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  • 1.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kühne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA / Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies2017Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 421, s. 357-360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect at terahertz (THz) frequencies is employed to determine the free charge carrier properties in epitaxial graphene (EG) with different number of layers grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(0001). We find that one monolayer (ML) EG possesses p-type conductivity with a free hole concentration in the low 1012 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range and a free hole mobility parameter as high as 1550 cm2/Vs. We also find that 6 ML EG shows n-type doping behavior with a much lower free electron mobility parameter of 470 cm2/Vs and an order of magnitude higher free electron density in the low 1013 cmᅵᅵᅵ2 range. The observed differences are discussed. The cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for contactless access to the type of free charge carriers and their properties in two-dimensional materials such as EG.

  • 2.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Knight, Sean
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect2016Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi C-Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 13 No 5-6, Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016, Vol. 13, nr 5-6, s. 369-373Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we employ terahertz (THz) ellipsometry to determine two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, mobility and effective mass in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 4H-SiC substrates. The effect of the GaN interface exposure to low-flow-rate trimethylaluminum (TMA) on the 2DEG properties is studied. The 2DEG effective mass and sheet density are determined tobe in the range of 0.30-0.32m0 and 4.3-5.5×1012 cm–2, respectively. The 2DEG effective mass parameters are found to be higher than the bulk effective mass of GaN, which is discussed in view of 2DEG confinement. It is shown that exposure to TMA flow improves the 2DEG mobility from 2000 cm2/Vs to values above 2200 cm2/Vs. A record mobility of 2332±61 cm2/Vs is determined for the sample with GaN interface exposed to TMA for 30 s. This improvement in mobility is suggested to be due to AlGaN/GaN interface sharpening causing the reduction of interface roughness scattering of electrons in the 2DEG.

  • 3.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stokey, Megan
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Sorensen, Preston
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Kilic, Ufuk
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden; Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Electron effective mass in GaN revisited: New insights from terahertz and mid-infrared optical Hall effect2024Ingår i: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 021114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron effective mass is a fundamental material parameter defining the free charge carrier transport properties, but it is very challenging to be experimentally determined at high temperatures relevant to device operation. In this work, we obtain the electron effective mass parameters in a Si-doped GaN bulk substrate and epitaxial layers from terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared (MIR) optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements in the temperature range of 38-340 K. The OHE data are analyzed using the well-accepted Drude model to account for the free charge carrier contributions. A strong temperature dependence of the electron effective mass parameter in both bulk and epitaxial GaN with values ranging from (0.18 +/- 0.02) m(0) to (0.34 +/- 0.01) m(0) at a low temperature (38 K) and room temperature, respectively, is obtained from the THz OHE analysis. The observed effective mass enhancement with temperature is evaluated and discussed in view of conduction band nonparabolicity, polaron effect, strain, and deviations from the classical Drude behavior. On the other hand, the electron effective mass parameter determined by MIR OHE is found to be temperature independent with a value of (0.200 +/- 0.002) m(0). A possible explanation for the different findings from THz OHE and MIR OHE is proposed. (c) 2024 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

  • 4.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Al-Temimy, Ameer
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Coletti, Camilla
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68508 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Resolving mobility anisotropy in quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene by terahertz optical Hall effect2021Ingår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 172, s. 248-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of terahertz-optical Hall effect (THz-OHE) to determine directionally dependent free charge carrier properties of ambient-doped monolayer and quasi-freestanding-bilayer epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001). Directionally independent free hole mobility parameters are found for the monolayer graphene. In contrast, anisotropic hole mobility parameters with a lower mobility in direction perpendicular to the SiC surface steps and higher along the steps in quasifree-standing-bilayer graphene are determined for the first time. A combination of THz-OHE, nanoscale microscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the origin of the anisotropy. Different defect densities and different number of graphene layers on the step edges and terraces are ruled out as possible causes. Scattering mechanisms related to doping variations at the step edges and terraces as a result of different interaction with the substrate and environment are discussed and also excluded. It is suggested that the step edges introduce intrinsic scattering in quasi-free-standing-bilayer graphene, that is manifested as a result of the higher ratio between mean free path and average terrace width parameters. The suggested scenario allows to reconcile existing differences in the literature regarding the anisotropic electrical transport in epitaxial graphene. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.

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  • 5.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymer Res Dresden, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electron effective mass in In0.33Ga0.67N determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect2018Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, nr 8, artikel-id 082103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements are used to determine the free charge carrier parameters of an unintentionally doped wurtzite-structure c-plane oriented In0.33Ga0.67N epitaxial layer. Room temperature electron effective mass parameters of m(perpendicular to)* = (0.205 +/- 0.013) m(0) and m(parallel to)* = (0.204 +/- 0.016) m(0) for polarization perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively, were determined. The free electron concentration was obtained as (1.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(19) cm(-3). Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass parameter and we estimate the upper limit of the possible effective mass anisotropy as 7%. We discuss the influence of conduction band nonparabolicity on the electron effective mass parameter as a function of In content. The effective mass parameter is consistent with a linear interpolation scheme between the conduction band mass parameters in GaN and InN when the strong nonparabolicity in InN is included. The In0.33Ga0.67N electron mobility parameter was found to be anisotropic, supporting previous experimental findings for wurtzite-structure GaN, InN, and AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers with c-plane growth orientation. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 6.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Schubert, Mattias
    Department of Electrical Engineering University of Nebraska.
    Figge, S
    Hommel, D
    Haskell, B A
    Fini, P T
    Nakamura, S
    Assessment of phonon mode characteristics via infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry on a-plane GaN2005Ingår i: ICSN-6,2005, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Ashkenov, N.
    et al.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Mbenkum, B.N.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Bundesmann, C.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Riede, V.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Lorenz, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Spemann, D.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Kaidashev, E.M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany, Rostov State University, Mech./Appl. Math. Research Institute, 200/1 Stachky Avenue, Rostov-on-Don 344090, Russian Federation.
    Kasic, A.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Schubert, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Grundmann, M.
    Universität Leipzig, Fak. F. Phys. and Geowissenschaften, Inst. F. Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Wagner, G.
    Inst. F. Nichtklassische Chem. e.V., Universität Leipzig, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    Neumann, H.
    Inst. F. O. e.V., Permoserstrasse 15, 04303 Leipzig, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Infrared dielectric functions and phonon modes of high-quality ZnO films2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 126-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was performed on the phonon modes and infrared dielectric functions of high-quality ZnO thin films. The pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit the ZnO films on c-plane sapphire substrates and were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering experiments. The accurate long-wavelength dielectric constant limits of the films were also obtained and were compared with near-band-gap index-of-refraction data upon the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation for both film and bulk samples. It was found that the phonon modes of the film were highly consistent with those of the bulk sample.

  • 8. Atanassov, A
    et al.
    Baleva, M
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Goranova, E
    Grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction of beta-FeSi2 layers, produced by ion beam synthesis2004Ingår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 76, nr 02-Mar, s. 277-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of beta-FeSi2 phase, prepared by ion beam synthesis (IBS) method, followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is investigated by grazing incident asymmetric X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD). The X-ray spectra, obtained at different grazing angles, indicated that the beta-FeSi2 phase is formed in the whole implantation range. From the comparison of the reflections intensities ratios, it is found that in the metal-deficient regions, where the beta-FeSi2 phase is present in the form of precipitates, the crystallites orientation is influenced by the one of the silicon substrates, while the orientation in the metal-rich region is different and depends on the annealing temperature. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Barradas, N. P.
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, Sacavém 2686‐953, Portugal.
    Lorenz, K
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, Sacavém 2686‐953, Portugal.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, Sacavém 2686‐953, Portugal.
    A Double Scattering Analytical Model For Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis2011Ingår i: AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 1336, 2011, s. 314-318Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analytical model for calculation of double scattering in elastic recoil detection measurements. Only events involving the beam particle and the recoil are considered, i.e. 1) an ion scatters off a target element and then produces a recoil, and 2) an ion produces a recoil which then scatters off a target element. Events involving intermediate recoils are not considered, i.e. when the primary ion produces a recoil which then produces a second recoil. If the recoil element is also present in the stopping foil, recoil events in the stopping foil are also calculated. We included the model in the standard code for IBA data analysis NDF, and applied it to the measurement of hydrogen in Si.

  • 10.
    Ben Sedrine, N.
    et al.
    Institute Tecnology and Nucl, Sacavem, Portugal.
    Bouhafs, C.
    Centre Rech and Technology Energie, Lab Photovolt Semicond and Nanostruct, Hammam Lif 2050, Tunisia.
    Harmand, J.C.
    CNRS.
    Chtourou, R.
    Centre Rech and Technology Energie, Lab Photovolt Semicond and Nanostruct, Hammam Lif 2050, Tunisia.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effect of nitrogen on the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 dielectric function from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet2010Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 97, nr 20, s. 201903-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of nitrogen on the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 (x = 0.00, 0.65%, 1.06%, 1.45%, and 1.90%) alloy dielectric function by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the energy range from 0.73 to 4.75 eV. The compositional dependences of the critical points energies for the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 are obtained. In addition to the GaAs intrinsic transitions E-1, E-1+ Delta(1), and E-0, the nitrogen-induced Gamma-point optical transitions E-0 and E+, together with a third transition E-#, are identified. We find that with increasing the N content, the E-0 transition shifts to lower energies while the E+ and (E)# transitions shift to higher energies. We suggest that the origin of the E-0, E+, and E-# transitions may be explained by the double band anticrossing (BAC) model, consisting of a conduction BAC model and a valence BAC model.

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  • 11.
    Ben Sedrine, N
    et al.
    Centre Rech and Technology Energie, Sacavem.
    Bouhafs, C
    Centre Rech and Technology Energie, Sacavem.
    Schubert, M
    University of Nebraska.
    Harmand, J C
    CNRS.
    Chtourou, R
    Centre Rech and Technology Energie, Sacavem.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optical properties of GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 alloy films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry2011Ingår i: THIN SOLID FILMS, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 519, nr 9, s. 2838-2842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.73 to 4.75 eV was used to study the optical properties of epitaxial GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 layers with x=0.00, 0.65, 1.06, 1.45 and 1.90%. The ellipsometric experimental spectra were fitted using a multilayer model employing the model dielectric function to describe the GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 optical response. We have identified the Gamma-point E-0, E+, and E-# transitions of GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 and have determined the effect of nitrogen on the respective transition energies. We have demonstrated that a lower N content can provide an equal E+-E-0 energy splitting for GaAs0.9-xNxSb0.1 with respect to GaAs1-xNx.

  • 12.
    Ben Sedrine, Nabiha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Aveiro, Portugal; University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Zukauskaite, Agne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Fraunhofer Institute Appl Solid State Phys, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schoeche, S.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Infrared dielectric functions and optical phonons of wurtzite YxAl1-xN (0 less than= x less than= 0.22)2015Ingår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 48, nr 41, s. 415102-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    YAlN is a new member of the group-III nitride family with potential for applications in next generation piezoelectric and light emitting devices. We report the infrared dielectric functions and optical phonons of wurtzite (0001) YxAl1-xN epitaxial films with 0 less than= x less than= 0.22. The films are grown by magnetron sputtering epitaxy on c-plane Al2O3 and their phonon properties are investigated using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The infrared-active E-1(TO) and LO, and the Raman active E-2 phonons are found to exhibit one-mode behavior, which is discussed in the framework of the MREI model. The compositional dependencies of the E-1(TO), E-2 and LO phonon frequencies, the high-frequency limit of the dielectric constant, epsilon(infinity), the static dielectric constant, epsilon(0), and the Born effective charge Z(B) are established and discussed.

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  • 13.
    Ben Sedrine, Nebiha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zukauskaite, Agne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bandgap Engineering and Optical Constants of YxAl1-xN Alloys2013Ingår i: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 52, nr 8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study wurtzite Yx Al1-xN (0 andlt;= x andlt;= 0:22) films with (0001) orientation deposited by magnetron sputtering epitaxy on Si(100) substrates and we determine the alloys band gap energies and optical constants. Room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is employed in the energy range from 1 to 6.3 eV, and data modeling based on the standard dielectric function model is used. As a result of the SE data analysis the Yx Al1-xN refractive index and extinction coefficient are determined. The band gap of Yx Al1-xN is found to decrease linearly from 6.2 eV (x=0) down to 4.5 eV (x=0:22). We further observe an increase of the refractive index with increasing Y content; from 1.93 to 2.20 (at 2 eV) for x=0 and 0.22, respectively, reflecting the increase in material density.

  • 14.
    Bittrich, Eva
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Domke, Jari
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Jehnichen, Dieter
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Bittrich, Lars
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Malanin, Mikhail
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Janke, Andreas
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Uhlmann, Petra
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Al-Hussein, Mahmoud
    Univ Jordan, Jordan.
    Levichkova, Marieta
    Heliatek GmbH, Germany.
    Fritz, Torsten
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Walzer, Karsten
    Heliatek GmbH, Germany.
    Morphology of Thin Films of Aromatic Ellagic Acid and Its Hydrogen Bonding Interactions2020Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 124, nr 30, s. 16381-16390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ellagic acid (EA), an antioxidant from fruits or other plants, has recently evoked interest in the field of organic electronics because of its weak electron donor properties. In this work, the preparation of uniaxial pi-stacked EA films by thermal evaporation on different surfaces is reported for the first time. The (102) lattice plane of the pi-electron system was confirmed as the contact plane for one monolayer equivalent on Ag(111) by low-electron energy diffraction. X-ray and atomic force microscopy measurements revealed nanocrystalline grains with an average inplane size of 50 nm and considerably smaller average out-of-plane crystallite sizes (16-25 nm) in films of 16-75 nm thickness. The influence of different substrates was minor compared to the effect of the film thickness. An increase in the in-plane density of grains at larger film thicknesses was deduced from the trend in their uniaxial optical properties. Weak and strong intermolecular H-bonding interactions were identified in the EA crystal lattice, while a surplus of weak H-bonding was observed for the nanocrystallites in thin films, as compared to bulk EA. Finally, EA was coevaporated with the semiconducting thiophene molecule DCV4T-Et-2 to demonstrate principle interactions with a guest molecule by H-bonding analysis. Our results illustrate the feasibility of applying EA films as alignment layers for templating other semiconducting organic films used in organic electronic devices.

  • 15.
    Boosalis, A.
    et al.
    University of Nebraska, USA .
    Hofmann, T.
    University of Nebraska, USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, USA .
    Visible to vacuum ultraviolet dielectric functions of epitaxial graphene on 3C and 4H SiC polytypes determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry2012Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the visible to vacuum-ultraviolet spectra (3.5-9.5 eV) are performed to determine the dielectric function of epitaxial graphene on SiC polytypes, including 4H (C-face and Si-face) and 3C SiC (Si-face). The model dielectric function of graphene is composed of two harmonic oscillators and allows the determination of graphene quality, morphology, and strain. A characteristic van Hove singularity at 4.5 eV is present in the dielectric function of all samples, in agreement with observations on exfoliated as well as chemical vapor deposited graphene in the visible range. Model dielectric function analysis suggests that none of our graphene layers experience a significant degree of strain. Graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H SiC exhibits a dielectric function most similar to theoretical predictions for graphene. The carbon buffer layer common for graphene on Si-faces is found to increase polarizability of graphene in the investigated spectrum.

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  • 16.
    Boosalis, Alexander
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A..
    Hofmann, Tino
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A..
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tiwald, Tom
    J.A. Woollam Co., Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A..
    Schubert, Mathias
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A..
    Spectroscopic Mapping Ellipsometry of Graphene Grown on 3C SiC2012Ingår i: MRS Proceedings Volume 1407, 2012, s. aa20-43Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic mapping ellipsometry measurements in the visible spectrum (1.25 to 5.35 eV) are performed to determine the lateral variations of epitaxial graphene properties as grown on 3C SiC. Data taken in the visible spectrum is sensitive to both the Drude absorption of free charge carriers and the characteristic exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at 5 eV. Subsequent analysis with simple oscillator models allows the determination of physical parameters such as free charge carrier scattering time and local graphene thickness with a lateral resolution of 50 microns.

  • 17.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tiberj, A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paillet, M.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Zahab, A. -A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Landois, P.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Schoeche, S.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, nr 8, s. 085701-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and controlling growth of graphene on the carbon face (C-face) of SiC presents a significant challenge. In this work, we study the structural, vibrational, and dielectric function properties of graphene grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by high-temperature sublimation in an argon atmosphere. The effect of growth temperature on the graphene number of layers and crystallite size is investigated and discussed in relation to graphene coverage and thickness homogeneity. An amorphous carbon layer at the interface between SiC and the graphene is identified, and its evolution with growth temperature is established. Atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are combined to determine and correlate thickness, stacking order, dielectric function, and interface properties of graphene. The role of surface defects and growth temperature on the graphene growth mechanism and stacking is discussed, and a conclusion about the critical factors to achieve decoupled graphene layers is drawn. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 18.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zakharov, A. A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska, USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska, USA.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Decoupling and ordering of multilayer graphene on C-face 3C-SiC(111)2016Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 109, nr 20, artikel-id 203102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We show experimentally that few layer graphene (FLG) grown on the carbon terminated surface (C-face) of 3C-SiC(111) is composed of decoupled graphene sheets. Landau level spectroscopy on FLG graphene is performed using the infrared optical Hall effect. We find that Landau level transitions in the FLG exhibit polarization preserving selection rules and the transition energies obey a square-root dependence on the magnetic field strength. These results show that FLG on C-face 3C-SiC(111) behave effectively as a single layer graphene with linearly dispersing bands (Dirac cones) at the graphene K point. We estimate from the Landau level spectroscopy an upper limit of the Fermi energy of about 60 meV in the FLG, which corresponds to a carrier density below 2.5 x 10(11) cm(-2). Low-energy electron diffraction mu-LEED) reveals the presence of azimuthally rotated graphene domains with a typical size of amp;lt;= 200 nm.mu-LEED mapping suggests that the azimuth rotation occurs between adjacent domains within the same sheet rather than vertically in the stack. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 19.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zakharov, A. A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Giannazzo, F.
    CNR IMM, Italy.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hofmann, Tino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Roccaforte, F.
    CNR IMM, Italy.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Multi-scale investigation of interface properties, stacking order and decoupling of few layer graphene on C-face 4H-SiC2017Ingår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 116, s. 722-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report a multi-scale investigation using several nano-, micro and macro-scale techniques of few layer graphene (FLG) sample consisting of large monolayer (ML) and bilayer (BL) areas grown on C-face 4H-SiC (000-1) by high-temperature sublimation. Single 1 x 1 diffraction patterns are observed by micro-low-energy electron diffraction for ML, BL and trilayer graphene with no indication of out-of-plane rotational disorder. A SiOx layer is identified between graphene and SiC by X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy and reflectance measurements. The chemical composition of the interface layer changes towards SiO2 and its thickness increases with aging in normal ambient conditions. The formation mechanism of the interface layer is discussed. It is shown by torsion resonance conductive atomic force microscopy that the interface layer causes the formation of non-ideal Schottky contact between ML graphene and SiC. This is attributed to the presence of a large density of interface states. Mid-infrared optical Hall effect measurements revealed Landau-level transitions in FLG that have a square-root dependence on magnetic field, which evidences a stack of decoupled graphene sheets. Contrary to previous works on decoupled C-face graphene, our BL and FLG are composed of ordered decoupled graphene layers without out-of-plane rotation. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Catarino, N
    et al.
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU .
    Nogales, E
    Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense - 28040 Madrid, Spain, EU .
    Franco, N
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU and Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa - Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal, EU.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Instituto Tecnol´ogico e Nuclear/IST, Sacavem, Portugal, EU; Centro de F´ısica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa - Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal, EU .
    Miranda, S. M. C.
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU .
    Mendez, B
    Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense - 28040 Madrid, Spain, EU .
    Alves, E
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU and Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa - Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal, EU.
    Marques, J. G.
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU and Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa - Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal, EU.
    Lorenz, K
    Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear/IST - Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém, Portugal, EU and Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa - Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal, EU.
    Enhanced dynamic annealing and optical activation of Eu implanted a-plane GaN2012Ingår i: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 97, nr 6, s. 68004-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implantation damage build-up and optical activation of a-plane and c-plane GaN epitaxial films were compared upon 300 keV Eu implantation at room temperature. The implantation defects cause an expansion of the lattice normal to the surface, i.e. along the a-direction in a-plane and along the c-direction in c-plane GaN. The defect profile is bimodal with a pronounced surface damage peak and a second damage peak deeper in the bulk of the samples in both cases. For both surface orientations, the bulk damage saturates for high fluences. Interestingly, the saturation level for a-plane GaN is nearly three times lower than that for c-plane material suggesting very efficient dynamic annealing and strong resistance to radiation. a-plane GaN also shows superior damage recovery during post-implant annealing compared to c-plane GaN. For the lowest fluence, damage in a-plane GaN was fully removed and strong Eu-related red luminescence is observed. Although some residual damage remained after annealing for higher fluences as well as in all c-plane samples, optical activation was achieved in all samples revealing the red emission lines due to the 5D0 7F2transition in the Eu3+ ion. The presented results demonstrate a great promise for the use of ion beam processing for a-plane GaN based electronic devices as well as for the development of radiation tolerant electronics.

  • 21.
    Chen, Ding-Yuan
    et al.
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Persson, Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. TheMAC, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Structural investigation of ultra-low resistance deeply recessed sidewall ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs based on Ti/Al/Ti-metallization2023Ingår i: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 38, nr 10, artikel-id 105006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a novel approach to forming low-resistance ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The optimized contacts exhibit an outstanding contact resistance of approximately 0.15 & omega;& BULL;mm. This is achieved by firstly recessing the barrier of the heterostructure to a depth beyond the channel. In this way, the channel region is exposed on the sidewall of the recess. The coverage of the Ti/Al/Ti ohmic metalization on the sidewall is ensured through tilting of the sample during evaporation. The annealing process is performed at a low temperature of 550 & DEG;C. The approach does not require precise control of the recess etching. Furthermore, the method is directly applicable to most barrier designs in terms of thickness and Al-concentration. The impact of recessed sidewall angle, thickness and ratio of Ti and Al layers, and the annealing procedure are investigated. Structural and chemical analyses of the interface between the ohmic contacts and epi-structure indicate the formation of ohmic contacts by the extraction of nitrogen from the epi-structure. The approach is demonstrated on HEMT-structures with two different barrier designs in terms of Al-concentration and barrier thickness. The study demonstrate large process window in regard to recess depth and duration of the annealing as well as high uniformity of the contact resistance across the samples, rendering the approach highly suitable for industrial production processes.

  • 22.
    Chen, Ding-Yuan
    et al.
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Persson, Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wen, Kai-Hsin
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Sommer, Daniel
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Grunenputt, Jan
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Blanck, Herve
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Thorsell, Mattias
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Kordina, Olof
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Impact of in situ NH3 pre-treatment of LPCVD SiN passivation on GaN HEMT performance2022Ingår i: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 37, nr 3, artikel-id 035011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact on the performance of GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) of in situ ammonia (NH3) pre-treatment prior to the deposition of silicon nitride (SiN) passivation with low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD ) is investigated. Three different NH3 pre-treatment durations (0, 3, and 10 min) were compared in terms of interface properties and device performance. A reduction of oxygen (O) at the interface between SiN and epi-structure is detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM )-electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements in the sample subjected to 10 min of pre-treatment. The samples subjected to NH3 pre-treatment show a reduced surface-related current dispersion of 9% (compared to 16% for the untreated sample), which is attributed to the reduction of O at the SiN/epi interface. Furthermore, NH3 pre-treatment for 10 min significantly improves the current dispersion uniformity from 14.5% to 1.9%. The reduced trapping effects result in a high output power of 3.4 W mm(-1) at 3 GHz (compared to 2.6 W mm(-1) for the untreated sample). These results demonstrate that the in situ NH3 pre-treatment before LPCVD of SiN passivation is critical and can effectively improves the large-signal microwave performance of GaN HEMTs.

  • 23.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamic organic plasmonics2020Ingår i: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to dynamically shape light at the nanoscale is oneof the ultimate goals in nano-optics1. Resonant light–matterinteraction can be achieved using conventional plasmonicsbased on metal nanostructures, but their tunability is highlylimited due to a fixed permittivity2. Materials with switchablestates and methods for dynamic control of light–matterinteraction at the nanoscale are therefore desired. Here weshow that nanodisks of a conductive polymer can supportlocalized surface plasmon resonances in the near-infraredand function as dynamic nano-optical antennas, with their resonancebehaviour tunable by chemical redox reactions. Theseplasmons originate from the mobile polaronic charge carriersof a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf)polymer network. We demonstrate complete and reversibleswitching of the optical response of the nanoantennasby chemical tuning of their redox state, which modulatesthe material permittivity between plasmonic and dielectricregimes via non-volatile changes in the mobile chargecarrier density. Further research may study different conductivepolymers and nanostructures and explore their usein various applications, such as dynamic meta-optics andreflective displays.

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  • 24.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, nr 15, s. 4350-4362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate (PEDOT: Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

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  • 25.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Redox-tunable structural colour images by UV-patterned conducting polymer nanofilms on metal surfacesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise manipulation of light-matter interaction has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colours. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Pérot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches significantly impede their further development towards flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Herein, we present a simple and efficient method to generate structural colours based on nanoscale conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapour phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable colours from violet to red. Together with greyscale photomasks this enables fabrication of high-resolution colour images using single exposure steps. We further demonstrate spatiotemporal tuning of the structurally coloured surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide colour gamut, and dynamic colour tuning make this concept competitive for future multi-functional and smart displays.

  • 26.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cincotti, Giancarlo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gamage, Sampath
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tunable Structural Color Images by UV-Patterned Conducting Polymer Nanofilms on Metal Surfaces2021Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, nr 33, artikel-id 2102451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise manipulation of light-matter interactions has enabled a wide variety of approaches to create bright and vivid structural colors. Techniques utilizing photonic crystals, Fabry-Perot cavities, plasmonics, or high-refractive-index dielectric metasurfaces have been studied for applications ranging from optical coatings to reflective displays. However, complicated fabrication procedures for sub-wavelength nanostructures, limited active areas, and inherent absence of tunability of these approaches impede their further development toward flexible, large-scale, and switchable devices compatible with facile and cost-effective production. Here, a novel method is presented to generate structural color images based on monochromic conducting polymer films prepared on metallic surfaces via vapor phase polymerization and ultraviolet (UV) light patterning. Varying the UV dose enables synergistic control of both nanoscale film thickness and polymer permittivity, which generates controllable structural colors from violet to red. Together with grayscale photomasks this enables facile fabrication of high-resolution structural color images. Dynamic tuning of colored surfaces and images via electrochemical modulation of the polymer redox state is further demonstrated. The simple structure, facile fabrication, wide color gamut, and dynamic color tuning make this concept competitive for applications like multifunctional displays.

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  • 27.
    Cubarovs, Mihails
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jens, Jensen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Epitaxial CVD growthof sp2-hybridized boron nitrideusing aluminum nitride as buffer layer2011Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, nr 10-11, s. 397-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride (BN) using chemical vapour deposition, with ammonia and triethyl boron as precursors, is enabled on sapphire by introducing an aluminium nitride (AlN) buffer layer. This buffer layer is formed by initial nitridation of the substrate. Epitaxial growth is verified by X-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg–Brentano configuration, pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The in-plane stretching vibration of sp2-hybridized BN is observed at 1366 cm–1 from Raman spectroscopy. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis confirms almost perfect stoichiometric BN with low concentration of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen contaminations.

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  • 28.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Infrared generalized ellipsometry on non-polar and superlattice group-III nitride films: Strain and phonon anisotropy2008Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials, ISSN 1862-6300, Vol. 205, nr 4, s. 905-913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution reviews the application of generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (GIRSE) to studies of optical phonons in heteroepitaxial wurtzite GaN films with a-plane orientation and c-plane Al(Ga)N/GaN superlattices. We demonstrate the capability of GIRSE to detect spectrally narrow dichroism, caused by anisotropic strain in non-polar oriented films thereby allowing a precise location of the phonon mode resonances for different polarizations. A distinct correlation between anisotropic strain components, which have been independently asessed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and phonon frequencies reveal the phonon deformation potentials. Further, GIRSF is shown to be a valuable tool in identification of superlattice phonon modes and their character. The frequency shifts of the superlattice modes with respect to the strain-free positions are analyzed versus strain and composition in order to assess the mode suitability for estimation of strain, polarization doping, and composition for the individual layers in complex device heterostructures. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • 29.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik och mätteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strain-related structural and vibrational properties of group-III nitride layers and superlattices2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis is focused on strain-related phenomena in group-III nitride layers and heterostructures. Key issues in material properties as phonon mode behavior, structure and lattice parameters of AlN, InN and GaN, as well as of AlN/GaN superlattices are addressed in order to give answers to some open questions. The research is motivated by the enormous technological application potential of the group-III nitride materials for optoelectronic devices and high temperature, and high power devices. Due to the lack of native substrates, the group-III nitrides are typically grown on foreign substrates resulting inbuilt-in strain in the films, as well as, in misorientation and defect formation. Substantial efforts have been concentrated on the research of strain-related fundamental properties of group-III nitrides. However, some of the strain-related structural and vibrational properties of these materials remain unclear and this gap has to be filled in order to fully explore the possibilities for applications.The thesis contributes to the knowledge of the strain-related phenomena ingroup-III nitrides by concentrating on the following: i) lattice parameters and strain relaxation in GaN, AlN, InN films with different thicknesses, as well as free-standing GaN quasi-substrates; ii) phonon mode behavior and deformation potentials of AlN and InN; iii) structural evolution in AlN and GaN; iv)phonon mode behavior and strain evolution in AlN/GaN superlattices. The layers studied were grown by a variety of growth techniques and nucleation schemes aiming at establishing of a comprehensive understanding of the material properties.

    The thesis is organized as follows: In the first part a general description of the basic properties of group-III nitrides is given with a special emphasis on the structural and vibrational properties. The vibrational properties of lowdimensional group-III nitrides are also reviewed. After that, basic concepts of strain phenomenon in group-III nitrides, as well as the strain effects on phonons and on structural properties are discussed. Finally, the experimental techniques used are introduced.

    The second part of the thesis consists of six papers providing informationon specific strain-related structural and vibrational properties of III-nitride layers and superlattices.

    The lattice parameters of GaN films grown by two different techniques on a-plane sapphire are the subject of Paper I. We have determined two different values of the in-plane lattice parameter of the GaN layers in contrast to only one in the case of films grown on c-plane sapphire. We suggest that the observed distortion of the hexagonal symmetry can be attributed to the presence of anisotropic in-plane strain in the films. A new approach to determination of lattice parameters has been proposed.

    Paper II deals with the lattice parameters of GaN quasi-substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using two nucleation schemes. The lattice parameters of both, Ga- and N-polar faces of the quasi-substrates were determined and compared. The strain relaxation phenomena in such free-standing layers and the concept of strain-free lattice parameters are discussed.

    Papers III and IV are devoted to the deformation potentials of the E 1 (TO)mode in AlN, and the E1 (TO) and E2 modes in InN, where a combination of infraredellipsometry, infrared reflection, Raman scattering and x-ray diffractionstudies was used. The reported results in Paper III present the first experimentalvalues for the E1 (TO) deformation potentials of AlN and the results for the InN deformation potentials in Paper IV are the first ever reported.

    The strain evolution and its effect on the structural and vibrational properties of thin epitaxial AlN layers with different thicknesses have been studied in Paper V. A model of the strain evolution with film thickness and related defect structure is suggested and it is successfully used in the infrared ellipsometry data analysis.

    Paper VI is focused on the strain evolution in AlN/GaN superlattices withdifferent periods and its effect on their phonon properties. The presence of phonons originating from the superlattice constituents was revealed and their nature is discussed.

    Delarbeten
    1. Lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire: Effect of in-plane strain anisotropy
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire: Effect of in-plane strain anisotropy
    Visa övriga...
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 703-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire were investigated. The hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were used for the determination of parameters. The strain anisotropy was found to have different values in the films and obtained values of parameters were grouped around two values.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46727 (URN)10.1063/1.1542931 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28
    2. Deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN
    Visa övriga...
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, nr 13, s. 2302-2304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN are experimentally determined by combining infrared reflection spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements and using a reported value of the Raman-stress factor for hydrostatically stressed bulk AlN. The deformation potentials are found to strongly depend on published stiffness constants of AlN. A comparison with earlier theoretically calculated values of the deformation potentials is made. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47892 (URN)10.1063/1.1465105 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28
  • 30.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Unraveling the free electron behavior in InN2008Ingår i: International Conference on electronic Materials 2008, IUMRS-ICEM 2008,2008, 2008, s. 34-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 31.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barradas, N P
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Alves, E
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Schubert, M
    University Nebraska, Department Elect Engn, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA .
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Munnik, F
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden, Germany .
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tu, L W
    Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Department Phys, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Centre Nanosci and Nanotechnol, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan .
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University, Department Elect and Comp Engn, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA .
    Role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN2009Ingår i: PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, nr 22, s. 4476-4481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on the role of dislocations and impurities for the unintentional n-type conductivity in high-quality InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The dislocation densities and H profiles in films with free electron concentrations in the low 10(17) cm(-1) and mid 10(18) cm(-3) range are measured, and analyzed in a comparative manner. It is shown that dislocations alone could not account for the free electron behavior in the InN films. On the other hand, large concentrations of H sufficient to explain, but exceeding substantially, the observed free electron densities are found. Furthermore, enhanced concentrations of H are revealed at the film surfaces, resembling the free electron behavior with surface electron accumulation. The low-conductive film was found to contain C and it is suggested that C passivates the H donors or acts as an acceptor, producing compensated material in this case. Therefore, it is concluded that the unintentional impurities play an important role for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN. We suggest a scenario of H incorporation in InN that may reconcile the previously reported observations for the different role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN.

  • 32.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlin, J.-F
    Grandjean, N.
    Strain and compositional analyzes of Al-rich Al1-xInxN alloys grown by MOVPE: impact on the applicability of Vegard's rule2008Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics, 2008, s. 1859-1862Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied composition and strain in Al1–xInxN films with 0.128 x 0.22 grown on GaN-buffered sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A good agreement between the In contents determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Xray diffraction (XRD) is found for x 18, suggesting applicability of Vegard's rule in the narrow compositional range around the lattice matching to GaN. The increase of the In content up to x = 0.22 leads to a formation of sub-layers with a higher composition, accompanied by deviations from Vegard's rule. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • 33.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlin, J-. F.
    Feltin, E.
    Gonschorek, M.
    Grandjean, N.
    Effects of strain and composition on the lattice parameters and applicability of Vegard's rule in Al-rich Al1-x Inx N films grown on sapphire2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, nr 10, s. 103513-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters and strain evolution in Al1-x In x N films with 0.07≤x≤0.22 grown on GaN-buffered sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy have been studied by reciprocal space mapping. Decoupling of compositional effects on the strain determination was accomplished by measuring the In contents in the films both by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Differences between XRD and RBS In contents are discussed in terms of compositions and biaxial strain in the films. It is suggested that strain plays an important role for the observed deviation from Vegard's rule in the case of pseudomorphic films. On the other hand, a good agreement between the In contents determined by XRD and RBS is found for Al1-x Inx N films with low degree of strain or partially relaxed, suggesting applicability of Vegard's rule in the narrow compositional range around the lattice matching to GaN. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 34.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Strain evolution in high temperature AlN buffer layers for HVPE-GaN growth2002Ingår i: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 190, nr 1, s. 59-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature AlN buffer layers are deposited on a-plane sapphire by reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the buffer thickness on the AlN structural properties and surface morphology are studied in correlation with the subsequent hydride vapour phase epitaxy of GaN. A minimum degree of mosaicity and screw dislocation density is determined for a 50 nm thick AlN buffer. With increasing the AlN thickness, a strain relaxation occurs as a result of misfit dislocation generation and higher degree of mosaicity. A blue shift of the E-1(TO) frequency evaluated by means of infrared reflection spectroscopy is linearly correlated with an increase in biaxial compressive stress in the films through the IR stress factor k(E1)(b) = 2.57 +/- 0.26 cm(-1) GPa(-1).

  • 35.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Schubert, M
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Tungasmita, S
    Wagner, G
    Kasic, A
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Strain-related structural and vibrational properties of thin epitaxial AIN layers2004Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 045411-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of film thickness on the strain and structural properties of thin epitaxial AIN films has been investigated by high resolution x-ray diffraction techniques and transmission electron microscopy. As a result a sublayer model of the degree of strain and related defects for all films is proposed. A sublayer with low defect density and a strain gradient is found to be present in all films and it reaches a maximum thickness of 65 nm. The films are compressively strained and the strain relaxation after a thickness of 65 nm is shown to be accompanied by misfit dislocation generation and increase of the mosaic tilt. The vibrational properties of the films have been studied by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The proposed sublayer model has been successfully applied to the analysis of the ellipsometry data through model calculations of the infrared dielectric function which confirm the sublayer model. It is found that the strain gradient results in a gradient of the phonon mode frequencies and broadening parameter. The initial strain relaxation in the films leads to narrowing of the observable infrared modes, while further strain relaxation broadens the modes when substantial defect generation occurs.

  • 36.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Boosalis, A.
    Department of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
    Zakharov, A. A.
    Lund University, Maxlab, Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, T.
    Department of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
    Schubert, M.
    Department of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
    Tiwald, T. E.
    J. A. Woollam Co., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Large-area microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of thickness and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on Si- and C-face of 3C-SiC(111)2013Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, nr 21, s. 213116-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of the electronic properties and thickness of epitaxial graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 3C-SiC (111) substrates is reported. Growth of one monolayer graphene is demonstrated on both Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC substrates and it is shown that large area homogeneous single monolayer graphene can be achieved on the Si-face substrates. Correlations between the number of graphene monolayers on one hand and the main transition associated with an exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at ∼4.5 eV and the free-charge carrier scattering time, on the other are established. It is shown that the interface structure on the Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC(111) differs and has a determining role for the thickness and electronic properties homogeneity of the epitaxial graphene.

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  • 37.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Hofmann, T.
    Schubert, M.
    Lu, H.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Conduction band effective mass anisotropy and nonparabolicity of InN2006Ingår i: 3rd Workshop on Indium Nitride,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Invited talk

  • 38.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Hofmann, T.
    Schubert, M.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Lu, H.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Hsiao, C.-L.
    Liu, T.-W.
    Chen, L.-C.
    Muto, D.
    Nanishi, Y.
    New insight into the free carrier properties of InN2008Ingår i: International workshop on Nitride semiconductors IWN2008,2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 39.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hofmann, T.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schaff, W. J.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Hsiao, C.-L.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chen, L.-C.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.
    Unravelling the free electron behavior in InN2008Ingår i: Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, 2008, IEEE , 2008, s. 90-97Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise measurement of the optical Hall effect in InN using magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry at IR and THz wavelengths, allows us to decouple the surface accumulation and bulk electron densities in InN films by non-contact optical means and further to precisely measure the effective mass and mobilities for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis. Studies of InN films with different thicknesses, free electron densities and surface orientations enable an intricate picture of InN free electron properties to emerge. Striking findings on the scaling factors of the bulk electron densities with film thickness further supported by transmission electron microscopy point to an additional thickness dependent doping mechanism unrelated to dislocations. Surface electron accumulation is observed to occur not only at polar but also at non-polar and semi-polar wurtzite InN, and zinc blende InN surfaces. The persistent surface electron density shows a complex behavior with bulk density and surface orientation. This behavior might be exploited for tuning the surface charge in InN.

  • 40.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hofmann, T
    University of Nebraska.
    Schubert, M
    University of Nebraska.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    Sacavem, Portugal.
    Lu, H
    Cornell University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Free electron behavior in InN: On the role of dislocations and surface electron accumulation2009Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, nr 2, s. 022109-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The free electron behavior in InN is studied on the basis of decoupled bulk and surface accumulation electron densities in InN films measured by contactless optical Hall effect. It is shown that the variation in the bulk electron density with film thickness does not follow the models of free electrons generated by dislocation-associated nitrogen vacancies. This finding, further supported by transmission electron microscopy results, indicates the existence of a different thickness-dependent doping mechanism. Furthermore, we observe a noticeable dependence of the surface electron density on the bulk density, which can be exploited for tuning the surface charge in future InN based devices.

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  • 41.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    Institute of Tecnology and Nucl, Portugal .
    Barradas, N P
    Institute of Tecnology and Nucl, Portugal .
    Alves, E
    Institute of Tecnology and Nucl, Portugal .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schubert, M
    University of Nebraska.
    Franco, N
    Institute of Tecnology and Nucl, Portugal .
    L Hsiao, C
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, L C
    National Taiwan University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Tu, L W
    National Sun Yat Sen University.
    Yamaguchi, T
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Hydrogen in InN: A ubiquitous phenomenon in molecular beam epitaxy grown material2010Ingår i: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 96, nr 8, s. 081907-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the unintentional H impurities in relation to the free electron properties of state-of-the-art InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Enhanced concentrations of H are revealed in the near surface regions of the films, indicating postgrowth surface contamination by H. The near surface hydrogen could not be removed upon thermal annealing and may have significant implications for the surface and bulk free electron properties of InN. The bulk free electron concentrations were found to scale with the bulk H concentrations while no distinct correlation with dislocation density could be inferred, indicating a major role of hydrogen for the unintentional conductivity in MBE InN.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    CFNUL.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    CFNUL.
    Hsiao, C L
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, L C
    National Taiwan University.
    Tu, L W
    National Sun Yat Sen University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Yamaguchi, T
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Unintentional incorporation of hydrogen in wurtzite InN with different surface orientations2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, nr 6, s. 063535-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied hydrogen impurities and related structural properties in state-of-the-art wurtzite InN films with polar, nonpolar, and semipolar surface orientations. The effects of thermal annealing and chemical treatment on the incorporation and stability of H are also discussed. The near-surface and bulk hydrogen concentrations in the as-grown films increase when changing the surface orientation from (0001) to (000 (1) over bar) to (1 (1) over bar 01) and to (11 (2) over bar0), which may be associated with a decrease in the grain size and change of the growth mode from 2D to 3D. Thermal annealing at 350 degrees C in N(2) leads to a reduction of H concentrations and the intrinsic levels of bulk H are found to correlate with the structural quality and defects in the annealed films.

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  • 43.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, Portugal .
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, Portugal .
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Yamaguchi, T
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Ruffenach, S
    University of Montpellier 2.
    Moret, M
    University of Montpellier 2.
    Briot, O
    University of Montpellier 2.
    Unintentional incorporation of H and related structural and free-electron properties of c- and a-plane InN2012Ingår i: PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN 1862-6300, Vol. 209, nr 1, s. 91-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we present a comprehensive study on the hydrogen impurity depth profiles in InN films with polar c-plane and nonpolar a-plane surface orientations in relation to their structural and free-electron properties. We find that the as-grown nonpolar films exhibit generally higher bulk and near-surface H concentrations compared to the polar InN counter-parts. The latter may be partly associated with a change in the growth mode from 2D to 3D and a decrease in the grain size. Thermal annealing leads to a reduction of H concentrations and the intrinsic H levels are influenced by the structural characteristics of the films. The factors allowing reduction of bulk H and free electron concentrations in a-plane films are discussed.

  • 44.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Einfeldt, S.
    Hommel, D
    Lourdudoss, S.
    Phonons in strained AlGaN/GaN superlattices2007Ingår i: 6th International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes,2006, Physica Status Solidi, vol C4: WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA , 2007, s. 170-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Usui, A.
    On the lattice parameters of GaN2007Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 031911-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of low-defect density, undoped bulk GaN fabricated by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on (0001) sapphire and subsequent substrate removal, are precisely determined using high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The obtained values, c=5.18523 Å and a=3.18926 Å, are compared with the lattice parameters of freestanding HVPE GaN from different sources and found to be representative for state-of-the-art undoped HVPE bulk GaN material. A comparison with bulk GaN fabricated by the high-pressure technique and homoepitaxial GaN is made, and significant differences in the lattice parameters are found. The observed differences are discussed and a possible explanation is suggested. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 46.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Usui, A.
    R and D Division, Furukawa Co. Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0865, Japan.
    Saenger, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States.
    Schubert, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States.
    Lattice parameters of bulk GaN fabricated by halide vapor phase epitaxy2008Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 310, nr 5, s. 959-965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of low-defect density undoped bulk GaN fabricated by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and removal of the substrate are precisely determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. The obtained values, c = 5.18523 over(A, °) and a = 3.18926 over(A, °) are compared with the lattice parameters of free-standing HVPE-GaN from different sources and found to be representative for state-of-the-art undoped HVPE bulk GaN material. A comparison with bulk GaN fabricated by the high pressure technique and homoepitaxial GaN layer is made, and the observed differences are discussed in terms of their free-electron concentrations, point and structural defects. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN2002Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, nr 13, s. 2302-2304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN are experimentally determined by combining infrared reflection spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements and using a reported value of the Raman-stress factor for hydrostatically stressed bulk AlN. The deformation potentials are found to strongly depend on published stiffness constants of AlN. A comparison with earlier theoretically calculated values of the deformation potentials is made. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 48.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Valcheva, E.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Heuken, M.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire: Effect of in-plane strain anisotropy2003Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 703-705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire were investigated. The hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were used for the determination of parameters. The strain anisotropy was found to have different values in the films and obtained values of parameters were grouped around two values.

  • 49.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Valcheva, E
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Schubert, M
    Lu, H
    Schaff, W.J.
    Deformation potentials of the E1 (TO) and E2 modes of InN2004Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, nr 18, s. 3636-3638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of deformation potentials of E1(TO) and E 2 modes of InN were discussed. The deformation potentials were evaluated for two sets of stiffness constants using x-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE), Raman scattering, and Grüneisen parameter values. The InN layer were grown on GaN buffer layers on (0001) sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that the strain-free values of the InN E1(TO) mode was 477.9 cm-1 and 491.9 cm -1 for the E2 modes.

  • 50.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Valcheva, E.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Schubert, M.
    Fak. F. Physik and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Bundesmann, C.
    Fak. F. Physik and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Lu, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Infrared ellipsometry and Raman studies of hexagonal InN films: Correlation between strain and vibrational properties2004Ingår i: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 36, nr 4-6, s. 573-580Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibrational properties of InN films with different strain have been studied using Infrared ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. We have established a correlation between the phonon mode parameters and the strain, which allows the determination of the deformation potentials and the strain-free frequencies of the InN E1(TO) and E2 modes. The LO phonons and their coupling to the free-carrier plasmon excitations are also discussed in relation to the carrier concentration in the films. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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