liu.seSök publikationer i DiVA
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 15 av 15
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Free charge carrier properties in group III nitrides and graphene studied by THz-to-MIR ellipsometry and optical Hall effect2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of silicon based electronics have revolutionized our every day life during the last five decades. Nowadays silicon based devices operate close to their theoretical limits that is becoming a bottleneck for further progress. In particular, for the growing field of high frequency and high power electronics, silicon cannot offer the required properties. Development of materials capable of providing high current densities, carrier mobilities and high breakdown fields is crucial for further progress in state of the art electronics.

    Epitaxial graphene grown on semi-insulating silicon carbide substrates has a high potential to be integrated in current planar device technologies. High electron mobilities and sheet carrier densities make graphene extremely attractive for high frequency analog applications. One of the remaining challenges is the interaction of epitaxial graphene with the substrate. Typically, much lower free charge carrier mobilities, compared to free standing graphene, and doping, due to charge transfer from the substrate, is reported. Thus, a good understanding of the intrinsic free charge carriers properties and the factors affecting them is very important for further development of epitaxial graphene.

    Group III-nitrides have been extensively studied and already have proven their high efficiency as light emitting diodes for short wavelengths. High carrier mobilities and breakdown electric fields were demonstrated for group III-nitrides, making them attractive for high frequency and high power applications. Currently, In-rich InGaN alloys and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures are of high interest for the research community due to open fundamental questions such as free charge carrier properties at high temperatures and wavefunction hybridization in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures.

    Electrical characterization techniques, commonly used for the determination of free charge carrier properties, require good ohmic and Schottky contacts, which in certain cases can be difficult to achieve. Access to electrical properties of buried conductive channels in multilayered structures requires modification of samples and good knowledge of the electrical properties of all electrical junctions within the structure. Moreover, the use of contacts to electrically characterize two-dimensional electronic materials, such as graphene, can alter their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, the determination of effective mass parameters commonly employs cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measurements, which require long scattering times of free charge carriers, high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

    The optical Hall effect is an external magnetic-field induced birefringence of conductive layers due to the free charge carriers interaction with long-wavelength electromagnetic waves under the influence of the Lorentz force. The optical Hall effect can be measured by generalized ellipsometry and provides a powerful method for the determination of free charge carrier properties in a non-destructive and contactless manner. The optical Hall effect measurements can provide quantitative information about free charge carrier type, concentration, mobility and effective mass parameters at temperatures ranging from few kelvins to room temperature and above. It further allows to differentiate the free charge carrier properties of individual layers in multilayer samples. The employment of a backside cavity for transparent samples can enhance the optical Hall effect and allows to access free charge carrier properties at relatively low magnetic fields using permanent magnet.

    The optical Hall effect measurements at mid-infrared spectral range can be used to probe quantum mechanical phenomena such as Landau levels in graphene. The magnetic field dependence of the inter-Landau level transition energies and optical polarization selection rules provide information about coupling properties between graphene layers and the electronic band structure.

    Measurement of the optical Hall effect by generalized ellipsometry is an indirect technique requiring subsequent data analysis. Parameterized optical models are fitted to match experimentally measured ellipsometric spectra by varying physically significant model parameters. Analysis of the generalized ellipsometry data at long wavelengths for samples containing free charge carriers by optical models based on the classical Drude formulation, augmented with an external magnetic field contribution, allows to extract carrier concentration, mobility and effective mass parameters.

    The development of the integrated FIR and THz frequency-domain ellipsometer at the Terahertz Materials Analysis Center in Linköping University was part of the graduate studies presented in this dissertation. The THz ellipsometer capabilities are demonstrated by determination of Si and sapphire optical constants, and free charge carrier properties of two-dimensional electron gas in GaN-based high electron mobility transistor structures. The THz ellipsometry is further shown to be capable of determining free charge carrier properties and following their changes upon variation of ambient conditions in atomically thin layers with an example of epitaxial graphene.

    A potential of the THz OHE with the cavity enhancement (THz-CE-OHE) for determination of the free charge carrier properties in atomically thin layers were demonstrated by the measurements of the carrier properties in monolayer and multilayer epitaxial graphene on Si-face 4H-SiC. The data analysis revealed p-type doping for monolayer graphene with a carrier density in the low 1012 cm-2 range and a carrier mobility of 1550 cm2V-1s-1. For the multilayer graphene, n-type doping with a carrier density in the low 1013 cm-2 range, a mobility of 470 cm2V-1s-1 and an effective mass of (0.14 ± 0.03)m0 were extracted. Different type of doping among monolayer and multilayer graphene is explained as a result of different hydrophobicity among samples.

    Further, we have employed THz-CE-OHE to determine for the first time anisotropic mobility parameter in quasi-free-standing bilayer epitaxial graphene induced by step-like surface morphology of 4H-SiC. Correlation of atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, scanning probe Kelvin probe microscopy, low energy electron microscopy and diffraction analysis allows us to investigate the possible scattering mechanisms and suggests that anisotropic mobility is induced by varying local mobility parameter due to interaction between graphene and underlaying substrate.

    The origin of the layers decoupling in multilayer graphene on C-face 4H-SiC was studied by MIR-OHE, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The results revealed the decoupling of the layers induced by the increased interlayer spacing which is attributed to the Si atoms trapped between graphene layers.

    MIR ellipsometry and MIR-OHE measurements were employed to determine the electron effective mass in a wurtzite In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. The data analysis revealed the effective mass parameters parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis which can be considered as equal within sensitivity of our measurements. The determined effective mass is consistent with linear dependence on the In content.

    Analysis of the free charge carrier properties in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures with modified interfaces showed that AlGaN/GaN interface structure has a significant effect on the mobility parameter. A sample with a sharp interface layers exhibits a record mobility of 2332 ± 73 cm2V-1s-1. The determined effective mass parameters showed an increase compared to the bulk GaN value, which is attributed to the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the AlGaN barrier layer.

    Temperature dependence of free charge carrier properties in GaN-based high electron mobility transistor structures with AlGaN and InAlN barrier layers were measured by terahertz optical Hall effect technique in a temperature range from 7.2 K to 398 K. The results revealed strong changes in the effective mass and mobility parameters. At temperatures below 57 K very high carrier mobility parameters above 20000 cm2V-1s-1 for AlGaN-barrier sample and much lower mobilities of ~ 5000 cm2V-1s-1 for InAlN-barrier sample were obtained. At low temperatures the effective mass parameters for both samples are very similar to bulk GaN value, while at temperatures above 131 K effective mass shows a strong increase with temperature. The effective masses of 0.344 m0 (@370 K) and 0.439 m0 (@398 K) were obtained for AlGaN- and InAlN-barrier samples, respectively. We discussed the possible origins of effective mass enhancement in high electron mobility transistor structures.  

    Delarbeten
    1. Advanced Terahertz Frequency-Domain Ellipsometry Instrumentation for In Situ and Ex Situ Applications
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Advanced Terahertz Frequency-Domain Ellipsometry Instrumentation for In Situ and Ex Situ Applications
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 257-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present a terahertz (THz) frequency-domain spectroscopic ellipsometer design that suppresses formation of standing waves by use of stealth technology approaches. The strategy to suppress standing waves consists of three elements geometry, coating, and modulation. The instrument is based on the rotating analyzer ellipsometer principle and can incorporate various sample compartments, such as a superconducting magnet, in situ gas cells, or resonant sample cavities, for example. A backward wave oscillator and three detectors are employed, which permit operation in the spectral range of 0.1–1 THz (3.3–33 cm−1 or 0.4–4 meV). The THz frequency-domain ellipsometer allows for standard and generalized ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence in both reflection and transmission configurations. The methods used to suppress standing waves and strategies for an accurate frequency calibration are presented. Experimental results from dielectric constant determination in anisotropic materials, and free charge carrier determination in optical Hall effect (OHE), resonant-cavity enhanced OHE, and in situ OHE experiments are discussed. Examples include silicon and sapphire optical constants, free charge carrier properties of two-dimensional electron gas in a group III nitride high electron mobility transistor structure, and ambient effects on free electron mobility and density in epitaxial graphene.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
    Nyckelord
    Ellipsometry, Frequency-domain analysis, Instruments, Measurement by laser beam, Coherence, Dielectrics, Laser beams
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147883 (URN)10.1109/TTHZ.2018.2814347 (DOI)000431446900001 ()2-s2.0-85045191738 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [FFL12-0181, RIF14-055]; AForsk [13-318]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [2013-5580, 2016-00889]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA Grant) [2011-03486]; Swedish Government Strategic 

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-18 Skapad: 2018-05-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, s. 357-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Nyckelord
    THz optical Hall effect, Epitaxial graphene, Free charge carrier properties
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Fysik Den kondenserade materiens fysik Atom- och molekylfysik och optik Keramteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132407 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.10.023 (DOI)000408756700015 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [2013-5580]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) under the VINNMER international qualification program [2011-03486, 2014-04712]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF) [FFL12-0181, RIF14-055]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-09 Skapad: 2016-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Electron effective mass in In0.33Ga0.67N determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Electron effective mass in In0.33Ga0.67N determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, nr 8, artikel-id 082103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are used to determine the free charge carrier parameters of an unintentionally doped wurtzite-structure c-plane oriented In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. Room temperature electron effective mass parameters of m(perpendicular to)* = (0.205 +/- 0.013) m(0) and m(parallel to)* = (0.204 +/- 0.016) m(0) for polarization perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively, were determined. The free electron concentration was obtained as (1.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(19) cm(-3). Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass parameter and we estimate the upper limit of the possible effective mass anisotropy as 7%. We discuss the influence of conduction band nonparabolicity on the electron effective mass parameter as a function of In content. The effective mass parameter is consistent with a linear interpolation scheme between the conduction band mass parameters in GaN and InN when the strong nonparabolicity in InN is included. The In0.33Ga0.67N electron mobility parameter was found to be anisotropic, supporting previous experimental findings for wurtzite-structure GaN, InN, and AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with c-plane growth orientation. Published by AIP Publishing.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER INST PHYSICS, 2018
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Den kondenserade materiens fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145763 (URN)10.1063/1.5018247 (DOI)000425977500010 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) under the VINNMER international qualification program [2011-03486]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [2016-00889]; Competence Center Program [2016-05190]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University, Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU [2009-00971]; University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [FL12-0181, RIF14-055, EM16-0024]; J. A. Woollam Foundation; J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.; National Science Foundation [MRSEC DMR 1420645, CMMI 1337856, EAR 1521428]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-22 Skapad: 2018-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28
    4. Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 13 No 5-6, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016, Vol. 13, nr 5-6, s. 369-373Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we employ terahertz (THz) ellipsometry to determine two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, mobility and effective mass in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 4H-SiC substrates. The effect of the GaN interface exposure to low-flow-rate trimethylaluminum (TMA) on the 2DEG properties is studied. The 2DEG effective mass and sheet density are determined tobe in the range of 0.30-0.32m0 and 4.3-5.5×1012 cm–2, respectively. The 2DEG effective mass parameters are found to be higher than the bulk effective mass of GaN, which is discussed in view of 2DEG confinement. It is shown that exposure to TMA flow improves the 2DEG mobility from 2000 cm2/Vs to values above 2200 cm2/Vs. A record mobility of 2332±61 cm2/Vs is determined for the sample with GaN interface exposed to TMA for 30 s. This improvement in mobility is suggested to be due to AlGaN/GaN interface sharpening causing the reduction of interface roughness scattering of electrons in the 2DEG.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016
    Serie
    Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351
    Nyckelord
    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, THz ellipsometry, 2DEG properties, THz optical Hall effect
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Den kondenserade materiens fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133135 (URN)10.1002/pssc.201510214 (DOI)000387957200045 ()
    Konferens
    11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, August 30-September 4. 2015
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-12 Skapad: 2016-12-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Free charge carrier properties in group III nitrides and graphene studied by THz-to-MIR ellipsometry and optical Hall effect
    Ladda ner (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 2. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Study of novel electronic materials by mid-infrared and terahertz optical Hall effect2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of silicon based electronics have revolutionized our every day life during the last three decades. Nowadays Si based devices operate close to their theoretical limits that is becoming a bottleneck for further progress. In particular, for the growing field of high frequency and high power electronics, Si cannot offer the required properties. Development of materials capable of providing high current densities, carrier mobilities and high breakdown fields is crucial for a progress in state of the art electronics.

    Epitaxial graphene grown on semi-insulating silicon carbide substrates has a high potential to be integrated in the current planar device technologies. High electron mobilities and sheet carrier densities make graphene extremely attractive for high frequency analog applications. One of the remaining challenges is the interaction of epitaxial graphene with the substrate. Typically, much lower free charge carrier mobilities, compared to free standing graphene, and doping, due to charge transfer from the substrate, is reported. Thus, a good understanding of the intrinsic free charge carriers properties and the factors affecting them is very important for further development of epitaxial graphene.

    III-group nitrides have been extensively studied and already have proven their high efficiency as light sources for short wavelengths. High carrier mobilities and breakdown electric fields were demonstrated for III-group nitrides, making them attractive for high frequency and high power applications. Currently, In-rich InGaN alloys and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures are of high interest for the research community due to open fundamental questions.

    Electrical characterization techniques, commonly used for the determination of free charge carrier properties, require good ohmic and Schottky contacts, which in certain cases can be difficult to achieve. Access to electrical properties of buried conductive channels in multilayered structures requires modification of samples and good knowledge of the electrical properties of all electrical contact within the structure. Moreover, the use of electrical contacts to electrically characterize two-dimensional electronic materials, such as graphene, can alter their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, the determination of effective mass parameters commonly employs cyclotron resonance and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measurements, which require long scattering times of free charge carriers, high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

    The optical Hall effect is an external magnetic field induced optical anisotropy in  conductive layers due to the motion of the free charge carriers under the influence of the Lorentz force, and is equivalent to the electrical Hall effect at optical frequencies. The optical Hall effect can be measured by generalized ellipsometry and provides a powerful method for the determination of free charge carrier properties in a non-destructive and contactless manner. In principle, a single optical Hall effect measurement can provide quantitative information about free charge carrier types, concentrations, mobilities and effective mass parameters at temperatures ranging from few kelvins to room temperature and above. Further, it was demonstrated that for transparent samples, a backside cavity can be employed to enhance the optical Hall effect.

    Measurement of the optical Hall effect by generalized ellipsometry is an indirect technique requiring subsequent data analysis. Parameterized optical models are fitted to match experimentally measured ellipsometric data by varying physically significant parameters. Analysis of the optical response of samples, containing free charge carriers, employing optical models based on the classical Drude model, which is augmented with an external magnetic field contribution, provide access to the free charge carrier properties.

    The main research results of the graduate studies presented in this licentiate thesis are summarized in the five scientific papers.

    Paper I. Description of the custom-built terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopic ellipsometer at Linköping University. The terahertz ellipsometer capabilities are demonstrated by an accurate determination of the isotropic and anisotropic refractive indices of silicon and m-plane sapphire, respectively. Further, terahertz optical Hall effect measurements of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures were employed to extract the two-dimensional electron gas sheet density, mobility and effective mass parameters. Last, in-situ optical Hall effect measurement on epitaxial graphene in a gas cell with controllable environment, were used to study the effects of environmental doping on the mobility and carrier concentration.

    Paper II. Presents terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements of the monolayer and multilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed p-type doping for monolayer graphene with a carrier density in the low 1012 cm−2 range and a carrier mobility of 1550 cm2/V·s. For the multilayer epitaxial graphene, n-type doping with a carrier density in the low 1013 cm−2 range, a mobility of 470 cm2/V·s and an effective mass of (0.14 ± 0.03) m0 were extracted. The measurements demonstrate that cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements can be applied to study electronic properties of two-dimensional materials.

    Paper III. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect measurements are employed to study anisotropic transport in as-grown monolayer, quasi free-standing monolayer and quasi free-standing bilayer epitaxial graphene on semi-insulating 4H-SiC (0001) substrates. The data analysis revealed a strong anisotropy in the carrier mobilities of the quasi freestanding bilayer graphene. The anisotropy is demonstrated to be induced by carriers scattering at the step edges of the SiC, by showing that the mobility is higher along the step than across them. The scattering mechanism is discussed based on the results of the optical Hall effect, low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction and Raman measurements.

    Paper IV. Mid-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are employed to determine the electron effective mass in an In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. The data analysis reveals slightly anisotropic effective mass and carrier mobility parameters together with the optical phonon frequencies and broadenings.

    Paper V. Terahertz cavity-enhanced optical Hall measurements are employed to study the free charge carrier properties in a set of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility structures with modified interfaces. The results show that the interface structure has a significant effect on the free charge carrier mobility and that the sample with a sharp interface between an AlGaN barrier and a GaN buffer layers exhibits a record mobility of 2332±73 cm2/V·s. The determined effective mass parameters showed an increase compared to the GaN value, that is attributed the the penetration of the electron wavefunction into the AlGaN barrier layer.

    Delarbeten
    1. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, s. 357-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Nyckelord
    THz optical Hall effect, Epitaxial graphene, Free charge carrier properties
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Fysik Den kondenserade materiens fysik Atom- och molekylfysik och optik Keramteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132407 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.10.023 (DOI)000408756700015 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [2013-5580]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) under the VINNMER international qualification program [2011-03486, 2014-04712]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF) [FFL12-0181, RIF14-055]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-09 Skapad: 2016-11-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 13 No 5-6, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016, Vol. 13, nr 5-6, s. 369-373Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we employ terahertz (THz) ellipsometry to determine two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, mobility and effective mass in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 4H-SiC substrates. The effect of the GaN interface exposure to low-flow-rate trimethylaluminum (TMA) on the 2DEG properties is studied. The 2DEG effective mass and sheet density are determined tobe in the range of 0.30-0.32m0 and 4.3-5.5×1012 cm–2, respectively. The 2DEG effective mass parameters are found to be higher than the bulk effective mass of GaN, which is discussed in view of 2DEG confinement. It is shown that exposure to TMA flow improves the 2DEG mobility from 2000 cm2/Vs to values above 2200 cm2/Vs. A record mobility of 2332±61 cm2/Vs is determined for the sample with GaN interface exposed to TMA for 30 s. This improvement in mobility is suggested to be due to AlGaN/GaN interface sharpening causing the reduction of interface roughness scattering of electrons in the 2DEG.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016
    Serie
    Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, ISSN 1862-6351
    Nyckelord
    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, THz ellipsometry, 2DEG properties, THz optical Hall effect
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Den kondenserade materiens fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133135 (URN)10.1002/pssc.201510214 (DOI)000387957200045 ()
    Konferens
    11th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS), Beijing, China, August 30-September 4. 2015
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-12 Skapad: 2016-12-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Study of novel electronic materials by mid-infrared and terahertz optical Hall effect
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    omslag
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA / Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies2017Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, s. 357-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

  • 4.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Knight, Sean
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect2016Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 13 No 5-6, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016, Vol. 13, nr 5-6, s. 369-373Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we employ terahertz (THz) ellipsometry to determine two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, mobility and effective mass in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 4H-SiC substrates. The effect of the GaN interface exposure to low-flow-rate trimethylaluminum (TMA) on the 2DEG properties is studied. The 2DEG effective mass and sheet density are determined tobe in the range of 0.30-0.32m0 and 4.3-5.5×1012 cm–2, respectively. The 2DEG effective mass parameters are found to be higher than the bulk effective mass of GaN, which is discussed in view of 2DEG confinement. It is shown that exposure to TMA flow improves the 2DEG mobility from 2000 cm2/Vs to values above 2200 cm2/Vs. A record mobility of 2332±61 cm2/Vs is determined for the sample with GaN interface exposed to TMA for 30 s. This improvement in mobility is suggested to be due to AlGaN/GaN interface sharpening causing the reduction of interface roughness scattering of electrons in the 2DEG.

  • 5.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stokey, Megan
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Sorensen, Preston
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Kilic, Ufuk
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden; Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Electron effective mass in GaN revisited: New insights from terahertz and mid-infrared optical Hall effect2024Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 021114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron effective mass is a fundamental material parameter defining the free charge carrier transport properties, but it is very challenging to be experimentally determined at high temperatures relevant to device operation. In this work, we obtain the electron effective mass parameters in a Si-doped GaN bulk substrate and epitaxial layers from terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared (MIR) optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements in the temperature range of 38-340 K. The OHE data are analyzed using the well-accepted Drude model to account for the free charge carrier contributions. A strong temperature dependence of the electron effective mass parameter in both bulk and epitaxial GaN with values ranging from (0.18 +/- 0.02) m(0) to (0.34 +/- 0.01) m(0) at a low temperature (38 K) and room temperature, respectively, is obtained from the THz OHE analysis. The observed effective mass enhancement with temperature is evaluated and discussed in view of conduction band nonparabolicity, polaron effect, strain, and deviations from the classical Drude behavior. On the other hand, the electron effective mass parameter determined by MIR OHE is found to be temperature independent with a value of (0.200 +/- 0.002) m(0). A possible explanation for the different findings from THz OHE and MIR OHE is proposed. (c) 2024 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

  • 6.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Al-Temimy, Ameer
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Coletti, Camilla
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68508 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Resolving mobility anisotropy in quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene by terahertz optical Hall effect2021Ingår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 172, s. 248-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of terahertz-optical Hall effect (THz-OHE) to determine directionally dependent free charge carrier properties of ambient-doped monolayer and quasi-freestanding-bilayer epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001). Directionally independent free hole mobility parameters are found for the monolayer graphene. In contrast, anisotropic hole mobility parameters with a lower mobility in direction perpendicular to the SiC surface steps and higher along the steps in quasifree-standing-bilayer graphene are determined for the first time. A combination of THz-OHE, nanoscale microscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the origin of the anisotropy. Different defect densities and different number of graphene layers on the step edges and terraces are ruled out as possible causes. Scattering mechanisms related to doping variations at the step edges and terraces as a result of different interaction with the substrate and environment are discussed and also excluded. It is suggested that the step edges introduce intrinsic scattering in quasi-free-standing-bilayer graphene, that is manifested as a result of the higher ratio between mean free path and average terrace width parameters. The suggested scenario allows to reconcile existing differences in the literature regarding the anisotropic electrical transport in epitaxial graphene. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymer Res Dresden, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electron effective mass in In0.33Ga0.67N determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect2018Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, nr 8, artikel-id 082103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are used to determine the free charge carrier parameters of an unintentionally doped wurtzite-structure c-plane oriented In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. Room temperature electron effective mass parameters of m(perpendicular to)* = (0.205 +/- 0.013) m(0) and m(parallel to)* = (0.204 +/- 0.016) m(0) for polarization perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively, were determined. The free electron concentration was obtained as (1.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(19) cm(-3). Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass parameter and we estimate the upper limit of the possible effective mass anisotropy as 7%. We discuss the influence of conduction band nonparabolicity on the electron effective mass parameter as a function of In content. The effective mass parameter is consistent with a linear interpolation scheme between the conduction band mass parameters in GaN and InN when the strong nonparabolicity in InN is included. The In0.33Ga0.67N electron mobility parameter was found to be anisotropic, supporting previous experimental findings for wurtzite-structure GaN, InN, and AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with c-plane growth orientation. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 8.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tordera, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shegai, Timur
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strong Plasmon–Exciton Coupling with Directional Absorption Features in Optically Thin Hybrid Nanohole Metasurfaces2018Ingår i: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, s. 4046-4055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmons and excitons can interact to form new hybridized light–matter states, with a multitude of potential applications including optical logic circuits and single-photon switches. Here, we report the first observation of strong coupling based on optically thin plasmonic nanohole films. The absorptive plasmon resonances of these nanohole films lead to suppressed transmission and Fano-shaped extinction peaks. We prepared silver nanohole films by colloidal lithography, which enables large-scale fabrication of nanoholes distributed in a short-range order. When coated with J-aggregate molecules, both extinction and absorption spectra show clear formation of two separated polariton resonances, with vacuum Rabi splitting on the order of 300 meV determined from anticrossing experiments. In accordance with strong coupling theory, the splitting magnitude increases linearly with the square root of molecular concentration. The extinction peak positions are blue-shifted from the absorption polariton positions, as explained by additional Fano interference between the hybridized states and the metal film. This highlights that absorption measurements are important not only to prove strong coupling but also to correctly determine hybridized polariton positions and splitting magnitudes in hybrid plasmonic nanohole systems. The polariton absorption peaks also show strong dependence on illumination direction, as found related to inherent directionality of the plasmonic nanohole metasurface and differences in light interaction with nonhybridized molecules. Importantly, optical simulations could successfully reproduce the experimental results and all coupling features. Furthermore, simulated spatial distribution of the absorption provides additional evidence of strong coupling in the hybrid nanohole system. The work paves the way toward strong coupling applications based on optically thin nanohole systems, as further promoted by the scalable fabrication.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Knight, Sean
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of N Carolina, NC 28223 USA.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wimer, Shawn
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Institute Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In-situ terahertz optical Hall effect measurements of ambient effects on free charge carrier properties of epitaxial graphene2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 5151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unraveling the doping-related charge carrier scattering mechanisms in two-dimensional materials such as graphene is vital for limiting parasitic electrical conductivity losses in future electronic applications. While electric field doping is well understood, assessment of mobility and density as a function of chemical doping remained a challenge thus far. In this work, we investigate the effects of cyclically exposing epitaxial graphene to controlled inert gases and ambient humidity conditions, while measuring the Lorentz force-induced birefringence in graphene at Terahertz frequencies in magnetic fields. This technique, previously identified as the optical analogue of the electrical Hall effect, permits here measurement of charge carrier type, density, and mobility in epitaxial graphene on silicon-face silicon carbide. We observe a distinct, nearly linear relationship between mobility and electron charge density, similar to field-effect induced changes measured in electrical Hall bar devices previously. The observed doping process is completely reversible and independent of the type of inert gas exposure.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Guo, Shiqi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Axel R.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rindert, Viktor
    Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paskov, Plamen P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, 68588, NE, United States.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Room temperature two-dimensional electron gas scattering time, effective mass, and mobility parameters in AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.42)2023Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 134, nr 18, artikel-id 185701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Al xGa 1−xN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures are key components in electronic devices operating at gigahertz or higher frequencies. In order to optimize such HEMT structures, understanding their electronic response at high frequencies and room temperature is required. Here, we present a study of the room temperature free charge carrier properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT structures with varying Al content in the Al xGa 1−xN barrier layers between x=0.07 and x=0.42⁠. We discuss and compare 2DEG sheet density, mobility, effective mass, sheet resistance, and scattering times, which are determined by theoretical calculations, contactless Hall effect, capacitance-voltage, Eddy current, and cavity-enhanced terahertz optical Hall effect (THz-OHE) measurements using a low-field permanent magnet (0.6 T). From our THz-OHE results, we observe that the measured mobility reduction from x=0.13 to x=0.42 is driven by the decrease in 2DEG scattering time, and not the change in effective mass. For x<0.42⁠, the 2DEG effective mass is found to be larger than for electrons in bulk GaN, which in turn, contributes to a decrease in the principally achievable mobility. From our theoretical calculations, we find that values close to 0.3 m0 can be explained by the combined effects of conduction band nonparabolicity, polarons, and hybridization of the electron wavefunction through penetration into the barrier layer.

  • 11.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Enhancement of 2DEG effective mass in AlN/Al0.78Ga0.22N high electron mobility transistor structure determined by THz optical Hall effect2022Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 120, nr 25, artikel-id 253102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the free charge carrier properties of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlN/AlxGa1-xN high electron mobility transistor structure with a high aluminum content (x = 0.78). The 2DEG sheet density N s = ( 7.3 +/- 0.7 ) x 10 12 cm(-2), sheet mobility mu s = ( 270 +/- 40 ) cm(2)/(Vs), sheet resistance R- s = ( 3200 +/- 500 ) omega/ ?, and effective mass m( eff) = ( 0.63 +/- 0.04 ) m( 0) at low temperatures ( T = 5 K ) are determined by terahertz (THz) optical Hall effect measurements. The experimental 2DEG mobility in the channel is found within the expected range, and the sheet carrier density is in good agreement with self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger calculations. However, a significant increase in the effective mass of 2DEG electrons at low temperatures is found in comparison with the respective value in bulk Al0.78Ga22N ( m( eff) = 0.334 m( 0)). Possible mechanisms for the enhanced 2DEG effective mass parameter are discussed and quantified using self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger calculations .Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Herzinger, Craig M,
    J. A. Woollam Company, Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Advanced Terahertz Frequency-Domain Ellipsometry Instrumentation for In Situ and Ex Situ Applications2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 257-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a terahertz (THz) frequency-domain spectroscopic ellipsometer design that suppresses formation of standing waves by use of stealth technology approaches. The strategy to suppress standing waves consists of three elements geometry, coating, and modulation. The instrument is based on the rotating analyzer ellipsometer principle and can incorporate various sample compartments, such as a superconducting magnet, in situ gas cells, or resonant sample cavities, for example. A backward wave oscillator and three detectors are employed, which permit operation in the spectral range of 0.1–1 THz (3.3–33 cm−1 or 0.4–4 meV). The THz frequency-domain ellipsometer allows for standard and generalized ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence in both reflection and transmission configurations. The methods used to suppress standing waves and strategies for an accurate frequency calibration are presented. Experimental results from dielectric constant determination in anisotropic materials, and free charge carrier determination in optical Hall effect (OHE), resonant-cavity enhanced OHE, and in situ OHE experiments are discussed. Examples include silicon and sapphire optical constants, free charge carrier properties of two-dimensional electron gas in a group III nitride high electron mobility transistor structure, and ambient effects on free electron mobility and density in epitaxial graphene.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Persson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Inst Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Origin of layer decoupling in ordered multilayer graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on C-face 4H-SiC2020Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 011104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the origin of layer decoupling in ordered multilayer graphene grown by high temperature sublimation on C-face 4H-SiC. The mid-infrared optical Hall effect technique is used to determine the magnetic field dependence of the inter-Landau level transition energies and their optical polarization selection rules, which unambiguously show that the multilayer graphene consists of electronically decoupled layers. Transmission electron microscopy reveals no out-of-plane rotational disorder between layers in the stack, which is in contrast to what is typically observed for C-face graphene grown by low temperature sublimation. It is found that the multilayer graphene maintains AB-stacking order with increased interlayer spacing by 2.4%-8.4% as compared to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping reveals Si atoms trapped in between layers, which are proposed to be the cause for the observed increased interlayer spacing leading to layer decoupling. Based on our results, we propose a defect-driven growth evolution mechanism for multilayer graphene on C-face SiC via high temperature sublimation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Coletti, Camilla
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Critical View on Buffer Layer Formation and Monolayer Graphene Properties in High-Temperature Sublimation2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 1891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we have critically reviewed the processes in high-temperature sublimation growth of graphene in Ar atmosphere using closed graphite crucible. Special focus is put on buffer layer formation and free charge carrier properties of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene on 4H-SiC. We show that by introducing Ar at higher temperatures, T-A(r), one can shift the formation of the buffer layer to higher temperatures for both n-type and semi-insulating substrates. A scenario explaining the observed suppressed formation of buffer layer at higher TA r is proposed and discussed. Increased T-A(r) is also shown to reduce the sp(3) hybridization content and defect densities in the buffer layer on n-type conductive substrates. Growth on semi-insulating substrates results in ordered buffer layer with significantly improved structural properties, for which T-A(r) plays only a minor role. The free charge density and mobility parameters of monolayer graphene and quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene with different T-A(r) and different environmental treatment conditions are determined by contactless terahertz optical Hall effect. An efficient annealing of donors on and near the SiC surface is suggested to take place for intrinsic monolayer graphene grown at 2000 degrees C, and which is found to be independent of T-A(r). Higher T-A(r) leads to higher free charge carrier mobility parameters in both intrinsically n-type and ambient p-type doped monolayer graphene. T-A(r) is also found to have a profound effect on the free hole parameters of quasi-freestanding monolayer graphene. These findings are discussed in view of interface and buffer layer properties in order to construct a comprehensive picture of high-temperature sublimation growth and provide guidance for growth parameters optimization depending on the targeted graphene application.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gogova-Petrova, Daniela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nawaz, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Hitachi Energy, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Low Al-content n-type AlxGa1-xN layers with a high-electron-mobility grown by hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition2023Ingår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 217, artikel-id 112481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we demonstrate the capability of the hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition to deliver high-quality n-AlxGa1−xN (x = 0 – 0.12, [Si] = 1×1017 cm−3) epitaxial layers on 4H-SiC(0001). All layers are crack-free, with a very small root mean square roughness (0.13 – 0.25 nm), homogeneous distribution of Al over film thickness and a very low unintentional incorporation of oxygen at the detection limit of 5×1015 cm−3 and carbon of 2×1016 cm−3. Edge type dislocations in the layers gradually increase with increasing Al content while screw dislocations only raise for x above 0.077. The room temperature electron mobility of the n-AlxGa1−xN remain in the range of 400 – 470 cm2/(V.s) for Al contents between 0.05 and 0.077 resulting in comparable or higher Baliga figure of merit with respect to GaN, and hence demonstrating their suitability for implementation as drift layers in power device applications. Further increase in Al content is found to result in significant deterioration of the electrical properties.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 15 av 15
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf