerability of labour. This has two elements that are relevant: 1. The impacts of crisis on regulated labour standards in general 2. The role crisis-induced migration flows in accelerating labour precarity on a European and transnational scale. Both these tendencies need to be seen against fundamental changes in the architecture of European labour rights and labour law as it seeks to accommodate the competitiveness agenda of the European Commission in promoting greater labour flexibility and adaptability within a context of free movement of labour.

  • 31.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Precarious Work, Regulation and Labour Standards in Times of Crisis2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    The increase in labour precarity which has accompanied the global economic and financial crisis is itself part of a longer term historical trend towards the increasing vulnerability of labour through the growth of precarious and contingent forms of employment (Frade and Darmon, 2005). This has two elements that are especially relevant in the current economic downturn and its aftermath: 1. The immediate impact of crisis on regulated labour standards in general, that is, on employment protection, regulation and enforcement 2. The longer-term role crisis-induced migration flows in accelerating labour precarity on a European and transnational scale. Both these issues need to be seen against fundamental changes in the architecture of European labour rights and the diminishing regulatory reach of labour law as it seeks to accommodate the competitiveness agenda of the European Commission in promoting greater labour “flexibility” and an “individualisation” of employment rights. Yet the contemporary political economy of capitalism, not least, its spectacular regulatory failure, has placed the issue of the renewal of regulation back on the agenda of governments and supranational agencies. If capital needs regulation to control its financial excesses, an inescapable conclusion that the European Union and its member state governments appear to recognise, the need is at least equal for regulation to control the harms which capital directly perpetrates on labour at both a national and supra-national level. In this context, claims for effective labour standards pose a public policy imperative of devising protective regulatory strategies to counter precarity, not least those aspects of precarity heightened by the crisis. The challenge is to address the socially imperative task of “re-protecting” the “un-protected” in an increasingly globalised and insecure labour market.

  • 32.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    PREVENTABLE DISASTERS IN THE OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY: FROM PIPER ALPHA TO DEEPWATER HORIZON2012Ingår i: NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, ISSN 1048-2911, E-ISSN 1541-3772, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 497-524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world’s worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment.

  • 33.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Glasgow University.
    ‘Pushing the envelope': The ‘informalisation’ of labour in post-communist new EU Member States2007Ingår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 551-564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution to debate explores one aspect of the reconfiguration of power in the workplaces of post-communist Eastern Europe in which relations between employer and employee are informalized to the detriment of employees’ rights and decent labour standards. It focuses on the new EU member state of Lithuania, one of the poorest of the new entrants in the 2004 enlargement which embraced eight former communist countries. In choosing a ‘worst-case’ example, a central argument is explored: that of informalization as a pervasive feature of employment relations in the new market economies of post-communism.

  • 34.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Safety failures the offshore oil industry: From Piper Alpha to Deepwater Horizon2013Ingår i: Safety or Profit? : International Studies in Governance, Change and the Work Environment / [ed] Theo Nichols and David Walters, Amytyville, New York: Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 2013, 1, s. 181-203Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As the title Safety or Profit? suggests, health and safety at work needs to be understood in the context of the wider political economy. This book brings together contributions informed by this view from internationally recognized scholars. It reviews the governance of health and safety at work, with special reference to Australia, Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Three main aspects are discussed. The restructuring of the labor market: this is considered with respect to precarious work and to gender issues and their implications for the health and safety of workers. The neoliberal agenda: this is examined with respect to the diminished power of organized labor, decriminalization, and new governance theory, including an examination of how well the health-and-safety-at-work regimes put in place in many industrial societies about forty years ago have fared and how distinctive the recent emphasis on self-regulation in several countries really is. The role of evidence: there is a dearth of evidence-based policy. The book examines how policy on health and safety at work is formulated at both company and state levels. Cases considered include the scant regard paid to evidence by an official inquiry into future strategy in Canada; the lack of evidence-based policy and the reluctance to observe the precautionary principle with respect to work-related cancer in the United Kingdom; and the failure to learn from past mistakes in the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.  Intended Audience: Researchers; policymakers, trade union representatives, and officials interested in OHS; postgraduate students of OHS; OHS professionals; regulatory and socio-legal scholars.

  • 35.
    Woolfson, Charles
    University of Glasgow.
    Social Dialogue and Life-long learning in the new EU member states: “reform fit” in Latvia2008Ingår i: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 79-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Vocational education and training (VET) is regarded by EU policymakers as crucial to creating a high-skill workforce capable of adapting to European and global demands in an intensified competitive environment. It is part of the so-called Copenhagen Process, in which social dialogue between employers and employees is seen as an important means of realizing policy. However, many of the new member states from the Eastern European countries which joined the European Union in 2004 have only weak forms of social dialogue. Moreover, the prevailing neo-liberal environment in many post-communist new member states undermines ‘reform fit’ between broad European social policy goals and narrower domestic agendas. This article explores the resulting problems in social dialogue with regard to VET in the new member states, using Latvia as a case-study.

     

  • 36.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Continuing Price of Britain’s Oil: Business Organisation, Precarious Employment and Risk Transfer Mechanisms in the North Sea Petroleum Industry2007Ingår i: Governance and Regulation in Social Life: Essays in Honour of W. G. Carson / [ed] in A. Brannigan and G. Pavlich, London: Routledge , 2007, 1, s. 55-74Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprising fourteen articles by leading international contributors, including some of the most prominent socio-legal and criminological scholars working in the field, this volume is currently the only work available that critically examines W.G. Carson and his crucial influence in the turn towards sociological approaches to criminology and a criminological interest in governance and social control.

    The 1970s witnessed an epiphany in the sociological understanding of crime in Britain. The correctional perspective, which assumed crimes had inherent or essential qualities that distinguished them from other acts, was superseded by the analysis of how social events came to be defined as so harmful and repugnant as to require criminalization. This shift in perspectives was exemplified in W.G. Carson’s work, which combines a Marxist acknowledgement of the imperative for profit with a symbolic interactionist attention to the restraining effect of prestige and status among producers and regulators.

    This key work is an essential read for postgraduates and researchers studying and researching in the areas of criminology and law.

  • 37.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Economic Crisis, Austerity, and Migration: Exploring the Failed Trajectory of Neoliberal Post-Communism2012Ingår i: Socioeconomic Outcomes of the Global Financial Crisis: Theoretical Discussion and Empirical Case Studies / [ed] Ulrike Schuerkens, Routledge, 2012, 1, s. 38-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter ethnographically explores popular responses to the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis in Lithuania. It analyzes emergent “discourses of discontent” resulting from the collapse of mass living standards and expectations with its onset. It suggests that the failure of “voice,” as manifested in expressions of popular discontent and social dialogue, will result in the migratory “exit” of many of the disillusioned and increasingly desperate population. The impact of the crisis is all the more severe given previously burgeoning economic growth and rising expectations. Post-communist states such as Lithuania, having embraced a neo-liberal path of rapid economic transition to the free market, with minimal regard to considerations of social justice, now face gathering popular discontent and social turbulence.

  • 38.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The future of the construction industry: A Baltic view2012Ingår i: Construction Labour Research News, ISSN 1997-1745, nr 4, s. 30-33Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a short contribution (an essay, a scenario, a vision paper) about the future of the building industry in Europe. It suggests that by the year 2020 there will have been a radical recalibrating of labour rights across the European space, in the name of restoring flexibility in the labour market and competitive dynamism to the European economy, and is a ‘warning parable’.

  • 39.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    The Labour Theory of Culture: A Re-examination of Engels' Theory of Human Origins2009 (uppl. 2)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its importance in understanding the social relations of labour little attention has been paid by Western Marxists to evolutionary theory. Taking as a starting point an unfinished essay by Engels, the author argues that the human species must be seen as discontinuous with its nearest biological ancestors – that a qualitative distinction was brought about by social labour. It is argued that the most likely forms of human organization were co-operative and field studies are discussed which apparently provide evidence for tool use and linguistic ability among the higher primates. The relationship between hand and brain in terms of Marxist psychology is also elaborated.

  • 40.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Politics of Brexit: European Free Movement of Labour and Labour Standards2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to reassess the Brexit debate in the UK over immigration and free movement of labour in terms of the politics of austerity. It advances a progressive case for Brexit based on regaining national sovereignty to enable the effective defence of national labour standards outside of the neoliberal European project. The issue of labour standards is a cause that paradoxically the current Conservative administration has sought to champion, although on a highly contestable basis. In the UK general election of 2017, the Labour Party has significantly advanced its position on the basis of an anti-austerity program while the Conservative government has entered into a likely terminal crisis. It is argued that rejecting membership of the supranational European Union has the potential to advance labour rights further in an inclusive and non-xenophobic way.

  • 41.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    The Race Equality Directive: ‘differentiated’ or ‘differential’ Europeanisation in the new EU member states?2010Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 1-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the Race Equality Directive (RED) and its transposition in the context of a new European Union (EU) member state, Baltic Lithuania. Taking this post-communist society as a case study, it is suggested that while formal legislative compliance with the RED has been broadly attained, transposed anti-discrimination legislation and national policy implementation initiatives may not adequately take into account societal attitudes and norms. The historical legacy of Soviet times, the contemporary post-communist experience, and the current economic crisis have resulted in a fragile national identity and a propensity towards populist and even xenophobic responses to uncertainty. These factors are explored in terms of their potential for undermining the objectives of EU-derived legislation designed to promote racial and ethnic tolerance. The article concludes that while a ‘differentiated’ Europeanisation has not occurred in formal terms, the possibility exists of ‘differential’ Europeanisation emerging in post-communist new EU member states such as Lithuania.

  • 42.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The semiotics of working class speech2007Ingår i: CCCS Selected Working Papers: Volume 1 / [ed] A. Gray, J. Campbell, M. Erickson, S. Hanson, S. and H. Wood, London: Routledge , 2007, 1, s. 504-535Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection of classic essays focuses on the theoretical frameworks that informed the work of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham, the methodologies and working practices that the Centre developed for conducting academic research and examples of the studies carried out under the auspices of the Centre.

    This volume is split into seven thematic sections that are introduced by key academics working in the field of cultural studies, and includes a preface by eminent scholar, Stuart Hall. The thematic sections are:

    • Literature and Society
    • Popular Culture and Youth Subculture
    • Media
    • Women's Studies and Feminism
    • Race
    • History
    • Education and Work.
  • 43.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The ‘Singapore scenario’: The uncertain prospects for labour standards in post-Brexit Britain2017Ingår i: Industrial relations journal, ISSN 0019-8692, E-ISSN 1468-2338, Vol. 48, nr 5-6, s. 384-402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Conservative government of Theresa May asserted that labour standards would be preserved post-Brexit. The Labour Party also privileged labour standards in its anti-austerity programme. The threat remains however that Brexit will provide an incentive to erode labour standards in a global ‘race to the bottom’ in a ‘Singapore scenario’.   

  • 44.
    Woolfson, Charles
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Where state power and opposition collide: Discourses of labor protest in a new market economy2009Ingår i: Oppositional Discourses and Democracies / [ed] Michael Huspek, London: Routledge , 2009, 1, s. 60-81Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the emergent discourses of labour protest which have accompanied the transition process from communism to the market economy. Building on the ground-breaking theoretical paradigm of V. N. Voloshinov and contemporary attempts by Marxist scholars to develop a materialist socio-linguistics, the gradual emergence of class-based labour discourses in the new market economies of Central and Eastern Europe is examined. A number of recent labour protests in ex-soviet Lithuania are examined. The complex articulation of labour identities is charted. Their legitimization, as social actors with “independent” demands, in the context of transitional Lithuanian society, is analyzed through the discourses of protest. Discourses of labour protest have emerged in contestation and tension with seemingly contradictory attempts to impose a “supra class” ideology. The imposition of both neo-liberal ideology which seeks to excludes organized labour from an independent role in civil society, and at the same time, the cultivation of the language of social partnership, which seeks to incorporate labour in national tripartite structures, are complementary attempts to forestall the emergence of more radical class-based discourses. The emergence of dialogic discourses between labour and capital, and the forms of their social resonance, reveal much about the current limits of labour protest in the new market economies. Such discourses also reveal much about possible future forms of labour contestation, as the new market economies of Central and Eastern Europe are incorporated into the newly enlarged European Union.

  • 45.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    School of Law, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Calite, Dace
    Department of Sociology, University of Latvia, Latvia.
    New European Community strategy for health and safety: The elephant in the room2007Ingår i: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 342-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Lithuania has comprehensive health and safety legislation in line with EU requirements, on a range of general health and occupational health and safety (OHS) indicators, it is a poor performer. Survey data suggest that the norm for work in Lithuania is based on a regime of intensification without a participative working environment in which employees have a voice in safety management. Although European-style legislative reforms appear to be having no measurable effects on CHS performance in post-communist New Member States, the EU OHS strategy for 2007–2012 fails to take account of the deteriorated working environments in these states, suggesting that prospects for harmonization of working environment standards in the enlarged Europe may recede with eastward expansion.

  • 46.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    University of Glasgow.
    Calite, Dace
    University of Latvia.
    Working Environment in the new EU Member State of Lithuania: Examining a ‘worst case’ example2008Ingår i: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Using recent survey data from Lithuania, it is suggested that post-communist countries such as Lithuania, admittedly a 'worst case' example, have specific legacies of serious health and safety problems. On a range of general health and occupational safety and health indicators, some three years after joining the European Union, Lithuania is currently a poor performer, and on key indicators the poorest in the European Union. Yet, formally, Lithuania has comprehensive health and safety legislation in line with EU requirements. Survey data suggest, however, a work regime of intensification and an absence of a participative working environment in which employees have a 'voice' in the safety management process. European-style legislative reforms appear to be having only limited positive measurable effects on health and safety performance. Moreover, the new EU occupational safety and health strategy for 2007 to 2012 fails to take account of the deteriorated working environments in the workplaces of post-communist new member states such as Lithuania.

     

  • 47.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om Migration, Etnicitet och Samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Calite, Dace
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kallaste, Epp
    Estonian Center for Social Research, Estonia.
    Employee “voice” and working environment in the New Member States: Translating policy into practice in the Baltic States2009Ingår i: Workplace Health and Safety : International Perspectives on Worker Representation / [ed] David Walters and Theo Nichols, London: Palgrave/Macmillan , 2009, 1, s. 134-153Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines employee ‘voice’ in workplace health and safety in three Baltic New Member States by means of a cross-national survey. The data point to unresolved problems of voice in the context of rather poor working environments. These present opportunities for collective renewal by trade unions, but paradoxically are more likely to be addressed by employers in the context of significant labour shortages created by a post-European Union accession labour ‘exit’.

  • 48.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fudge, Judy
    University of Kent, UK.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Migrant precarity and future challenges to labour standards in Sweden2014Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 695-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fears of a ‘race to the bottom’ in labour standards may have been overstated. Nevertheless, using Sweden as a case study, it is argued that the diminished capacity of trade unions to defend labour standards following the Laval judgement of the European Court of Justice, together with a decline in trade union density, a limited remit of enforcement authorities and recent changes to the Swedish labour migration regime, may have detrimental impacts on labour standards, particularly in low-skill low-wage occupations. In combination, these developments are creating new spaces for migrant precariousness within the context of a formerly well-regulated Swedish labour market model.

  • 49.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Herzfeld Olsson, Petra
    Department of Law, University of Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thörnqvist, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Forced Labour and Migrant BerryPickers in Sweden2012Ingår i: International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, ISSN 0952-617X, E-ISSN 1875-838X, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 147-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groups of migrant berry pickers arriving annually in Sweden from both Asia and the newer European Union Member States have been subject to exploitation over the years. The problem appears to persist in spite of public and international concern and successive regulatory reforms. An examination of this problem from a forced labour perspective suggests inadequate implementation and application of international norms in Swedish law, as well as deficiencies in the application of criminal-law and in regulatory oversight. Policy recommendations regarding the labour conditions for seasonal migrant workers in Sweden are put forward.

  • 50.
    Woolfson, Charles
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, REMESO - Institutet för forskning om migration, etnicitet och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Juska, Arunas
    University of East Carolina, USA.
    Austerity era policing, protest and passivity in Lithuania2014Ingår i: Urban (In)Security: Policing the Neoliberal Crisis / [ed] Volker Eik and Kendra Briken, Ottowa: Red Quill Publications , 2014, 1, s. 294-322Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the global crisis, in Lithuania the centralization of the police force accelerated as locally accountable and more community-oriented municipal police units came under the direct control and supervision of the national police headquarters. Centralization of command and control went hand in hand with policies strengthening the military ethos of police, manifested in military-style deployments resulting in the supression of popular 'voice' in mass demonstrations and increasing propensities to 'exit' among the discontented population.

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