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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Saab Aeronautics Handbook for Development of Simulation Models: Public Variant2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook describes a framework for development, validation, and integration of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware.

    The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text on an appropriate level, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of an aircraft Environmental Control System (ECS) is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards Configuration Support for Collaborative Simulator Development: A Product Line Approach in Model Based Systems Engineering2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies, WETICE 2011: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 185-192Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In development and support of complex products such as power plants, automotive vehicles, or aircrafts, modeling and simulation has become an important activity as a basis for knowledge capture. Simulation is used in several steps of the product lifecycle; for evaluation of early design, for system verification, and for user training. With emerging techniques such as tools for high-level modeling, multi-core computing, and visualization, the number of useful models is growing. This paper focuses on reuse of multipurpose models and configuration support in a product line context. A configurator prototype system is presented. The simulator set created from validated models is considered to be a secondary product line. The product set which the simulation models represent is considered to be the primary product line. The Saab Gripen fighter aircraft, together with simulators in which the aircraft behavior, performance, and handling qualities are represented, is used to exemplify application. Integration principles of the systems for simulator configuration, Software Configuration Management, and Product Data Management (PDM) are studied. Preliminary results show that a configurator tool can be used, but there is need to map structures between the simulation and PDM domains.

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Methods for Early Model Validation: Applied on Simulation Models of Aircraft Vehicle Systems2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Simmuleringsmodeller av fysikaliska system, med eller utan reglerande mjukvara, har sedan lång tid tillbaka ett brett användningsområde inom flygindustrin. Tillämpningar finns inom allt från systemutveckling till produktverifiering och träning. Med de huvudsakliga drivkrafterna att reducera mängden fysisk provning samt att öka förutsättningarna till att fatta välgrundade modellbaserade designbeslut pågår en trend att ytterligare öka andelen modellering och simulering.

    Arbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling är fokuserat på utveckling av metodik för validering av simuleringsmodeller, vilket anses vara ett kritiskt område för att framgångsrikt minska mängden fysisk provning utan att äventyra säkerheten. Utveckling av metoder för att på ett säkert sätt minska mängden fysisk provning är speciellt intressant inom flygindustrin där varje fysiskt prov vanligen utgör en betydande kostnad. Utöver de stora kostnaderna kan det även vara svårt eller riskfyllt att genomföra fysisk provning. Specifikt är även de långa utvecklingscyklerna som innebär att man har långa perioder av osäkerhet under produktutvecklingen. Inom såväl industri som akademi ses verifiering, validering och osäkerhetsanalys av simuleringsmodeller som kritiska aktiviteter för en framgångsrik tillämpning av modellbaserad systemutveckling. Kvantifiering av osäkerheterna i ett simuleringsresultat kräver dock vanligen en betydande mängd säker information, och för industriella tillämpningar framstår tillgängliga metoder ofta som alltför detaljerade eller arbetskrävande. Totalt sett ger detta särskild anledning till forskning inom metodik för modellvalidering, med speciellt fokus på förenklade metoder för användning i tidiga utvecklingsfaser då tillgången på mätdata är knapp.

    Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar en metod som stöttar tidig modellvalidering. Metoden är avsedd att tillämpas vid brist på mätdata från aktuellt system, och möjliggör utnyttjande av osäkerhetsinformation från komponentnivå för bedömning av osäkerhet på modellnivå. Avsaknad av data för karaktärisering av parameterosäkerheter är även ett vanligt förekommande problem som till viss mån mildras genom användning av metoden. Ett koncept har utvecklats för att integrera osäkerhetsinformation hämtad från komponentvalidering direkt i en modells komponenter, vilket möjliggör en förenklad osäkerhetsanalys på modellnivå. Abstraktionsnivån vid osäkerhetsanalysen höjs på så sätt från parameternivå till komponentnivå. Metoden är implementerad i ett Modelica-baserat komponentbibliotek för modellering och simulering av grundflygplansystem, och har utvärderats i en industriell tillämpning i kombination med både deterministiska och probabilistiska tekniker. Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar även en industriellt tillämplig process för utveckling, validering och export av simuleringsmodeller, och begreppen virtuell provning och virtuell certifiering diskuteras.

    Delarbeten
    1. Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AIAA, 2012
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-877 (DOI)
    Konferens
    50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-06 Skapad: 2012-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25
    2. Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] AIAA, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach enabling early model validation activities with a limited availability of system level measurement data. The method utilizes information obtained from the common practice of component validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Focusing on industrial applicability, the method makes use of information normally available to engineers developing simulation models of existing or not yet existing systems. This is in contrast to the traditional sensitivity analysis requiring the user to quantify component parameter uncertainties – a task which, according to the authors’ experience, may be far from intuitive. As the proposed method enables uncertainties to be defined for a component’s outputs (characteristics) rather than its inputs (parameters), it is hereby termed output uncertainty. The method is primarily intended for use in large-scale mathematical 1-D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE).It is shown that the method may result in a significant reduction in the number of uncertain parameters that require consideration in a simulation model. The uncertainty quantification of these parameters also becomes more intuitive. Since this implies a substantial improvement in the conditions of conducting sensitivity analysis or optimization on large-scale simulation models, the method facilitates early model validation. In contrast to sensitivity analysis with respect to a model’s original component parameters, which only covers one aspect of model uncertainty, the output uncertainty method enables assessment also of other kinds of uncertainties, such as uncertainties in underlying equations or uncertainties due to model simplifications. To increase the relevance of the method, a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system is used as an industrial application example.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80110 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-4852 (DOI)978-162410182-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference 2012, 13-16 August, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-21 Skapad: 2012-08-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-15
    3. Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2012-85236 / [ed] ASME, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To support early model validation, this paper describes a method utilizing information obtained from the common practice component level validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Initiated in previous research, a generic output uncertainty description component, intended for power-port based simulation models of physical systems, has been implemented in Modelica. A set of model components has been extended with the generic output uncertainty description, and the concept of using component level output uncertainty to assess model top level uncertainty has been applied on a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system. The focus of this paper is on investigating the applicability of combining the output uncertainty method with probabilistic techniques, not only to provide upper and lower bounds on model uncertaintiesbut also to accompany the uncertainties with estimated probabilities.It is shown that the method may result in a significant improvement in the conditions for conducting an assessment of model uncertainties. The primary use of the method, in combination with either deterministic or probabilistic techniques, is in the early development phases when system level measurement data are scarce. The method may also be used to point out which model components contribute most to the uncertainty on model top level. Such information can be used to concentrate physical testing activities to areas where it is needed most. In this context, the method supports the concept of Virtual Testing.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85455 (URN)
    Konferens
    ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE2012, 9-15 November, Houston, Texas, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-11-19 Skapad: 2012-11-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-15Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Henric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models2012Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2012-85236 / [ed] ASME, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To support early model validation, this paper describes a method utilizing information obtained from the common practice component level validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Initiated in previous research, a generic output uncertainty description component, intended for power-port based simulation models of physical systems, has been implemented in Modelica. A set of model components has been extended with the generic output uncertainty description, and the concept of using component level output uncertainty to assess model top level uncertainty has been applied on a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system. The focus of this paper is on investigating the applicability of combining the output uncertainty method with probabilistic techniques, not only to provide upper and lower bounds on model uncertaintiesbut also to accompany the uncertainties with estimated probabilities.It is shown that the method may result in a significant improvement in the conditions for conducting an assessment of model uncertainties. The primary use of the method, in combination with either deterministic or probabilistic techniques, is in the early development phases when system level measurement data are scarce. The method may also be used to point out which model components contribute most to the uncertainty on model top level. Such information can be used to concentrate physical testing activities to areas where it is needed most. In this context, the method supports the concept of Virtual Testing.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation2012Ingår i: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] AIAA, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach enabling early model validation activities with a limited availability of system level measurement data. The method utilizes information obtained from the common practice of component validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Focusing on industrial applicability, the method makes use of information normally available to engineers developing simulation models of existing or not yet existing systems. This is in contrast to the traditional sensitivity analysis requiring the user to quantify component parameter uncertainties – a task which, according to the authors’ experience, may be far from intuitive. As the proposed method enables uncertainties to be defined for a component’s outputs (characteristics) rather than its inputs (parameters), it is hereby termed output uncertainty. The method is primarily intended for use in large-scale mathematical 1-D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE).It is shown that the method may result in a significant reduction in the number of uncertain parameters that require consideration in a simulation model. The uncertainty quantification of these parameters also becomes more intuitive. Since this implies a substantial improvement in the conditions of conducting sensitivity analysis or optimization on large-scale simulation models, the method facilitates early model validation. In contrast to sensitivity analysis with respect to a model’s original component parameters, which only covers one aspect of model uncertainty, the output uncertainty method enables assessment also of other kinds of uncertainties, such as uncertainties in underlying equations or uncertainties due to model simplifications. To increase the relevance of the method, a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system is used as an industrial application example.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models2013Ingår i: 4:th CEAS conference, 2013 / [ed] Tomas Melin, Petter Krus, Emil Vinterhav, Knut Övrebo, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common viewpoint in both academia and industry is that that Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of simulation models are vital activities for a successful deployment of model-based system engineering. In the literature, there is no lack of advice regarding methods for VV&UQ. However, for industrial applications available methods for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) often seem too detailed or tedious to even try. The consequence is that no UQ is performed, resulting in simulation models not being used to their full potential.

    In this paper, the effort required for UQ of a detailed aircraft vehicle system model is estimated. A number of methodological steps that aim to achieve a more feasible UQ are proposed. The paper is focused on 1‑D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). An application example of an aircraft vehicle system model is used for method evaluation.

  • 8.
    Eek, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On Credibility Assessment in Aircraft System Simulation2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aeronautical industry is becoming increasingly reliant on Modeling and Simulation (M&S) for use throughout all system development phases, for system verification, and end-user training. To justify and to utilize the full potential of today’s model-based approach, the development of efficient and industrially applicable methods for credibility assessment of M&S efforts is a key challenge.

    This work addresses methods facilitating credibility assessment of simulation models and simulator applications used in aircraft system development. For models of individual aircraft subsystems, an uncertainty aggregation method is proposed that facilitates early model validation through approximate uncertainty quantification. The central idea is to integrate information obtained during component level validation directly into the component equations, and to utilize this information in model level uncertainty quantification.

    In addition to methods intended for models of individual subsystems, this work also proposes a method and an associated tool for credibility assessment of large-scale simulator applications. As a complement to traditional document-centric approaches, static and dynamic credibility information is here presented to end-users directly during simulation. This implies a support for detecting test plan deficiencies, or that a simulator configuration is not a suitable platform for the execution of a particular test. The credibility assessment tool has been implemented and evaluated in two large-scale system simulators for the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft. The work presented herein also includes an industrially applicable workflow for development, validation, and export of simulation models.

    Delarbeten
    1. Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AIAA, 2012
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-877 (DOI)
    Konferens
    50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-06 Skapad: 2012-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25
    2. Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 1550014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    World Scientific, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Simulator credibility; simulation model; verification; validation; uncertainty quantification; V&V; VV&UQ; NASA Credibility Assessment Scale
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115105 (URN)10.1142/S1793962315500142 (DOI)000365772300005 ()
    Projekt
    NFFP6 2013-01211
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, NFFP6 2013-01211
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-09 Skapad: 2015-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04
    3. Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: 4:th CEAS conference, 2013 / [ed] Tomas Melin, Petter Krus, Emil Vinterhav, Knut Övrebo, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common viewpoint in both academia and industry is that that Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of simulation models are vital activities for a successful deployment of model-based system engineering. In the literature, there is no lack of advice regarding methods for VV&UQ. However, for industrial applications available methods for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) often seem too detailed or tedious to even try. The consequence is that no UQ is performed, resulting in simulation models not being used to their full potential.

    In this paper, the effort required for UQ of a detailed aircraft vehicle system model is estimated. A number of methodological steps that aim to achieve a more feasible UQ are proposed. The paper is focused on 1‑D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). An application example of an aircraft vehicle system model is used for method evaluation.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Model validation, uncertainty analysis, uncertainty quantification
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99838 (URN)978-91-7519-519-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    CEAS 2013 - International Conference of the European Aerospace Societies, 16-19 September 2013, Linköping, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-10-21 Skapad: 2013-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56), October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 91-104Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is vital to ensure credibility in simulation results and to justify model-based design decisions – especially in early development phases when system level measurement data for traditional model validation purposes are scarce. Central UQ challenges in industrial applications are computational cost and availability of information and resources for uncertainty characterization. In an attempt to meet these challenges, this paper proposes a framework for early and approximate UQ intended for large simulation models of dynamical systems. A Modelica simulation model of an aircraft environmental control system including a liquid cooling circuit is used to evaluate the industrial applicability of the proposed framework.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015
    Serie
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 119
    Nyckelord
    Uncertainty quantification; aleatory uncertainty; epistemic uncertainty; model validation; aircraft system simulation models; Modelica
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Rymd- och flygteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122480 (URN)10.3384/ecp1511991 (DOI)9789176859001 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56) 7-9 October 2015
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, NFFP6 2013-01211
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-04 Skapad: 2015-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 9.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlén, Johan
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56), October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 91-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is vital to ensure credibility in simulation results and to justify model-based design decisions – especially in early development phases when system level measurement data for traditional model validation purposes are scarce. Central UQ challenges in industrial applications are computational cost and availability of information and resources for uncertainty characterization. In an attempt to meet these challenges, this paper proposes a framework for early and approximate UQ intended for large simulation models of dynamical systems. A Modelica simulation model of an aircraft environmental control system including a liquid cooling circuit is used to evaluate the industrial applicability of the proposed framework.

  • 10.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models2015Ingår i: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 1550014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

  • 11.
    Hällqvist, Robert
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eek, Magnus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    METHODS FOR AUTOMATING MODEL VALIDATION: STEADY-STATE IDENTIFICATION APPLIED ON GRIPEN FIGHTER ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 30th congress of the International Council  of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model Validation and Verification (V&V) has historically often been considered a final step in the model development process. However, to justify model-based design decisions throughout the entire system development process, a methodology for continuous model V&V is essential. That is, model V&V activities should be fast and easy to reiterate as new information becomes available. Using a high fidelity simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) in the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft as a guiding example, this paper further extends to an existing semiautomatic framework for model steady-state validation developed during ECS model validation efforts. Generic methods for identification of steady-state operation are a prerequisite for steady-state validation of industry grade physics based models against insitu measurements. Four different established methods for steady-state identification are investigated and compared: steady-state conditions on the standard deviation estimated from in-situ measurements, conditions on the variation coefficient, t-test on the slope of a simple regression line, and comparison of differently estimated variances. The methods’ applicability, on ECS measurements in particular, is evaluated utilizing steady-state identification needs defined during Gripen ECS model validation activities.

    Model Validation and Verification (V&V) has historically often been considered a final step in the model development process. However, to justify model-based design decisions throughout the entire system development process, a methodology for continuous model V&V is essential. That is, model V&V activities should be fast and easy to reiterate as new information becomes available.

    Using a high fidelity simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) in the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft as a guiding example, this paper further extends to an existing semi-automatic framework for model steady-state validation developed during ECS model validation efforts. Generic methods for identification of steady-state operation are a prerequisite for steady-state validation of industry grade physics based models against in-situ measurements. Four different established methods for steady-state identification are investigated and compared: steady-state conditions on the standard deviation estimated from in-situ measurements, conditions on the variation coefficient, t-test on the slope of a simple regression line, and comparison of differently estimated variances. The methods’ applicability, on ECS measurements in particular, is evaluated utilizing steady-state identification needs defined during Gripen ECS model validation activities.

  • 12.
    Hällqvist, Robert
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eek, Magnus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lind, Ingela
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Validation Techniques Applied on the Saab Gripen FighterEnvironmental Control System Model2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th SIMS / [ed] Lena Buffoni, Adrian Pop, and Bernhard Thiele, Linköping, 2015, s. 199-210, artikel-id ecp15119199Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Control System (ECS) of the Saab Gripen fighter provides a number of vital functions, such as provision of coolant air to the avionics, comfort air to the cockpit, and pressurization of the aircraft fuel system. To support system design, a detailed simulation model has been developed in the Modelica-based tool Dymola. The model needs to be a “good system representation”, during both steady-state operation and relevant dynamic events, if reliable predictions are to be made regarding cooling performance, static loads in terms of pressure and temperature, and various other types of system analyses. A framework for semi-automatic validation of the ECS model against measurements is developed and described in this paper. The framework extends a proposed formal methodology of semi-automaticmodel validation against in-situ measurements to the model development process implemented at Saab.Applied methods for validating the model in steady-state operation and during relevant dynamic events are presented in detail. The developed framework includes automatic filtering of measurement points defined as steady-state operation and visualization techniques applied on validation experiments conducted in the previously mentioned points. The proposed framework both simplify continuous validation throughout the system development process and enables a smooth transition towards a more independent verification and validation process.

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