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  • 1.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistic and Ontological Concept Formation: The LION Method2022In: Qualitative Report, ISSN 1052-0147, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2715-2743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concept formation is a demanding task in social research. A methodological approach (called LION) is presented that emphasizes the clarification of concepts based on linguistic and ontological views. This method originates from a qualitative-pragmatist tradition of studies of work-practices in organizational settings and it is explicitly based on the linguistic turn and the practice turn in social research. It is also based on the articulation of seven conceptualization maxims. Its aim is to bring rigor to the conceptualizing process and clarity to resulting conceptualizations. The method is illustrated through an analysis example from service management. The concepts of "value-in-use" and "value generation" are critically analyzed using linguistically and ontologically oriented questions. The application of the LION method in qualitative research is discussed concerning research question formulation, collection, and analysis of data, review of extant theory, and final articulation of theoretical contribution.

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  • 2.
    Nordström, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Kriminalvården.
    Permert, Jonatan
    Kriminalvården.
    Lundeberg, Magnus
    Kriminalvården.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interoperabilitet #VPF32021Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Interoperabilitet #VPF3 - Videomanus 

    I videorna om den semantiska triangeln och om verksamhetsspråk har vi pratat om kommunikation. Vi har sett hur ord och termer förmedlar mening och att de ofta kan syfta till olika begrepp. I den här videon ska vi se vad som händer med meningen hos ord och termer när vi inkluderar teknik som ett medium för kommunikation mellan olika praktiker.

    Allt mer av vår verksamhetskommunikation sker nämligen genom digitala resurser. Vilket så klart har gett oss stora vinster. Men det har också fört med sig nya utmaningar vad gäller meningen hos de ord och termer som kodas in i systemen. Eftersom kommunikation bygger på att sändare och mottagare har samma begrepp i åtanke så måste begreppen representeras på rätt sätt, även när de förmedlas genom digitala resurser. Den här förmågan hos digitala resurser att på ett korrekt sätt överföra information mellan olika parter kallas interoperabillitet och det har kommit att bli ett centralt begrepp i digitaliserade verksamheter. Interoperabilitet syftar alltså till förmågan hos praktiker i en verksamhet att kommunicera och fungera tillsammans med hjälp av digitala resurser.

    För att uppnå interoperabilitet krävs i första hand att kommunikationen flödar obehindrat mellan olika digitala system, och att informationen representeras på rätt sätt. Vi behöver då en teknisk infrastruktur där olika digitala resurser är kompatibla med varandra, och det brukar kallas för teknisk interoperabilitet. Ett tydligt exempel på teknisk interoperabilitet är när man rent fysiskt ska koppla digitala resurser till varandra. Här krävs det att de tekniska enheterna har kompatibla portar och därför har det utvecklats vissa tekniska standarder som följs av de flesta hårdvarutillverkarna. 

    Ett annat tillfälle när vi behöver teknisk interoperabilitet är när vi ska koppla ihop digitala resurser genom digitala nätverk, som Internet exempelvis. Här krävs att de signaler som skickas fram och tillbaka kan tas emot och tolkas av de olika enheterna som är ihopkopplade. Och även här har man standardiserat för att uppnå interoperabilitet. Man har exempelvis upprättat protokollet http, som ligger till grund för all datakommunikation över World Wide Web.

    Men för att en verksamhet ska vara interoperabel räcker det inte enbart med teknisk interoperabilitet. För att kommunikationen ska kunna fungera måste information som utbyts genom digitala resurser även kunna tolkas och förstås av praktikerna, och då krävs vad som kallas för semantisk interoperabilitet. Semantisk interoperabilitet bygger på att man inom verksamheten kommer överens om vilka termer och kategorier som ska användas i de digitala resurserna och vilka begrepp de ska syfta till. Vi måste alltså definiera de termer och kategorier som ska bygga upp informationsmodellen. Och det måste råda samstämmighet mellan berörda praktiker om vad dessa termer och kategorier har för mening. För semantisk interoperabilitet krävs att vi standardiserar delar av vårt verksamhetsspråk. Det kallas att man formaliserar verksamhetsspråket, och det ligger till grund för att vi ska kunna behandla, lagra och överföra information genom digitala resurser.

    När man formaliserar ett verksamhetsspråk utgår man från det befintliga verksamhetsspråket, alltså de termer och begrepp som redan används av verksamhetens praktiker. Här måste man alltid göra en medveten avgränsning av vad det är man vill tala om och veta om genom den digitala resursen för det skulle vara omöjligt att formalisera precis hela verksamhetsspråket. Man tar också hänsyn till de regelverk som styr verksamheten, som exempelvis lagar och förordningar eller andra styrdokument. Och det här resulterar i en uppsättning definierade termer och kategorier som ska användas i systemet.

    Formaliserade verksamhetsspråk består alltså av en terminologi. Och den här terminologin implementeras sedan i digitala resurser där den representeras i mjukvarukod och databaser. Det betyder att praktikernas arbetssätt och möjliga språkbruk påverkas av hur den digitala resursen är uppbyggd. Och på det här sättet brukar man säga att digitala resurser blir bärare av verksamhetsspråket. Det sker alltså i digitaliseringen en standardisering av kommunikationen i verksamheten med fördefinierade termer, regler och kategoriseringar som praktiker måste anpassa sig efter. Om man har en olämplig struktur av termer och relationer så kommer den digitala resursen att försvåra verksamhetskommunikationen snarare än att hjälpa den. Det kan till och med bli så att de digitala resurserna blir en bromskloss för utveckling av språkbruket i verksamheten, om de inte är uppbyggda på rätt sätt.  

    Verksamhetsspråk är komplexa fenomen i ständig rörelse och vi vill helst att våra digitala resurser ska spegla utvecklingen och fånga verksamhetsspråket, även när det förändras. Men i och med att det digitala landskapet växer och vi får fler och fler system så blir det allt svårare att åstadkomma en förändring. Det är ett brokigt digitalt landskap som ligger framför oss, med mängder av olika lösningar som ska interagera med varandra och som har lappats och lagats över många år. Och varje år tillkommer det nya tillägg som måste måste fungera med de redan befintliga digitala resurserna. Allt det här gör att det blir svårt att tillämpa en önskad förändring av det formaliserade verksamhetsspråket, till exempel för att tillmötesgå ny lagstiftning eller möta nya krav som ställs på verksamheten. 

    Digitaliseringen ställer alltså nya krav på konsistens och entydighet hos de ord och termer som används i våra verksamheter. Det är ett gediget arbete att formalisera verksamhetsspråket på det här sättet, men det är också en nödvändighet om vi vill att vår kommunikation genom digitala resurser ska vara effektiv. Det man bör sträva efter är en sorts minsta gemensamma nämnare som kan vara meningsfulla för flertalet praktiker, och som det är möjligt att komma överens om. Men i bästa fall kan formaliseringen även ligga till grund för en framtida önskvärd kommunikationsmodell. Digitaliseringen kan alltså göras som en form av verksamhetsutveckling, där man strävar mot ett nytt språkbruk som man vill ska tillämpas av verksamhetens praktiker. Vi står alltså med digitaliseringen inför stora möjligheter, inte bara för hypersnabb teknisk överföring av information mellan olika enheter, utan även inför en möjlighet att utveckla verksamhetsspråket. Och det är en möjlighet som vi bör ta tillvara på.

  • 3.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design Science Epistemology: A Pragmatist Inquiry2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the clarification of a design science epistemology. Itpresents different epistemic types related to three stages of the design science process:1) Evaluative and explanatory background knowledge (pre-design knowledge), 2) prospective knowledge with design hypotheses (in-design knowledge) and 3) prescriptive knowledge with design principles (post-design knowledge). The epistemological inquiry adoptsa pragmatist approach and is pursued through a review of design science literature andinformed by an empirical design case on digital support for social welfare allowances.The clarified design science epistemology shows a diversified epistemological landscapewith several epistemic types: evaluative, critical, appreciative, normative, explanatory,prospective, prescriptive, categorial and attributive knowledge. Ways to express theseepistemic types have been proposed in principal clauses. Ways of grounding have beenclarified for each epistemic type. Proposals are given on how to utilize the design science epistemology in relation to design science process models and publication schemas.

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  • 4.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Method Engineering as Design Science2020In: Journal of the Association for Information Systems, E-ISSN 1536-9323, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1237-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we motivate, devise, demonstrate, and evaluate an approach for the research-based development of information systems development methods (ISDMs). This approach, termed "method engineering as design science" (ME-DS), emerged from the identified need for scholars to develop ISDMs using proper research methods that meet the standards of both rigor and relevance. ISDMs occupy a position of central importance to information systems development and scholars have therefore invested extensive resources over the years in developing such methods. The method engineering (ME) discipline has developed different frameworks and methods to guide such development work and, for that purpose, they are well-suited. Still, there remains a need for applications and evaluations of ISDMs based on the demands for knowledge justification. Unfortunately, in many cases, scholars come up short with regard to how ISDMs are generated and empirically validated. While design science (DS) stresses knowledge justification, prominent DS approaches seem to be biased toward the development of IT artifacts, making this approach ill-suited for the development of method artifacts. We therefore propose eight principles that marry ME and DS, resulting in a process model with six activities to support research-based development of ISDMs. We demonstrate and evaluate ME-DS by assessing three existing research papers that propose ISDMs. These retrospectives show how ME-DS directs attention to certain aspects of the research process and provides support for future ISDM development.

  • 5.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Lind, Mikael
    Res Inst Sweden RISE, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Multi-grounded action research2020In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 121-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research approach of multi-grounded action research (MGAR) is presented and analyzed. This is based on a review of issues and concerns in information systems action research. MGAR builds on the epistemological principles of multi-grounding. This combines empirical, theoretical and internal grounding. The multi-grounded approach builds on elements from grounded theory; i.e. building theory inductively from data through coding procedures, but it also comprises an abductive use of extant theory. MGAR is described through six knowledge contributions: (1) the MGAR process model, (2) the MGAR knowledge model, (3) the MGAR theory model, (4) the principle of the multi-grounded change outcome, (5) the principle of the multi-grounded theory outcome and (6) the principle of mutuality of purposes. MGAR has been applied in an IT service management (ITSM) case, which serves an illustration and a validation of MGAR. In this MGAR case, the improvement of ITSM has been conducted and studied through a multi-organizational setting. In the case, there was a special focus on the service quality of IT services and the relations between service providers and customers.

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  • 6.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ta tempen på digitala läkarintyg – en diagnostisk studie av intygsdigitalisering2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en genomutförd utvärdering av digitala läkarintyg. Utvärderingen har genomförts i en forskningsstudie och i samverkan med Inera AB. Olika digitala resurser för hantering av läkarintyg har studerats (för utfärdande, lagring, presentation och överföring av läkarintyg). Särskilt fokus har varit på vården (utfärdande läkare) och digitalt samspel med patienter och Försäkringskassan.

    Utvärderingen har genomförts med stöd av det sk DRIV-konceptet (”Digitala Resurser I Verksamheter”). Detta inrymmer en flerdimensionell syn på digitala resurser samt ett arbetssätt för strukturerad beskrivning (modellering) av digitala resurser som kallas digitalt klargörande. Genom detta beskrivningssätt har följande aspekter beskrivits: Grundläggande kommunikationslogik avseende läkarintyg, övergripande samspel mellan användare och digitala resurser, digitaliserade verksamhetsprocesser, digitala tjänster, digitaliserat verksam-hetsspråk, digital interaktion, digitala landskap, olika verksamhetsmåls och regelverks inverkan på intygsdigitalisering.

    Baserat på dessa modeller har ett antal diagnostiska reflektioner och slutsatser formulerats. Dessa berör följande områden: Läkarintyget som ett flerfunktionellt kommunikationsobjekt, olika variantprocesser för digital överföring av läkarintyg till Försäkringskassan, intygs-digitalisering som transformation av pappersblankett till olika digitala informationsobjekt, läkarintyget som digitalt formulär, evolutionär utveckling av digitalt landskap, verksamhets-språkliga utmaningar, regulativa reflektioner samt reflektioner kring måluppfyllelse genom intygsdigitalisering. Rapporten avslutas med reflektioner kring den använda utvärderings-metoden samt några teoretiska slutsatser kring fallstudien och dess lärdomar kring e-förvaltning.

    Det inledande arbetet i denna utvärdering finansierades av VINNOVA genom projektet RESONANS guide.

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    Ta tempen på digitala läkarintyg : en diagnostisk studie av intygsdigitalisering
  • 7.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The generation of qualitative data in information systems research: the diversity of empirical research methods2019In: Communications of the Association for Information Systems, ISSN 1529-3181, E-ISSN 1529-3181, Vol. 44, p. 572-599, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the concept of data collection in information systems qualitative research. In this text, I replace the term “data collection” with “data generation” to emphasize that the researcher arranges situations that produce rich and meaningful data for further analysis. Data generation comprises activities such as searching for, focusing on, noting, selecting, extracting, and capturing data. This paper analyzes and compares a repertoire of empirical research methods for generating qualitative data. It describes and visualizes (through a common data-generation template) 12 research methods: interviewing, questionnaire study, document study, artifact study, observation study, participant observation, intervention study, practice-based design study, lab-based design study, focus group study, test study, and self-reporting. I compare these data-generation methods according to 1) the researcher’s role in data generation, 2) data generation’s influence on everyday life reality, 3) each data-generation method’s relationship to everyday life reality, 4) what parts/mediators of everyday life reality each data-generation method addresses, 5) the expected value of generated data and 6) possible shortcomings in generated data. As a basis for investigating data generation, I ontologically clarify (based on a practice-theoretical perspective) the empirical landscape of information systems (the kinds of phenomena and sources of data that exist). A concluding discussion contains 1) analyses concerning relationships between data-generation methods and compound research methods/strategies such as case study research, action research, and design science research and 2) the role of interpretation in data generation versus data analysis.

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  • 8.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Design Science in the Field: Practice Design Research2018In: International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology: DESRIST 2018: Designing for a Digital and Globalized World / [ed] Chatterjee S., Dutta K., Sundarraj R., Springer, 2018, Vol. 10844, p. 67-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exist different types or genres of design science research(DSR) in information systems, like laboratory-oriented and practice-orientedDSR. This paper investigates arguments for a practice-oriented approach toDSR. It uses the research approach of practice research as a starting point toelaborate on a practice-oriented DSR approach we label Practice DesignResearch (PDR). In doing so, we address two unresolved issues in IS DSR:Theorizing and evaluation. PDR consists of two inter-related sub-activities:theorizing and situational design inquiry. The conduct of situational designinquiry is described as iterative cycles of (1) pre-evaluate, (2) plan & design,(3) test & intervene and (4) post-evaluate. We justify the foundations of theseiterative sub-activities/cycles through a theoretically informed argument basedon pragmatist philosophy and practice theory.

  • 9.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Reflection/Commentary on a Past Article: "Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory"2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 17, no 1, article id UNSP 1609406918795540Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 10.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Agerfalk, Par
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjostrom, Jonas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    A Design Science Approach to Information Systems Education2017In: DESIGNING THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION, DESRIST 2017, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 10243, p. 383-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) education is concerned with design and management of information systems. To be prepared to work as an IS practitioner, there is a need for training in design issues during education. This paper investigates what a design science approach would imply for IS education. Such an IS education approach is elaborated and synthesized in eight principles: (1) Exploit resonance between IS research and IS development, (2) conduct theory-informed design-exercises, (3) conduct practice-inspired design-exercises, (4) alternate between the concrete and the abstract, (5) reflect based on experiences for own design-theoretical synthesis, (6) evaluate design processes and design products, (7) archive design reflections in a knowledge diary, (8) compile design artifacts into a portfolio. One key characteristic of design science (DS) is the integration of research and design. A DS approach to IS education means an integration of design and learning. This education approach is theoretically grounded in IS design science literature and also broader in literature of design inquiry (Dewey), experiential learning theory (Kolb) and education of the reflective practitioner (Schon).

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hedström, Karin
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Practice-based discourse analysis of information security policies2017In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 67, p. 267-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the "insider" threat to information and information systems, an information security policy is frequently recommended as an organisational measure. However, having a policy in place does not necessarily guarantee information security. Employees poor compliance with information security policies is a perennial problem for many organisations. It has been shown that approximately half of all security breaches caused by insiders are accidental, which means that one can question the usefulness of current information security policies. We therefore propose eight tentative quality criteria in order to support the formulation of information security policies that are practical from the employees perspective. These criteria have been developed using practice-based discourse analysis on three information security policy documents from a health care organisation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    E-government design research: Towards the policy-ingrained IT artifact2016In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether design research in e-government should be conducted in some special way compared with standard models for design research. It reviews literature in e-government and design research in order to generate an answer to this research question. The result of this review affirms that the policy character of e-government should determine the way that such design research is conducted. A tentative e-government design research model, consisting of different activities is formulated. This model consists of the following activities: theorizing, policy analysis, workpractice analysis, co-design and co-evaluation of IT artifact and workpractice. Three specific e-government design research principles are formulated: The policy principle, the co-design principle and the theorizing principle. One important result from this paper is the formulation of the concept of the policy-ingrained artifact as an important empirical outcome from e-government design research. A design research case study on social welfare allowances has been used for the generation as well as the validation of the proposed e-government design research model.

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  • 13.
    Jansen, Arild
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Berger, Jesper B.
    AEro Kommune, Denmark.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    First Choice, Free Choice or No Choice2016In: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT AND ELECTRONIC PARTICIPATION, IOS PRESS , 2016, Vol. 23, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of their egovernment plans, many countries aim at digitizing their communication with its citizens and the business sector. The effects of e-government depend on particular policy and design decisions. The aim of this paper is to compare the enactment of particular policies in supposedly similar contexts. The comparative case constitutes digital communication between public sector and citizens in the Scandinavian countries. From a grounded approach, we have described the policy, design and effects elements of the three case settings. Our study indicates that apparently similar solutions in comparable contexts may be enacted in rather different ways and have quite different effects. The three countries operate on a scale of coercion from mandatory (Denmark), over nudging (Norway) to voluntary (Sweden).

  • 14.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organisational e-government: From four levels of interoperability to seven dimensions of co-governance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with inter-organisational information systems (IS) in e-government. Inter-organisational IS are usually considered to establish information exchange between public agencies. However, there may also exist other types of inter-organisational e-government. Different public agencies can cooperate on shared digital resources of diverse kinds (shared websites, shared IT components, shared back-office systems). This paper develops a conceptual framework on four different types of inter-organisational e-government. Study of inter-organisational information exchange is usually made by the aid of the concept of interoperability and the four defined levels of interoperability (legal, organisational, semantic and technical). When broadening the view to other types of inter-organisational e-government, besides information exchange, it is also necessary to broaden the concept of interoperability. This concept is in the paper replaced by the concept of co-governance dimension. A conceptual framework is formulated with seven co-governance dimensions: normative, regulatory, performative, relational, semantic, presentational and technical.

    The four types of inter-organisational e-government and the seven co-governance dimensions are pivotal parts of a conceptual framework within a research project studying eight important digital resources in the Swedish public sector.

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  • 15.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedstrom, Karin
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Practice-Based Discourse Analysis of InfoSec Policies2015In: ICT SYSTEMS SECURITY AND PRIVACY PROTECTION, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 455, p. 297-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees poor compliance with information security policies is a perennial problem for many organizations. Existing research shows that about half of all breaches caused by insiders are accidental, which means that one can question the usefulness of information security policies. In order to support the formulation of practical, from the employees perspective, information security policies, we propose eight tentative quality criteria. These criteria were developed using practice-based discourse analysis on three information security policy documents from a health care organisation.

  • 16.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visionary Design Research: Renewing e-government Support for Business Set Up2015In: NEW HORIZONS IN DESIGN SCIENCE: BROADENING THE RESEARCH AGENDA, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9073, p. 55-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To set up a new business can be a complex and demanding task in a highly regulated society. There is a need for many contacts with and applications for permits to different public authorities. There exists e-government support for new businesses, e.g. business link portals with information and services based on a life-event approach. This presented research contains formulation of a vision for a renewed e-government support for business set up (an assemblage information system; joined-up support for application processes; a reversed application process). This is characterized as visionary design research, which is argued to be a legitimate research approach. The paper articulates a visionary design research approach based on multi-grounding principles. Grounding of the emergent vision is done in theoretical pre-knowledge, internally through vision coherence and empirically in identified problematic situations, articulated goals and opinions/assessments from knowledgeable practitioners.

  • 17.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Att lära om innovation i offentlig sektor: Studier i Action Innovation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för innovation i offentlig sektor ökar på flera fronter. Policymakare talar om innovation i ökad utsträckning. Allt fler konkreta innovationsinsatser genomförs i statliga myndigheter, regioner/landsting och kommuner. Med detta ökande intresse följer behov av både kunskapsutveckling och kompetensutveckling. I denna rapport redovisar vi resultat från ett praktikinriktat forskningsprojekt som har arbetat integrerat med både kunskapsutveckling och kompetensutveckling avseende innovation i offentlig sektor. Under ett år (höst 2013 – vår 2014) har Linköpings universitet och Governo AB tillsammans bedrivit projektet "Action Innovation – gemensamt kunskapsbyggande för stärkt innovationskraft i offentliga verksamheter" med finansiellt stöd från VINNOVA (dnr 2013-02747). I detta projekt har 13 organisationer från offentlig sektor deltagit. Dessa organisationer har deltagit i två samlärandeprogram (under hösten respektive under våren) för att öka sina kunskaper om innovation samtidigt som bidrag till generell kunskaps-utveckling ges. Dessa samlärandeprogram har genomförts med stöd av metoden Action Innovation som utvecklats av Governo i tidigare VINNOVA-projekt. En huvudpoäng i upplägget är att medlemmar från en organisation går ut och studerar hur innovationsarbete går till i en annan organisation. Varje organisation har deltagit med 3-4 personer som då bildat ett undersökningsteam. Processen Action Innovation utgörs av tre gemensamma seminarier och mellanliggande arbete av intervjuer i besökt organisation och därpå följande analys och rapportskrivning. Kunskapsdelning sker på gemensamma seminarier genom "spegling" och dialog. I första undersökningstillfället studeras exempel på en innovation; i det andra studerades förutsättningar för innovationsarbete.

    I forskningsprojektet har ingått att studera användningen av Action Innovation som metod för undersökningar och samlärande. Metoden består av olika kunskapsstöd som bl.a analysmodell, intervjuguide, undersökningsinstruktioner, rapportmall och presentations-mall. Metoden har successivt vidareutvecklats under projektet baserat på empiriska observationer och teoretisk analys. I rapporten beskrivs metoden Action Innovation. Redovisning sker av olika svårigheter och utmaningar som deltagarna haft och som föranlett vidareutveckling av metoden. Artikulering av bakomliggande lärprinciper för Action Innovation görs också. Förslag till fortsatt vidareutveckling av Action Innovation ges. Rapporten avslutas med reflektioner om innovationer i offentlig sektor. Dessa reflektioner har stimulerats av genomförda studier i Action Innovation.

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  • 18.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordström, Malin
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Challenges in IT service management: institution vs. improvisation2014In: Electronic proceedings ADWI - 2014, 2014, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organisations the work of delivering IT services in order to maintain and improve the IT portfolio is a complex task. Different models for IT service management have been developed and they are widely in use. An ITSM model is a way of institutionalising processes, activities and roles of IT service delivery. This research studies the use of an ITSM model (an adaptation of ITIL) in a municipal IT department. A qualitative case study has been conducted. The adapted ITSM model has been investigated and compared with several instances of IT service deliveries. Six cases of IT service deliveries (of both failure and success character) have been studied. This inquiry uses a storytelling approach and a combination of different data sources (workshop discussions, interviews, documents, records and the functionality of used IT artefacts). The analysis of these cases is conducted in a theory-informed way. A conceptual model has been developed describing an ITSM model as an organisational institution manifested in different institutional carriers. Based on rich empirical data we have clarified positive and negative effects of both ITSM model compliance and deviation through improvisation. A dialectical model is developed showing a possible synthesis of ITSM model compliance and improvisation.

  • 19.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm Universitet, Sweden.
    Focus, goals and roles in e-service design – five ideal types of the design process2014In: e-Service Journal, ISSN 1528-8226, E-ISSN 1528-8234, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 24-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology means new opportunities for both the private and public sectors. Serviceoriented solutions based on e-services are no exception. Such solutions can support efficient and flexible collaboration between actors, as well as enable opportunities for the design of new and highly innovative services. However, service-oriented solutions also mean a number of challenges. In order to successfully design e-services, a number of strategic choices have to be made by the service provider organization, such as deciding on the roles to be played by the provider and customers in the design process, and deciding which focus should govern the design. For example, should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider’s IT architecture; should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider’s internal processes; or should the e-service design focus on the interactions with the customers? In this paper, we present five different ideal types of e-service design that can support such choices. The five types differ in their views on the main goals of the e-service design; their views on the service providers’ and customers’ roles and responsibilities in the design process; and their views on the focus of the e-service design process. We also present the benefits and drawbacks of the different ideal types, and describe how real cases of e-service design can be categorized according to these types.

  • 20.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Örebro Universitet.
    In search for an innovation theory: A practical theory for inquiry and co-learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations are usually conceived as new technical products aimed for commercial markets. However, the interest for innovations in the public sector is increasing and accompanying this interest follows a need for deeper knowledge about public sector innovation. A co-learning program among public sector organisations has been carried out in order to enhance innovation knowledge among public administrators. One of the main ideas of this learning program is that members from one organisation study innovation work in another organisation and then share their learnings to all participants of the learning program. In order to conduct such an inquiry the participants have used different innovation concepts structured in an innovation model. This supportive knowledge has been framed as a practical theory (following pragmatist epistemology) in this paper. The paper presents how this practical theory on public sector innovation has been continually improved during the learning program. The practical theory consists of three parts: An innovation concept, a description of the innovation process and the innovation context (internal and external preconditions). The development of the practical theory has been done following principles of multi-grounding (theoretical grounding, empirical grounding and internal grounding).

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  • 21.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Intentions for simplicity and consequences of complexity: A diagnostic case study of an e-government portal and its back-office processes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reform agenda for public sector development, including e-government, contains simplification as a pivotal concern. It should be easier for the citizens to interact with different branches of the public sector. Administrative burdens should be relieved through the use of modern IT. One such constituent is egov portals (based on a life-event view) that should simplify for the citizen. This paper presents a diagnostic case study of the Swedish business link portal verksamt.se. Especially, the relations to back-office processes of municipalities have been studied. The results of this study reveal several dysfunctions of these simplification ambitions: Low integration between front-office and back-office IT; cumbersome back-office processes; decreased service to citizens from back-office administrators; a complex IT landscape for the citizens consisting of competing IT systems with redundancies and inconsistencies.

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  • 22.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möten mellan institution och situation i tjänstestyrning: studier av organisatorisk förmåga2014In: Lärande i arbetslivet: möjligheter och utmaningar : en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014, p. 90-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som många hävdar att vi går mot ett ökat tjänstesamhälle, så har vi aldrig tidigare i historien varit så översköljda av ting, tekniska prylar och andra materiella artefakter (Castells, 1996). Det finns en till synes paradox i samhällsutvecklingen; en ökad tjänstefiering och en ökad tingifiering. Detta bidrag kan placeras mitt i denna ”paradox”; om hur tjänster formas, styrs och produceras avseende informationstekniska artefakter. Moderna organisationer är för sin verksamhet ofta helt beroende av olika IT-system. Det är helt enkelt så att många verksamhetskritiska uppgifter genomförs idag i och genom IT-system. Det blir därmed viktigt att dessa system är väl fungerande; både tekniskt och funktionellt. IT-system behöver successivt anpassas till nya förutsättningar i verksamheten. För detta krävs IT-relaterade tjänster av olika slag. Det kan handla om leverans/utbyte av tekniska komponenter, driftssupport, användarhandledning, felkorrigeringar i system, mindre ändringar, tillägg av nya funktioner, införande av nya programvaror eller nya releaser eller andra liknande insatser för att vidmakthålla och vidareutveckla verksamhetens samlade IT-portfölj.

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    Möten mellan institution och situation i tjänstestyrning: studier av organisatorisk förmåga
  • 23.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Institutionen för Informatik och Media, Uppsala universitet.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Offentliggemensamma digitala resurser: Utmaningar i samstyrning och samanvändning inom svensk e-förvaltning (RESONANS slutrapport)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projekt RESONANS har bedrivits i nära samverkan mellan Linköpings universitet, E-delegationen, Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL) och Uppsala universitet. Ekonomiskt stöd har erhållits från VINNOVA (dnr 2013-04936). Projektfokus har varit offentlig-gemensamma digitala resurser, dvs sådana IT-resurser som berör flera offentliga förvaltningar. Projektet har drivits av frågor som: Hur sker samstyrning av sådana digitala resurser? Vilka möjligheter och restriktioner finns i samanvändning av digitala resurser? Inom projektet har en bred kartläggningsstudie genomförts över olika offentliggemensamma initiativ. Huvudparten av projektet har utgjorts av diagnostiska fallstudier av utvalda offentliggemensamma digitala resurser. Vi har studerat digitala resurser av olika typer (gemensam webbplats, gemensamma komponenter i webbplatser, gemensamma/likartade back-office system, informationsytbyte mellan förvaltningar). Följande åtta digitala resurser har studerats: 1177 Vårdguiden, ekonomiskt bistånd, e-recept, gemensam gymnasieantagning i Stockholms län, kommunala e-tjänsteplattformar, Ladok, Mina meddelanden/Min myndighetspost, verksamt.se. I projektet har vi analyserat fallstudierna utifrån sju sam-verkansdimensioner. En normativ dimension om mål och värden, en regulativ om regelverk, en relationell om aktörsrelationer och rollfördelning, en performativ om verksamhets-processer och digital funktionalitet, en semantisk om språkbruk (begriplighet och precision), en presentativ om digitala möten och användargränssnitt samt en teknisk om samband mellan digitala resurser/komponenter i digitala landskap. I denna rapport presenteras jämförande tväranalyser av de studerade digitala resurserna utifrån dessa sju samverkans-dimensioner. Utifrån vår analys av dessa samverkansdimensioner har vi formulerat arbetet med att utveckla den sammanhållna e-förvaltningen som en "sjukamp". En sjukamp i grenarna: målstyrning, funktionell lagstiftning, organisering av aktörsrelationer, design av verksamhetsprocesser och digital funktionalitet, språklig tillgänglighet, begriplighet och precision, organisering och design av digitala möten samt arkitektonisk design av digitala landskap.

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  • 24.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Örebro Universitet.
    Practice-Based Discourse Analysis of Information Security Policy in Health Care2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information security is an understudied area within electronic government. In this study, we examine the quality of information security policy design in health care. Employees cause a majority of the security breaches in health care, and many of them are unintentional. In order to support the formulation of practical, from the employees’ perspective, information security policies, we propose eight tentative quality criteria. These criteria were developed using practice-based discourse analysis on three information security policy documents from a health care organisation.

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  • 25.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Hanna
    Institutionen för Informatik, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rätt riktning med Skolkompassen?: En studie av en lärplattforms användning i gymnasieskolan i Jönköping2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En FoU-studie har genomförts av användning av en lärplattform (kallad Skolkompassen) i kommunala gymnasieskolor i Jönköpings kommun. Studien har föranletts av kommunens 1:1-införande, dvs en bärbar dator till varje elev. FoU-studien har utförts genom intervjuer av elever, lärare och annan skolpersonal, observationer av lärares användning av Skolkompassen, granskning av Skolkompassen samt granskning av olika doku­ment (främst mål-/styrdokument). Rapporten innehåller beskrivning av omfattande empiri samt redovisning av olika typer av utvärderingar av Skolkompassen och dess användning. Följande utvärderingar har genomförts: 1) fri/öppen utvärdering av lärares användning av Skolkompassen; 2) målbaserad utvärdering, där olika mål kritiskt har granskats samt jämförts med faktisk IT-användning; 3) kriteriebaserad utvärdering, där IT-användningen har värderats utifrån ett antal generella kvalitetskriterier; 4) omvärldsrelaterad utvärdering där kommunens 1:1-införande har ställts mot känd omvärldskunskap (befintlig litteratur); 5) sammanfattande analys (teoretiserande utvärdering) med klargörande av styrkor och problem strukturerade i orsaks-/effektmönster samt generering av abstrakta analyskategorier för en fördjupad begreppsförståelse. I rapporten analyseras och diskuteras läradministrativ kommunikation vs. kommunikation i direkta lärprocesser i relation till befintligt IT-system. Fokus i aktuell IT-användning förefaller ligga på läradministrativ kommunikation. Användning av Skolkompassen är dock begränsad hos både lärare och elever, en djupgående analys av orsaker till detta redovisas. Rapporten avslutas med en diskussion om möjliga vägar framåt för Jönköpings kommun vad gäller IT-användning i skolan.

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  • 26.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Action research vs. design research: using practice research as a lens for comparison and integration2013In: IT Artefact Design & Workpractice Improvement (ADWI-2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research and design research are two prominent research approaches in information systems. These two research approach have been claimed to be similar according to several conducted comparisons. There are, however, other claims that they are decisively dissimilar. Some scholars have proposed integrations of these two research approaches, which however show great diversity. These diversities in views of similarities, differences and integration possibilities are the main impetus for this work. This conceptual inquiry takes a new angle in comparing and integrating action research and design research. It uses a third position, the research approach of practice research as a yardstick and integration instrument. Action research and design research are studied and compared using practice research. This comparison has been driven further to a proposed integration within the conceptualisation of practice research. An integrated model of action research and design research is presented and given the label practice research through intervention and design (PR-ID).

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  • 27.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design Research in e-Government2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates if design research in e-government should be conducted in some special way compared with standard models for design research. It reviews literature in e-government and design research in order to generate an answer to this research question. The result is affirmative that the policy character of e-government should have consequences for the way that e-government design research is conducted. A tentative e-government design research model, consisting of different activities is formulated. This model consists of the activities: theorizing, policy analysis, workpractice analysis, co-design and co-evaluation of IT artefact and workpractice. One important result from this paper is the formulation of the concept of the policy-ingrained artefact as an important empirical result from e-government design research.

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  • 28.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From ensemble view to ensemble artefact – An inquiry on conceptualisations of the IT artefact2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions: An International Journal on Information Technology, Action, Communication and Workpractices, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the notion of an ensemble artefact. This concept is proposed by Sein et al (2011) in their description of the Action Design Research method. This concept is based on the ensemble view of IT artefacts, which is described by Orlikowski & Iacono (2001) together with four other views. The conceptual journey from ensemble view to ensemble artefact is found problematic and is the impetus for a conceptual inquiry conducted in this paper. The conceptual investigation is supported by the use of a case illustration of an IT artefact in the social welfare sector. The different views from Orlikowski & Iacono are analysed and com-pared. The suggested conceptualisation of IT artefacts based on the ensemble view, made by Orlikowski & Iacono, is also analysed. Based on these analyses an alternative view is articu-lated: A communication tool view of IT artefacts. This view is compared with the ensemble view, especially in a design research context. The notion of ensemble artefact is contested, as is the suggested use of it as a main conceptual basis in design research.

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  • 29.
    Hultgren, Göran
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How to research e-services as social interaction: Multi-grounding practice research aiming for practical theory2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions: An International Journal on Information Technology, Action, Communication and Workpractices, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 104-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research on e-services represents a move away from a techno-centric view of e-service to seeing them as embedded in social interaction. The consequences of this focus shift are de-scribed in relation to how to conduct such research. The research approach of a large research endeavour, ranging over several years, is described. The research is characterised as practice research with the purpose of creating abstract knowledge aiming for both the practice field (general practice) and for researcher communities (as an addition to scientific body of knowledge). The knowledge result from this practice research has been given the form of a practical theory of e-services, with the intention to be useful for both practitioners and re-searchers. A practical theory is aimed to be useful in investigating and managing some phe-nomenon. The e-service research has also applied the epistemological strategy of multi-grounding. Multi-grounding means a combination of empirical, theoretical and internal grounding. The research principles of practice research, practical theory and multi-grounding are described. How these principles are applied in the e-services research is elaborated. Expe-riences from the use of this research approach are accounted for.

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  • 30.
    Eriksson, Owen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preconditions for public sector e-infrastructure development2013In: Information and organization, ISSN 1471-7727, E-ISSN 1873-7919, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 149-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability in e-government has been recognized as a key factor in the quest of administrations at national, local and international level to achieve the provision of one-stop services to citizens and businesses. Interoperability in e-government should enable efficient information exchange between applications from different agencies with the help of IT-services. Interoperability in networked IT-service delivery is accomplished by e-infrastructures. However, knowledge of how to develop e-infrastructures in the public sector is still limited. In this paper we report a design science case study of the initial stage of the design of a public sector e-infrastructure in the social welfare sector, especially addressing the bootstrap problem, i.e. the initial problem of starting-up the development of an e-infrastructure. Six types of preconditions for the development of the e-infrastructure are examined and explained: legal, economical, organizational and the installed base of the as-is e-infrastructure consisting of technical, informational and contractual preconditions. From a design and action oriented perspective we claim that a basic understanding of the design context, within which the six types of preconditions have to be analyzed and understood, are essential for e-infrastructure development in an e-government context. The paper highlights the fundamental role of regulations as a precondition for the design, and the fundamental role of lawyers as designers of e-infrastructures in the public sector.

  • 31.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The empirics of design research: Activities, outcomes and functions2013In: 2013 International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013), AIS eLibrary , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design research (DR) has matured as an important research approach within information systems. It can be seen as a response to the quest of more focus on the IT artefact. Besides the IT artefact, there are other important artefacts to build and study in DR. There are models and prototypes which are produced during information systems development. This paper has investigated the empirics of design research, especially activities and outcomes. Based on a conceptual inquiry of design research literature and two cases of design research, a conceptual clarification of design research empirics has been established. Two cases of public e-service design form the empirical bases for this conceptual development. The empirics of design research (i.e. a design practice) is distinguished from the theorizing part of DR. Empirical data of DR to be used for theorizing consist of produced artefacts, embedded data collection for design and theory-required data collection. Three types of evaluation in DR are distinguished: Embedded evaluation in design activities, explicit formative evaluation with data from use settings and theory-required evaluation in order to assure theoretical validity of results.

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  • 32.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems and Digitalization. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The IT artefact: An ensemble of the social and the technical? – A rejoinder: An ensemble of the social and the technical? – A rejoinder2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions: An International Journal on Information Technology, Action, Communication and Workpractices, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 90-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part of a discourse on the conceptualisation of the IT artefact. It is commentary paper based on the prior papers of Goldkuhl (2013), Silver & Markus (2013) and Purao et al (2013). It especially addresses the issues of how demarcate the IT artefact and how to concep-tualise it in relation to the social and the technical. As a part of this conceptual inquiry, the paper investigates the notion of the artefact. An artefact has always functions and it has always a context where the use of the artefact and its functions is intended to contribute to some goals. As soon as we speak of an artefact, some use context is implied. Based on these premis-es, the paper articulates a view on the IT artefact to be a social artefact. Social does not mean that there are any humans as part of the artefact; humans appear as the users in the implied context of the artefact. Social means that the IT artefact is a semiotic artefact intended for communication between people. The IT artefact is sociotechnical artefact, which means that it is a combined technical and semiotic artefact and the use of it (by a user) implies combined technical and communicative actions. As a consequence of this view the paper also argues for co-design of IT artefact and work context. This is done in opposition to a techno-centric de-sign of the IT artefact, which will imply a restricted design of context purely through artefact design.

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  • 33.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att designa handlingsbar interaktion2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-system finns för att stödja människor och organisationer att bedriva verksamheter. Ett ITsystems kvalitet beror på dess förmåga att ge stöd för människor att utföra olika aktiviteter. För människor finns IT-system som något man kan se på (och därmed förstå) och göra något med. Utformningen av det som brukar kallas användargränssnitt (dvs den del av IT-systemet som användaren möter) är avgörande för hur IT-systemet lyckas bli brukbart i verksamheter. Användaren måste förstå vad systemet har att erbjuda och användaren måste kunna göra det som han eller hon önskar göra utifrån vad systemet erbjuder. Att IT-system ska vara brukbara för människor i verksamheter kan tyckas som en självklarhet, men tyvärr finns många system som inte alls uppfyller sådana krav (Söderström, 2010). Ett sätt att uttrycka kraven på att ITsystem ska vara brukbara för människor och organisationer är att säga att systemen ska vara handlingsbara. Detta innebär att systemen inte bara ska ge information utan också vara handlingssystem. De ska kunna utföra handlingar och stödja utförandet av handlingar. Handlingsbarhet är ett perspektiv på IT-system och dess utveckling. Handlingsbarhet finns beskrivet i flera olika skrifter. Den mest utförliga beskrivningen av handlingsbarhet finns i ”Handlingsbara IT-system – design och utvärdering” av Stefan Cronholm och Göran Goldkuhl (2010). I den skriften finns förutom en artikulering av perspektivet handlingsbarhet även designmetodik för att skapa handlingsbara IT-system samt kriterier och utvärderingsmetodik för att bedöma om IT-system är handlingsbara.

    Konceptet handlingsbarhet har tillämpats i många design- och utvärderingssammanhang och har därigenom successivt vidareutvecklats. Därför har ovan nämnda skrift (Cronholm & Goldkuhl, 2010) successivt förnyats sedan första versionen 2006. Här föreliggande skrift ska ses som ett komplement till ”Handlingsbara IT-system” (Cronholm & Goldkuhl, 2010). Denna nya kompletterande skrift fokuserar på hur design av IT-systemets interaktion med användare bör gå till. I Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2010) finns metodik för detta i form av en sk interaktionslista samt skärmlayout. I denna nya rapport beskrivs detta istället genom ett samlat dokument ”interaktionsutformning” som innehåller skärmlayout och interaktionsbeskrivning. Denna nya skrift ska ses som ett metodmässigt komplement med fokus just på design av interaktion. Den går att läsa som en självständig rapport, men bör läsas mot bakgrund av den djupare beskrivning av perspektivet handlingsbarhet och dess designmetodik som beskrivs i Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2010). För att denna skrift ska kunna läsas fristående har vissa delar från Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2010) beskrivits på ett kortfattat sätt här. Det gäller framförallt den sk elementarinteraktionsloopen (se kapitel 2 nedan). För full förståelse av det redovisade materialet i denna rapport så rekommenderas förkunskaper om handlingsbarhet enligt Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2010).

    Den vidareutveckling som presenteras här har skett både genom teoretiska insatser och genom praktiska utvärderings- och designprojekt; se t.ex Goldkuhl (2009, 2011) och Röstlinger (2011).

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  • 34.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design Research in Search for a Paradigm: Pragmatism Is the Answer2012In: PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF DESIGN SCIENCE / [ed] Markus Helfert & Brian Donnellan, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 84-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design research (DR) is an emergent research approach within information systems. There exist demands to clarify the meta-scientific foundations for this approach. Different responses to these demands are made. There exist attempts to position DR within interpretivism and critical realism. Some scholars have suggested pragmatism as an appropriate paradigm base for design research. This paper has taken pragmatism as a candidate paradigm and it has investigated and elaborated the epistemological foundations for DR. Different epistemic types of DR are identified using a pragmatist perspective. Design research is also related to four aspects/types of pragmatism: Local functional pragmatism (as the design of a useful artefact), general functional pragmatism (as creating design theories and methods aimed for general practice), referential pragmatism (focusing artefact affordances and actions) and methodological pragmatism (knowledge development through making).

  • 35.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Different roles of evaluation in information systems research2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of information systems (IS) has come to be an important topic for study as well as practice. IS scholars perform studies of how to evaluate IS and different IS related phenomena, like e.g. methods and strategies. Evaluation is also used as a research approach in many IS research studies. However, the use and interest of evaluation seem to be rather fragmented and diversified in the IS field. The purpose of this paper is to bring more structure to evaluation in IS research. Based on a review of literature on evaluation in IS research and on evaluation research in general a conceptualisation of evaluation in IS is presented. This consists of 1) a conceptual practice model of evaluation (including generic questions for the design of evaluation) and 2) a classification of different roles of IS evaluation research. This classification consists of three main research types: 1) research about evaluation, 2) research through evaluation and 3) research about evaluation research. The second research type has been divided into three sub-classes: 2a) research through evaluation as main strategy, 2b) research through evaluation as companion strategy and 2c) research through evaluation as re-use strategy. The different research types have been characterized and exemplified.

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  • 36.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    DUKAT för restaurangföretagare – visioner om ett samlat informationssystem2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    FoU-projektet ”DUKAT för restaurangföretagare – en uppgift en gång” är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL) och Forsknings-gruppen VITS vid Linköpings universitet. Projektets fokus är restaurangföretagares samverkan med statliga myndigheter och kommunala förvaltningar i samband med etablering och drift av restauranger. Syftet är att förenkla och anpassa information, ansökningar och uppgiftskrav för restaurangföretagare. Projektet presenterar en vision för ett webbaserat informationssystem för restaurangföretagares kommunikation med stat och kommun. Projektet beskriver hur dagens IT-lösningar, med fragmentering (enskilda tjänster) eller samplacering av tjänster bör ersättas av ett integrerat informationssystem med samlad information och sammanhållna ansökningsprocesser. Föreslaget informationssystem avser att reducera många av dagens problem såsom svagt anpassad information, ointegrerade ansökningar, överlappande uppgiftskrav, många oplanerade myndighetskontakter, svår­hanterliga ansökningsblanketter och oklara och tungrodda processer för restaurang­etablering. Projektet har genomförts i tre faser. 1) I en företagarstudie har insamling och analys skett av problem och behov kring företagares interaktion med offentliga aktörer. 2) I en kommunstudie har ansökningshandlingar, uppgiftskrav och procedurer studerats. 3) I en designstudie har designkrav och egenskaper för ett informationssystem för kommunikation mellan restaurangföretagare och myndigheter genererats. För detta informationssystem har vi översiktligt skisserat arkitektur och funktionalitet. FoU-projektet har genomförts i samverkan med ett antal kommuner och statliga myndigheter. Finansiellt stöd har erhållits från VINNOVA (dnr 2011-03752).

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  • 37.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From Action Research to Practice Research2012In: Australasian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 1449-8618, E-ISSN 1326-2238, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 57-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research (AR) has gained more acceptance as an approach to qualitative research in information systems (IS). The complexities of organisational and technical change makes this approach a suitable one in IS research. There are, however, still some controversies and confusions about the relation between "action" and "research". The many types of AR and similar approaches (not labelled as AR) that have emerged demand further conceptual clarification of AR. A conceptual inquiry of AR, presented in the paper, has led to the identification of several unresolved issues concerning intervention research like AR. An alternative research approach is presented: practice research. This research approach is well founded in pragmatism and it is founded on the two premises: 1) to contribute to general practice through abstract and useful knowledge and 2) to study the empirical field as interconnected practices. Several important concepts of practice research are described as: local practice contribution vs. general practice contribution; theorizing vs. situational inquiry; abstract vs. situational knowledge. These notions and their pragmatist foundations can help to sharpen AR as a qualitative research approach. Practice research is defined as a broader notion encompassing AR and other research approaches as e.g. design research and evaluation research. Two case examples of practice research are briefly presented and compared: one AR-based study in the social welfare sector and one evaluation study of a taxation e-service.

  • 38.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From policy to design and effects: A framework for e-government research2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simple model for e-government research consisting of three notions: policy, design and effects. This model should be seen as programmatic statement for e-government research. Central in the model is design process and designed products of egov artefacts. Design is in the egov context considered to be a process of policy implementation. The policy background of egov systems are thus seen as pivotal to study. The use of egov systems by different types of users will lead to different kinds of effects. There might be positive and negative effects and the effects might be intended or un-intended. The model is grounded in earlier and on-going research in e-government. The model is also operationalised in different research themes, which can be interpreted as a research agenda. The model is also related to current discourses in information systems concerning the need to focus the IT artefact, practice theorizing and design research.

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  • 39.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förändringsarbete och förändringsanalys enligt SIMMetoden2012Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Metod och modellering i verksamhetsutveckling2012Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pragmatism vs interpretivism in qualitative information systems research2012In: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 135-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. Besides critical research and sometimes positivism, qualitative research in information systems can be performed following a paradigm of pragmatism. This paradigm is associated with action, intervention and constructive knowledge. This paper has picked out interpretivism and pragmatism as two possible and important research paradigms for qualitative research in information systems. It clarifies each paradigm in an ideal-typical fashion and then conducts a comparison revealing commonalities and differences. It is stated that a qualitative researcher must either adopt an interpretive stance aiming towards an understanding that is appreciated for being interesting; or a pragmatist stance aiming for constructive knowledge that is appreciated for being useful in action. The possibilities of combining pragmatism and interpretivism in qualitative research in information systems are analysed. A research case (conducted through action research (AR) and design research (DR)) that combines interpretivism and pragmatism is used as an illustration. It is stated in the paper that pragmatism has influenced IS research to a fairly large extent, albeit in a rather implicit way. The paradigmatic foundations are seldom known and explicated. This paper contributes to a further clarification of pragmatism as an explicit research paradigm for qualitative research in information systems. Pragmatism is considered an appropriate paradigm for AR and DR.

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  • 42.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    The many prepositions of practice research: About, for, in, with and from2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 43.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What is an ensemble artefact?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the notion of an ensemble artefact. This concept is proposed by Sein et al (2011) in their description of the Action Design Research method. This concept is based on the ensemble view of IT artefacts, which is described by Orlikowski & Iacono (2001) together with four other views. The conceptual travel from ensemble view to ensemble artefact is found problematic and is the impetus for a conceptual inquiry conducted in this paper. The conceptual investigation is supported by the use of a case illustration of an IT artefact in the social welfare sector. The different views from Orlikowski & Iacono are analysed and compared. The suggested conceptualisation of IT artefacts based on the ensemble view, made by Orlikowski & Iacono, is also analysed. Based on these analyses an alternative view is articulated: A communication tool view of IT artefacts. This view is compared with the ensemble view, especially in a design research context. The notion of ensemble artefact is contested, and so is also the suggested use of it as a main conceptual basis in design research.

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  • 44.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Actability Criteria for Design and Evaluation: Pragmatic Qualities of Information Systems2011In: International Journal of Information Systems and Social Change, ISSN 1941-868X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems actability theory builds on a communicative action perspective on IS. Information systems are seen as instruments for technology mediated work communication. Human actors are communicating (i.e. sending and/or receiving messages) through an information system. Information systems actability emphasises pragmatic dimensions of information systems. The paper presents 19 actability criteria divided into three groups: 1) criteria concerning user-system interaction, 2) criteria concerning user-through-system-to-user communication, and 3) criteria concerning information system’s contribution to workpractice processes. These actability criteria should be possible to use in design and evaluation of information systems.

  • 45.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Askenäs, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    IHH Jönköping.
    En studie av användning av datorer i kommunala gymnasieskolor i Jönköping. Redovisning av etapp 1 (1:1-projektet):  2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data till denna delstudie av 1:1-­‐projektet har samlats in av forskare genom intervjuer, enkäter och deltagande observation. Jönköpings kommun har lyckats utveckla 1:1-­‐projektet   sedan pilotprojektet genomfördes på Bäckadalsgymnasiet respektive på Sandagymnasiet.

    I huvudsak uppfattar både elever och lärare att tekniken numera fungerar tillfredsställande.  

    På Sandagymnasiet anser nästan 60 procent av lärarna att 1:1-­‐projektet medfört att eleverna presterar bättre resultat jämfört med tidigare år. Huvuddelen av lärarna på de    andra skolorna har dock uppfattningen att 1:1-­‐projektet ännu inte medfört att eleverna presterar bättre resultat. Främst har datorerna använts för administration och inte varit en  naturlig del av den pedagogiska processen. Genomgående i intervjuerna med lärare och elever framgår att det saknas goda exempel på hur man på ett mera innovativt eller  annorlunda sätt kan stödja lärandeprocesserna genom att använda dator i undervisningen.

    Här finns det mycket att göra.

     

  • 46.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Generic Regulation Model – the Evolution of a Practical Theory for E-government2011In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 249-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper presents a new theoretical model (the Generic Regulation Model - GRM) which is aimed for e-government development. There is a need for such a generic model in order to describe and analyse the regulation that occurs in the interaction between governmental agencies and citizens.

    Design/methodology/approach - This new model has evolved through an action research project/practical inquiry in e-government. The project area was personal assistance to disabled persons. The practical inquiry has comprised generation and application of the GRM model (as a kind of empirical grounding) and also some initial theoretical grounding.

    Findings - In the e-government project there was a need to conceptualize the relations between different governmental agencies and clients. As a response to this need a generic model and a corresponding situational model were developed. The generic model consists of three layers: 1) legislation as general regulation, 2) application of legislation for issuing decisions (= individual rules), i.e. specific regulation, 3) application of general and individual rules in regulated practices. The paper also gives an epistemological account of the evolution of the new GRM model. GRM is considered to be a practical theory and it has evolved through a design-oriented practical inquiry.

    Originality/value – The paper presents this new Generic Regulation Model. The GRM model should be adequate to apply in many e-government situations, since there are often regulation issues at stake. The GRM model should be used in the design and evaluation of e-government applications.

  • 47.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Samdesign av e-tjänster: SamMET metodramverk2011Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The research practice of practice research: theorizing and situational inquiry2011In: Systems, Signs & Actions: An International Journal on Information Technology, Action, Communication and Workpractices, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 7-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach to practice research is presented. The main ideas of practice research is 1) to consider the empirical field in terms of practices, 2) to develop knowledge through situational inquiries into local operational practices based on problems and needs in such practices and 3) to contribute with abstract useful knowledge to general practice and research community. This means that practice research is research about practices, research from practices, research for practices, research with practices and usually research in practices. Practice research is divided into two closely related sub-practices: situational inquiry and theorizing. Practice research is also related to three target practices/communities: local operational practice, general practice and research community. The paper also contains ontological assumptions (from practice theories) and epistemological assumptions (from pragmatist epistemology). Three examples of practice research are briefly described as illustrations. The main purpose of the paper is to describe the research practice of practice research.

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  • 49.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dep. of Computer & Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lind, Mikael
    Viktoria institute, Sweden; School of Business & Informatics, University of Borås, Sweden.
    A multi-grounded design research process2010In: Global Perspectives on Design Science Research: 5th International Conference, DESRIST 2010, St. Gallen, Switzerland, June 4-5, 2010. Proceedings. / [ed] Winter R, Shao L, Aier S, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 45-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in the philosophy and constituents of design research by a vast amount of IS-scholars. There are several unresolved concerns and issues in design research (DR). Some examples are the outcomes of design research, the role of theorizing in DR, how to conduct evaluation and validation, and the need for different grounding processes to generate valid knowledge from design research endeavors. This paper describes a multi-grounded approach for design research; consisting of three types of grounding processes (theoretical, empirical and internal grounding). The purpose is to investigate DR-based design knowledge and its roles during design research and design practice. A key feature in this approach is the division between the meta-design (within design research) producing abstract design knowledge and the empirical design practice producing situational knowledge and artefacts. The multi-grounding approach to design research will be illustrated by the support of two design cases.

  • 50.
    Sjöström, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Stakeholder-centric Approach to Information Systems Design2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on a case study in the Swedish public sector to illustrate a pragmatic view of design, characterized by a focus on stakeholders and social action. This view of design proposes a synthesis of a workpractice diagnosis to gain thorough understanding of business needs and prepare for organizational change, prototyping to design IT systems that are usable for all, and agile values in construction to embrace change throughout the design process. It is argued that information systems design is typically based on a narrow view of users in an intra-organizational setting, while in reality there is a need to include a wide spectrum of stakeholders in IT-enabled change, in order to build usable systems creating value across both organizational and technical borders.

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